[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ce document fait le point sur la littérature scientifique concernant les directives anticipées (DA). Il reflète également l’analyse du comité éthique de la Sfar. Les éléments singuliers des expériences étrangères sont décrits en regard de la situation française. Leurs forces et limites sont analysées. Les DA permettent une réelle expression de l’autonomie des patients mais diffèrent notablement d’un pays à l’autre. L’exemple allemand semble particulièrement abouti. Aux États-Unis, une hiérarchie des types de DA et en particulier les POLST (Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) dont le cadre est unifié, tente de répondre au besoin d’une disponibilité effective des DA auprès du patient, notamment en cas de transfert. Des registres ont été créés par des états ou des associations caritatives afin d’en assurer la traçabilité. On entrevoit la nécessité pour le patient de rédiger ses DA en fonction de son vécu (clairement décrit), de son contexte spécifique et de ses valeurs personnelles. Des rubriques cruciales sont par exemple : désigner la personne de confiance mais aussi celles qu’on ne veut pas voir participer à des décisions futures ; préciser le niveau de décision qu’on concède à la celle-ci ; mentionner son choix vis-à-vis du don d’organes. La notion de validité restreinte des DA dans la loi française pose un problème en regard du risque de coma végétatif, voire de locked-in syndrome. Il semble souhaitable que cette clause calendaire ne s’applique pas à cette éventualité.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Esophagectomy is the standard of care for high-grade corrosive esophageal necrosis as assessed endoscopically. However, the inaccuracy of endoscopy in determining the depth of intramural necrosis may lead to unnecessary esophageal resection, with devastating consequences. Our aim was to evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) for the emergency diagnostic workup of endoscopic high-grade corrosive esophageal necrosis.
In a before (2000-2007)/after (2007-2012) study of patients with grade 3b endoscopic esophageal necrosis, we compared outcomes after routine emergency esophagectomy versus selection for emergency esophagectomy based on CT evidence of transmural necrosis, defined as at least two of the following: esophageal-wall blurring, periesophageal-fat blurring, and the absence of esophageal-wall enhancement. Survival estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method was the primary outcome.
Compared to the routine-esophagectomy group (n = 125), the CT group (n = 72) had better overall survival in the crude analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95 % confidence interval [95 %CI], 0.21-0.85; P = 0.015) and in the analysis matched on gender, age, and ingested agent (HR, 0.36; 95 %CI, 0.16-0.79; P = 0.011). No deaths occurred among patients managed without emergency esophagectomy based on CT findings, and one-third of CT-group patients had their functioning native esophagus at last follow-up. Self-sufficiency for eating and breathing was more common (84 % vs. 65 %; relative risk [RR], 1.27; 95 %CI, 1.04-1.55; P = 0.016) and repeat suicide less common (4 % vs. 15 %; RR, 0.27; 95 %CI, 0.09-0.82; P = 0.019) in the CT group.
The decision to perform emergency esophagectomy for endoscopic high-grade corrosive esophageal injury should rely on CT findings.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Existing data suggest that increased interstitial fibrosis may occur abnormally in renal transplants from donations after uncontrolled circulatory death (uDCD).
To evaluate the factors that are associated with the progression of fibrosis and its functional impact on renal grafts, we compared 76 uDCD recipients with 86 recipients of kidney donations after brain death at 1-year after transplantation. Groups were matched for donor age, rank of transplantation, and absence of human leukocyte antigen sensitization. Histology was performed on sequential biopsies in uDCD recipients. Associations between variables were analyzed using linear mixed models and univariate analyses.
In the uDCD group, increased fibrosis was detected 3 months after transplantation compared to before implantation. After 1 year, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score was significantly greater (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.0±0.9; P=0.003) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (49.5±17.4 vs. 60.6±19.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.0003) was significantly lower in the uDCD group than in the donations after brain death group. No flow duration and donor age were significantly associated with accelerated fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score, interstitial inflammation score, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were significantly worse in uDCD patients with no flow longer than 10 min.
Donations after uncontrolled circulatory death grafts show more fibrosis after transplantation. No flow duration is associated with accelerated fibrosis and should be considered during uDCD graft allocation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the perioperative period, several potential conflicts between anaesthetists/intensive care specialists and surgeons may exist. They are detrimental to the quality of patient care and to the well-being of the teams. They are a source of medical errors and contribute to burn-out. Patients can become the victims of such conflicts, which deserve ethical reflection. Their resolution through analysis and shared solutions is necessary. This article seeks to analyse these conflicts, taking into account their specificities and constraints. In order to understand this context, it is important to consider the specificities of each group involved and the records of such situations. Several factors can prevent these conflicts, first and foremost the patients themselves and the quality of the care that is provided. Medical deontology aims mainly at preventing and resolving these conflicts. Generally speaking, the quality approach which is increasingly applied in health care institutions (involving declarations of adverse events, morbidity/mortality reviews, benchmarking, analysis and improvement of practices, etc.) also contributes to the prevention and resolution of disagreements. The teaching of communication techniques that begins with the initial training, the evaluation of team behaviours (through simulation training for example), the respect of others' constraints, particularly when it comes to learning, as well as transparency regarding conflicts of interests, are all additional elements of conflict prevention. Lastly, conflicts may at times be caused by deviant behaviours, which must be met with a clear and uncompromising collective and institutional approach. This article concludes by offering a standardised approach for conflict resolution.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the perioperative period, several potential conflicts between anaesthetists/intensive care specialists and surgeons may exist. They are detrimental to the quality of patient care and to the well-being of the teams. They are a source of medical errors and contribute to burn-out. Patients can become the victims of such conflicts, which deserve ethical reflection. Their resolution through analysis and shared solutions is necessary. This article seeks to analyse these conflicts, taking into account their specificities and constraints. In order to understand this context, it is important to consider the specificities of each group involved and the records of such situations. Several factors can prevent these conflicts, first and foremost the patients themselves and the quality of the care that is provided. Medical deontology aims mainly at preventing and resolving these conflicts. Generally speaking, the quality approach which is increasingly applied in health care institutions (involving declarations of adverse events, morbidity/mortality reviews, benchmarking, analysis and improvement of practices, etc.) also contributes to the prevention and resolution of disagreements. The teaching of communication techniques that begins with the initial training, the evaluation of team behaviours (through simulation training for example), the respect of others’ constraints, particularly when it comes to learning, as well as transparency regarding conflicts of interests, are all additional elements of conflict prevention. Lastly, conflicts may at times be caused by deviant behaviours, which must be met with a clear and uncompromising collective and institutional approach. This article concludes by offering a standardised approach for conflict resolution.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contexte
La prise en charge de la fin de vie constitue un enjeu sociétal crucial auquel le législateur a répondu par la loi du 22 avril 2005. Néanmoins, un débat émerge de la société civile sur l’opportunité de dépénaliser/légaliser l’euthanasie et/ou le suicide assisté (E/SA). Cette question interroge directement les médecins, en particulier les anesthésistes-réanimateurs (AR).
Mettre en perspective les concepts à partir d’une analyse de la littérature médicale et de l’expérience des pays qui ont légiféré sur E/SA.
La loi du 22 avril 2005 constitue une réponse adaptée à l’essentiel des situations de fin de vie auxquelles est confronté l’AR. Sa force tient à l’obligation de dispenser des soins palliatifs quand les thérapeutiques devenues vaines sont interrompues. Néanmoins, les démarches d’accompagnement et de soins palliatifs sont introduites trop tard durant le cours des maladies fatales. Leur enseignement et des mesures incitatives fortes s’imposent. Les rares cas où E/SA sont demandés par les patients ou leurs proches résultent souvent de décisions non prises en amont et/ou de traitements qui ne considèrent pas le patient dans sa globalité. La mise en œuvre d’E/SA ne se résume pas à la simple affirmation d’un principe d’autonomie. Les procédures d’E/SA laissent entrevoir de réelles difficultés et des risques de dérives.
Nous formulons un message de prudence et de mesure. Peut-on répondre aux questions douloureuses de la fin de vie, de la souffrance morale, en supprimant le sujet lorsqu’une réelle démarche de soins palliatifs n’a pas été pleinement mise en œuvre ?
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of the end of life is a major social issue which was addressed in France by law, on April 22nd 2005. Nevertheless, a debate has emerged within French society about the legalization of euthanasia and/or assisted suicide (E/AS). This issue raises questions for doctors and most especially for anesthetists and intensive care physicians.
To highlight, dispassionately and without dogmatism, key points taken from the published literature and the experience of countries which have legislated for E/AS.
The current French law addresses most of the end of life issues an intensive care physician might encounter. It is credited for imposing palliative care when therapies have become senseless and are withdrawn. However, this requirement for palliative care is generally applied too late in the course of a fatal illness. There is a great need for more education and stronger incentives for early action in this area. On the rare occasions when E/AS is requested, either by the patient or their loved-ones, it often results from a failure to consider that treatments have become senseless and conflict with patient's best interest. The implementation of E/AS cannot be reduced to a simple affirmation of the Principle of autonomy. Such procedures present genuine difficulties and the risk of drift.
We deliver a message of prudence and caution. Should we address painful end of life and moral suffering issues, by suppressing the subject, i.e. ending the patient's life, when comprehensive palliative care has not first been fully granted to all patients in need of it ?
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and outcome, systemic inflammatory phenotype and HLA genotype in severe sepsis.
Prospective multicenter observational study done in 4 intensive care units in two university hospitals. Severe sepsis and septic shock patients with at least 2 organ failures based on the SOFA score were classified: 1) "no AKI", 2) "mild AKI" (grouping stage 1 and 2 of AKIN score) and 3) "severe AKI" (stage 3 of AKIN score). Sequential measurements: The vasopressor dependency index (VDI; dose and types of drugs) to evaluate the association between hemodynamic status and the development of early AKI; plasma levels of IL-10, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), IL-6 and HLA-DR monocyte expression. Genotyping of the 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles with deduction of presence of HLA-DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 genes. We used multivariate analysis with competitive risk model to study associations. Overall, 176 study patients (146 with septic shock) were classified from AKIN score as "no AKI" (n = 43), "mild AKI" (n = 74) or "severe AKI" (n = 59). The VDI did not differ between groups of AKI. After adjustment, "mild and severe AKI" were an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 2.42 95%CI[1.01-5.83], p = 0.048 and HR 1.99 95%CI[1.30-3.03], p = 0.001 respectively). "Severe AKI" had higher levels of plasma IL-10, MIF and IL-6 compared to "no AKI" and mild AKI (p<0.05 for each), with no difference in mHLA-DR at day 0. HLA-DRB genotyping showed a significantly lower proportion of 4 HLA-DRB alleles among patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (58%) than in patients with severe AKI who did not receive RRT (84%) (p = 0.004).
AKI severity is independently associated with mortality and plasma IL-10, MIF or IL-6 levels. Presence of 4 alleles of HLA-DRB in severe AKI patients seems associated with a lower need of RRT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ethics committee of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Sfar) has been requested by the French Biomedical Agency to consider the issue of organ donation in patients after a decision of withdrawing life supporting therapies has been taken. This category of organ donation is performed in the USA, Canada, United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. The three former countries have published recommendations, which formalize procedures and operations. The Sfar ethics committee has considered this issue and envisioned the different aspects of the whole process. Consequently, it sounds a note of caution regarding the applicability of this type of organ procurement in unselected patient following a decision to withdraw life supporting therapies. According to the French regulation concerning organ procurement in brain dead patients, the committee stresses the need to restrict this specific way of procurement to severely brain injured patients, once confirmatory investigations predicting a catastrophic prognosis have been performed. It suggests that the nature of the confirmatory investigation required should be formalized by the French Biomedical Agency on behalf of the French parliamentarians. This should help preserving population trust regarding organ procurement and provide a framework to medical decision. This text has been endorsed by the Sfar.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dès 2005, face à l’inadéquation persistante entre les indications de greffe et le nombre de greffons disponibles, la France a mis en oeuvre un programme de prélèvements d’organes sur donneurs décédés après arrêt cardiaque (DDAC). Les DDAC regroupent deux entités distinctes: les prélèvements sur donneurs « contrôlés » et « non contrôlés ». Si dans les deux cas le coeur est non battant, les donneurs contrôlés sont des patients hospitalisés en réanimation pour lesquels une décision d’arrêt thérapeutique a été prise (Maastricht III), alors que les seconds sont des donneurs ayant fait un arrêt cardiaque inattendu, le plus souvent en dehors de l’hôpital, et pour lesquels une activité hémodynamique n’a pas pu être restaurée (Maastricht I et II). Si les premiers posent des difficultés éthiques évidentes, les seconds présentent une complexité technique et organisationnelle importante afin de limiter au maximum la durée de l’ischémie chaude. Les prélèvements de reins, de foies et de tissus sur donneurs non contrôlés sont les seuls autorisés en France. Pour minimiser les risques d’échec de greffe, les critères de sélection des donneurs et des receveurs et le respect des délais visant à limiter la durée de l’ischémie chaude sont drastiques. Dans ces conditions, les résultats obtenus sont comparables à ceux des donneurs en état de mal encéphalique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD), formerly non-heart-beating donation and donation after cardiac death, has been re-introduced into clinical practice in France since June 2006 as a potential solution to organ shortage, but this kidney transplantation programme is not popular yet, mainly because of logistical concerns and uncertainty about the long-term warm ischaemia impact on transplanted kidneys.
Our institution started the DCDD programme in January 2007, following the national 'BioMedicine Agency' protocol. We only considered uncontrolled donors with an initial no-flow period (i.e. delay between collapse and external cardiac massage start) <30 min. A 5-min stand-off period was observed before declaring the death and performing in situ cold perfusion, and since January 2010, normothermic subdiaphragmatic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. All kidneys were machine-perfused using the hypothermic pulsatile preservation system before transplantation. Morphologic assessment and perfusion indexes were used to assess the suitability for transplantation.
From January 2007 to December 2010, our team performed 58 kidney transplantations from uncontrolled Maastricht Category I and II donors. Mean recipient age was 47 ± 9 years. Male/female ratio was 45/13. Mean waiting time on transplantation registry was 30 months (4-180). Mean cold ischaemia time was 13 h 40 min (7-18) and pulsatile perfusion time 8 h (1-16). We had three cases (5%) of primary non-function (PNF) and 95% of delayed graft function. There was no increase in biopsy-proven acute rejection incidence (12.7%). Patient and graft survivals were 98 and 91.4%, respectively, at 1 year and 98 and 88%, respectively, at last follow-up. Estimated glomerular filtration rate ( Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) was 48 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year and 48 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the last follow-up.
DCDD kidneys are a valuable additional source of organs for transplantation. Our results show encouraging outcomes, which give rise to further interest in this donor pool. Respecting the national protocol is crucial to prevent PNF and deleterious warm ischaemia effect on transplanted kidney.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expanded criteria donors (ECD) kidneys are a potential solution to organ shortage, but exhibit more delayed graft function (DGF). We conducted a prospective controlled study aiming to evaluate the impact of pulsatile perfusion preservation (PPP) on DGF rate.
Inclusion criteria were: 1) ECD definition (any brain-dead donor aged > 60 years or aged 50-60 years with at least 2 of the following: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinin level = 1.5 mg/dL, death resulting from a cerebrovascular accident; 2) Donor prolonged circulatory arrest (> 20 mn); 3) previsible cold ischemia time longer than 24 hours. In each pair of kidneys, one organ was preserved with PPP and the other organ was preserved in static cold storage.
From February 2007 to September 2009, a total of 22 donors (44 recipients) were included. Recipients were comparable in the two groups with respect to demographic and immunological data. The rate of DGF was significantly lower (9% vs. 31.8%, p = 0.021) in the PPP group. At 1, 3, and 12 months, renal function was comparable in the two groups.
Pulsatile perfusion preservation significantly reduced DGF rate in ECD kidney transplantation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · The International journal of artificial organs