[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, there is no standardised approach for the radiological evaluation of soft tissue sarcomas following radiotherapy (RT). This manuscript, produced by a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC – STBSG) and Imaging Group endorsed task force, aims to propose standardisation of magnetic resonance imaging techniques and interpretation after neoadjuvant RT for routine use and within clinical trials.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), initially named malignant melanoma of soft parts, is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that, due to MITF activation, shares with melanoma the expression of melanocyte differentiation antigens. CCS is poorly sensitive to chemotherapy. Multi-kinase inhibitors have been used as therapeutic agents. In the case we report here, treatment with sunitinib induced a long-lasting clinical response that was associated with an immune activation directed against Melan-A/MART-1 antigen.
A 28 years old female patient with an advanced molecularly confirmed CCS resistant to conventional chemotherapy was started in January 2012 on sunitinib, 37.5 mg/day, with evidence of radiologic and metabolic response at the primary and metastatic sites of disease. Pathologic response and loss of the Melan-A/MART-1 antigen were evidenced on residual tumor removed in April 2012. Immunological monitoring performed on patient's blood during pharmacological treatment revealed a systemic, Melan-A/MART-1 specific immunity and a low frequency of immunosuppressive cells. Sunitinib was restarted in May 2012, with a new response, and continued for 11 months although with repeatedly interruptions due to toxicity. Disease progression and new responses were documented at each treatment interruption and restart. Sunitinib was definitively interrupted in April 2013 for disease progression.
The analysis of this case proves that antigens expressed by CCS, as for melanoma, can be immunogenic in vivo and that tumor-antigen specific T cells may exert anti-tumor activity in CCS patient. Thus, manipulation of the immune response may have therapeutic potential for this STS subtype and immunotherapy approaches, can be promising therapeutic options for these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Many patients affected by desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) are treated with a course of hormonal therapy as front line. So far, tamoxifene has been the preferred choice. Toremifene is an anti-oestrogen agent, but possible further mechanisms of action in desmoids are related to its role in regulation of transforming growth factor-beta and β-catenin pathways.
Material and methods:
We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated with toremifene between 2005 and 2012 at a reference institution. Indication to toremifene was radiologically progressive disease and/or symptomatic deterioration. Progression-free survival (PFS), clinical benefit (CB) and safety profile were analysed.
Forty-four patients were treated with toremifene 180 mg daily, 20 for radiological progression, 16 for pain and 8 for both. In 28 patients, toremifene was offered as front-line therapy, while in 11 after tamoxifen failure. PFS was 89.6% at 2 years. According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, partial response, stable disease and disease progression were observed in 25%, 65% and 10% of the patients, respectively. Symptomatic relief was obtained in 75% of patients. Median time to response was 4 months. Overall CB was 86%. Adverse events G≥2 according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were recorded in ten patients.
Present series provides evidence to make toremifene an option in patients with DF, even after failure on different hormonal agents. A prospective trial is ongoing to confirm these results.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
To assess the efficacy and toxicity of low-dose oral etoposide (VP) 16 in relapsing/refractory Ewing sarcoma.
The records of all patients treated at our department between 1989 and 2012 for relapsing/refractory Ewing sarcoma who received oral VP-16 were analyzed. The dose was 40 mg/m2 daily for 21 consecutive days in every 28. Response was assessed after 2/3 cycles according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0.
A total of 46 of 58 patients completed at least 2 cycles; 12 suspended the treatment earlier due to rapid disease progression. The patients' median age at diagnosis was 14 years and 25/58 had metastatic disease. All patients received intensive polychemotherapy including VP-16 IV as first- (n = 53) or second-line (n = 5) treatment; 21/58 had myeloablative regimens with peripheral blood stem cell rescue, and 1 underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Oral VP-16 was prescribed as 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-line treatment for 19, 27, and 12 patients, respectively. The cycles administered totaled 241 (median 3, mean 4 per patient; range 1-14). A total of 46 of 58 patients were evaluable: 11 responded (9 partial remission, 1 very good partial remission, 1 complete remission) and 10 were stable, the response lasting a mean of 8 months. Hematologic toxicity G3/G4 (in 164/241 evaluable cycles) occurred in 15%, 16%, and 11% of cycles for leukocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets, respectively. There were 5 cases of pneumonia. Two patients developed secondary leukemia after receiving 12 and 14 cycles.
Low-dose oral VP-16 may be suitable in a palliative setting with an acceptable toxicity. The risk of secondary leukemia is in line with reports in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM:
Solid demonstrations of superior efficacy of drug-eluting beads trans-arterial chemoembolization with respect to conventional chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients are lacking. Aim of the study was to compare these two techniques in two large cohorts of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
A single Center series of 249 early/intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent "on demand" chemoembolization in the period 2007-2011 was analyzed. Overall survival, time to progression, tumor response rate and safety were compared between 104 patients who underwent conventional chemoembolization and 145 who underwent drug-eluting beads chemoembolization. Time-to-event data were analyzed using the Cox univariate and multivariate regression.
The two cohorts resulted balanced for liver function and tumor stages. Objective response rate was 85.3% after conventional and 74.8% after drug-eluting beads chemoembolization (p = 0.039), and median time to progression was 17 [95% confidence interval: 14-21] vs. 11 months (9-12), respectively (p < 0.001). Treatment regimen was the sole independent predictor of progression at multivariate analysis [hazard ratio = 2.01; 1.45-2.80; p < 0.001]. Median survival was 39 (32-47) and 32 (24-39) months in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio = 1.33; 0.94-1.87; p = 0.10) but conventional chemoembolization was significantly associated with a survival advantage in patients with bilobar neoplasia, portal hypertension and alpha-fetoprotein above normal limits. No significant differences in severe adverse events were found.
In a large series of Western hepatocellular carcinoma patients, drug-eluting beads chemoembolization with 100-300 µm particles did not seem to improve survival in comparison to conventional chemoembolization, which in turn provided better tumor responses and time to progression.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.
We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere® treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of (99m)Tc-MAA and (90)Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS™ by Philips). STRATOS™ absorbed dose calculation was validated for (90)Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BEDave) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were derived. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used as a figure of merit to identify the methodology which gave the best separation in terms of dosimetry between responding and non-responding lesions and liver decompensated vs non-decompensated liver treatment.
MAA and (90)Y biodistributions were not different (71 % of cases), different in 23 % and uncertain in 6 %. Response correlated with absorbed dose (Spearman's r from 0.48 to 0.69). Responding vs non-responding lesion absorbed doses were well separated, regardless of the methodology adopted (p = 0.0001, AUC from 0.75 to 0.87). EUBED gave significantly better separation with respect to mean dose (AUC = 0.87 vs 0.80, z = 2.07). Segmentation on SPECT gave better separation than on SPECT/CT. TCP(50 %) was at 250 Gy for small lesion volumes (<10 cc) and higher than 1,000 Gy for large lesions (>10 cc). Apparent radiosensitivity values from TCP were around 0.003/Gy, a factor of 3-5 lower than in EBRT, as found by other authors. The dose-rate effect was negligible: a purely linear model can be applied. Toxicity incidence was significantly larger for Child B7 patients (89 vs 14 %, p < 0.0001), who were therefore excluded from dose-toxicity analysis. Child A toxic vs non-toxic treatments were significantly separated in terms of dose averaged on whole non-tumoural parenchyma (including non-irradiated regions) with AUC from 0.73 to 0.94. TD50 was ≈ 100 Gy. No methodology was superior to parenchyma mean dose, which therefore can be used for planning, with a limit of TD15 ≈ 75 Gy.
A dosimetric treatment planning criterion for Child A patients without complete obstruction of the portal vein was developed.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional skeletal chondrosarcoma is a bone neoplasm, which is poorly sensitive to anthracyclines-based chemotherapy. We report on an 18-month-long tumour response to gemcitabine as single agent in a young patient with an advanced secondary peripheral conventional chondrosarcoma, previously treated unsuccessfully with anthracyclines, ifosfamide, platinum, etoposide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to improve the understanding of the impact of malignancy grade and myogenic/rhabdomyoblastic differentiation on the natural course of retroperitoneal liposarcoma. All consecutive patients affected by primary well-differentiated (WD)/dedifferentiated (DD) retroperitoneal liposarcoma, surgically treated at our institution between January 2002 and December 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. Tumors were stained for mdm2 and 5 myogenic markers (smooth muscle actin-α, h-caldesmon, calponin, desmin, myogenin). The French National Federation of the Centers for the Fight Against Cancer (FNCLCC) grading system was applied. Overall survival, crude cumulative incidence of local recurrence, and distant metastases were calculated. Multivariable analyses were carried out. A total of 144 patients were identified. Median follow-up was 68 months (interquartile range: 46 to 104 mo). Fifty-two patients were affected by WD/G1 and 92 by DD liposarcoma. Among the latter, 60 were grade G2 and 32 G3. Myogenic differentiation was present in 54 cases (8/52 WD/G1, 27/60 DD/G2, 18/32 DD/G3). Seven cases had a rhabdomyoblastic DD component (1/60 DD/G2 and 6/32 DD/G3). Five-year overall survival rates were 93%, 57%, and 21% for WD/G1 liposarcoma, G2 DD, and G3 DD liposarcoma, respectively, and 75%, 42%, and 29% for liposarcoma without myogenic differentiation, with myogenic differentiation, with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, respectively (P<0.001). Of note, 5/6 patients affected by G3 DD liposarcoma with a rhabdomyoblastic component died within 8 months. FNCLCC grade and myogenic differentiation significantly predicted the outcome of retroperitoneal liposarcoma. These should be factored into treatment decision-making and possibly used to stratify patients in clinical trials.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liposarcomas represent the most common histological type of soft-tissue sarcomas (STS). Its main subgroups, WD/DD, is known to be poorly sensitive to chemotherapy, with few active agents, i.e., anthracyclines +/- ifosfamide and trabectedin. High-dose ifosfamide (HDIFX >12 g/m2) is active in STS pts pretreated with standard-dose IFX, though with greater toxicity. A prolonged continuous-infusion (ci) through a portable external pump may be an alternative way to administer HDIFX.
From March 2002 to August 2013, 28 pts (median age =60, range =37-73 yrs) with advanced disease (6 WD and 22 WD/DD) were given ciHDIFX, at the dose of 14 g/m2 as a 14-day continuous infusion every 4 weeks. Twenty-four pts (86%) were previously treated with chemotherapy (19 with anthracyclines and ifosfamide; 4 with anthracycline monotherapy; 1 with trabectedin).
Seven PR (all in DDLPS), 2 minor response (MR) and 11 SD were observed. Of interest, 6 of 9 patients with PR or MR had had SD with the previous therapy with anthracycline plus ifosfamide. The median progression-free survival was 7 months. Most common side effects were mild myelosuppression (anemia G2-3 in 3 pts; G2-3 neutropenia in 3 pts and G4 in 1; G3 thrombocytopenia in 1 pt); nausea (G3 in 3 pts) and fatigue (G3 in 6 pts). One pts had transient G3 confusion.
These data suggest that ciHDIFX is active in WD/DDLPS, even in patients already treated with a combination of anthracyclines plus ifosfamide. In this series, ciHDIFX regimen was better tolerated than HDIFX in published studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To explore the activity of pazopanib in solitary fibrous tumour (SFT).
Patients and methods:
In a preclinical study, we compared the activity of pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, regorafenib, axitinib and bevacizumab in a dedifferentiated-SFT (DSFT) xenotransplanted into Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Antiangiogenics were administered at their reported optimal doses when mean tumour volume (TV) was 80 mm(3). Drug activity was assessed as TV inhibition percentage (TVI%). From May 2012, six consecutive patients with advanced SFT received pazopanib, on a national name-based programme. In one case sunitinib was administered after pazopanib failure.
In the xenograft model, pazopanib showed the lowest antitumour activity (21%TVI), while regorafenib was the most active (95%TVI). Sorafenib, bevacizumab, sunitinib were markedly active (78/70/65%TVI). Axitinib was marginally active (51%TVI). In the retrospective case-series, three patients carried malignant-SFT (MSFT), three DSFT. Best Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumour (RECIST) responses were: three stable disease (SD), all MSFT, three progressive disease (PD), all DSFT, corresponding to one partial response (PR), two SD, three PD by Choi criteria. Median-progression-free survival was 3 months (range 1-15). In one patient, sunitinib was started after pazopanib failure, with a response.
In dedifferentiated-SFT xenograft pazopanib induced a marginal antitumour activity, while regorafenib appeared the most active and promising agent. When administered in patients, pazopanib showed a modest activity in terms of tumour growth stabilisation, observed only in non-dedifferentiated cases.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · European Journal of Cancer