[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (rrDLBCL) is fatal in 90% of patients and yet little is known about its biology.
Using exome sequencing, we characterized the mutation profiles of 38 rrDLBCL biopsies obtained at the time of progression after immunochemotherapy. To identify genes that may be associated with relapse, we compared the mutation frequency in samples obtained at relapse to an unrelated cohort of 138 diagnostic DLBCLs and separately amplified specific mutations in their matched diagnostic samples to identify clonal expansions.
Based on the a higher frequency at relapse and evidence for clonal selection, TP53, FOXO1, MLL3, CCND3, NFKBIZ and STAT6 emerged as top candidate genes implicated in therapeutic resistance. We observed individual examples of clonal expansions affecting genes whose mutations had not been previously associated with DLBCL including two regulators of NF-κB: NFKBIE and NFKBIZ. We detected mutations that may be affect sensitivity to novel therapeutics, such as MYD88 and CD79B mutations, in 31% and 23% of patients with activated B cell-type of rrDLBCL, respectively. We also identified recurrent STAT6 mutations affecting D419 in 36% of patients with the germinal center B (GCB) cell rrDLBCL. These were associated with activated JAK/STAT signaling, increased phospho-STAT6 protein expression and increased expression of STAT6 target genes.
This work improves our understanding of therapeutic resistance in rrDLBCL and has identified novel therapeutic opportunities especially for the high-risk patients with GCB-type rrDLBCL.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Alemtuzumab has single-agent activity in relapsed peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), but the optimal dose and/or schedule in combination with chemotherapy for first-line use is unknown. The primary objectives were to establish the maximally tolerated dose and pharmacokinetics (PK) of alemtuzumab combined in this way.
Patients and methods:
Adult patients with untreated CD52-positive (CD52(+)) PTCL were enrolled in a phase I trial. Alemtuzumab was given subcutaneously in escalating doses and/or schedules in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone) using a 3+3 design. Trough PK of alemtuzumab were measured on day 1 of each 21-day cycle and B and T cell subsets were serially measured.
Twenty patients were enrolled across 4 dose levels. Dose-limiting toxicities necessitated expansion at 10 mg weekly (fatal tuberculosis reactivation) and 60 mg every 3 weeks (grade 4 thrombocytopenia) dose levels. Maximally tolerated dose was not reached. Ten patients developed asymptomatic cytomegalovirus reactivations at a median of 39 days (range, 4-99 days). Two patients developed fungal pneumonias. The overall and complete response rates were 68% and 37%, respectively. Highest day 1 alemtuzumab trough levels were achieved at 60 mg (1973 ng/mL), but with significant inter- and intradose variability. Lymphopenia at baseline was common and T cell recovery was significantly delayed.
With monitoring and prophylaxis, alemtuzumab 60 mg combined with CHOP showed activity in CD52(+) PTCL and achieved the highest drug levels.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) is the most commonly used risk stratification tool for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), however recent studies suggest the IPS-7 is less discriminating due to improved outcomes with contemporary therapy. We evaluated the seven variables for IPS-7 recorded at study entry for 854 patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2496 trial. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to assess their prognostic ability for freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). The IPS-7 remained prognostic however its prognostic range has narrowed. On multivariate analysis, two factors (age, stage) remained significant for FFP and three factors (age, stage, haemoglobin level) for OS. An alternative prognostic index, the IPS-3, was constructed using age, stage and haemoglobin level, which provided four distinct risk groups [FFP (P = 0·0001) and OS (P < 0·0001)]. IPS-3 outperformed the IPS-7 on risk prediction for both FFP and OS by model fit and discrimination criteria. Using reclassification calibration, 18% of IPS-7 low risk patients were re-classified as intermediate risk and 13% of IPS-7 intermediate risk patients as low risk. For patients with advanced HL, the IPS-3 may provide a simpler and more accurate framework for risk assessment in the modern era. Validation of these findings in other large data sets is planned.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Obinutuzumab (GA101), a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated responses in single-arm studies of patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first prospective, randomized study comparing safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab with rituximab in relapsed indolent lymphoma. The primary end point of this study was the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with follicular lymphoma after induction and safety in patients with indolent lymphoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 175 patients with relapsed CD20+ indolent lymphoma requiring therapy and with previous response to a rituximab-containing regimen were randomly assigned (1:1) to four once-per-week infusions of either obinutuzumab (1,000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2). Patients without evidence of disease progression after induction therapy received obinutuzumab or rituximab maintenance therapy every 2 months for up to 2 years.
Among patients with follicular lymphoma (n = 149), ORR seemed higher for obinutuzumab than rituximab (44.6% v 33.3%; P = .08). This observation was also demonstrated by a blinded independent review panel that measured a higher ORR for obinutuzumab (44.6% v 26.7%; P = .01). However, this difference did not translate into an improvement in progression-free survival. No new safety signals were observed for obinutuzumab, and the incidence of adverse events was balanced between arms, with the exception of infusion-related reactions and cough, which were higher in the obinutuzumab arm.
Obinutuzumab demonstrated a higher ORR without appreciable differences in safety compared with rituximab. However, the clinical benefit of obinutuzumab in this setting remains unclear and should be evaluated within phase III trials.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bendamustine is a bifunctional alkylating agent with unique properties that distinguish it from other agents in its class. Bendamustine is used as monotherapy or in combination with other agents to treat patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (nhl) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (cll).
The prospective interventional open-label bend-act trial evaluated bendamustine in patients with rituximab-refractory indolent nhl (inhl) and previously untreated cll. Study objectives were to assess the safety and tolerability of bendamustine monotherapy and to provide patients with access to bendamustine before Health Canada approval. The study aimed to enrol up to 100 patients. All patients with inhl received an intravenous dose of bendamustine 120 mg/m(2) over 60 minutes on days 1 and 2 for up to eight 21- or 28-day treatment cycles. All patients with cll received an intravenous dose of bendamustine 100 mg/m(2) over 30 minutes on days 1 and 2 for up to six 28-day treatment cycles.
Of 90 patients treated on study (16 with cll and 74 with inhl), 35 completed the study (4 with cll and 31 with inhl). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (teaes) were nausea (70%), fatigue (57%), vomiting (40%), and diarrhea (33%)-mostly grades 1 and 2. Ondansetron was the most common supportive medication used in the patients (63.5% of those with inhl and 68.8% of those with cll). Neutropenia (32%), anemia (23%), and thrombocytopenia (21%) were the most frequent hematologic teaes, with neutropenia being the most common grade 3 or 4 teae leading to dose modification. Dose delays occurred in 28 patients (31.3%) because of grade 3 or 4 teaes, with a higher incidence of dose delays being observed in inhl patients on the 21-day treatment cycle than in those on the 28-day treatment cycle (50.0% vs. 24.1%). During the study, 33 patients (36.7%) experienced at least 1 serious adverse event, and 4 deaths were reported (all in patients with inhl).
The type and frequency of the teaes reported accorded with observations in earlier clinical trials and post-marketing experiences, thus confirming the acceptable and manageable safety profile of bendamustine.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temsirolimus, a selective inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has demonstrated clinical benefit versus investigator's choice (INV) of therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
This post hoc study retrospectively assigned simplified Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) scores (ie, secondary MIPI) based on parameters at the time of randomization in patients with MCL (N = 162) who received temsirolimus 175 mg once weekly for 3 weeks followed by once-weekly 75 mg or 25 mg or the INV of active therapy. Outcomes were analyzed according to the low-, intermediate- or high-risk category.
Patient distribution by MIPI risk category was 31%, 39%, and 30% in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Among patients in all categories, objective response rate (complete response + partial response) was higher in patients in the temsirolimus 175/75-mg group versus the INV group, respectively: 42% versus 0% (low-risk); 33% versus 5% (intermediate-risk); 10% versus 0% (high-risk). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer with temsirolimus 175/75 mg versus INV, respectively, in patients with intermediate (4.3 vs 1.9 months; P = 0.035) or high (4.5 vs 1.6 months; P = 0.0025) risk, and a trend toward improvement was observed in patients with low risk (5.3 vs 2.6 months; P = 0.091). Improvement in median overall survival was observed with temsirolimus 175/75 mg versus INV in low-risk patients (18.0 vs 10.5 months, respectively; P = 0.069).
This analysis suggests that, compared with INV, temsirolimus demonstrated benefit in all MIPI risk categories in patients with MCL. In all treatment groups, patients with high secondary MIPI scores at baseline faced a dismal prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case 1. Anne is a 23-year-old nursing student who presents with bilateral cervical, left supraclavicular, and left axillary adenopathy. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax reveals a 6-cm anterior mediastinal mass. Biopsy of the left supraclavicular lymph node reveals classical nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. A complete blood count is normal and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is 25 mm/h. CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis show normal liver and spleen and no evidence of abdominal lymphadenopathy. You are asked to advise her on the role of radiation therapy in her treatment plan. Case 2. John is a 48-year-old teacher who presents with chest pain following a hockey game. A chest radiograph reveals mediastinal widening, and a contrast-enhancedCT scan shows a 7.5-cm anterior mediastinalmass, with enlarged paratracheal and right hilar lymph nodes. Image-guided core biopsy of the mediastinal mass is diagnostic for classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The hemoglobin is 130 g/L, white blood cell count and platelets are normal, and the ESR is 35 mm/h. John asks you about the role of radiotherapy in the management of his lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The role of allogeneic (ALLO) and autologous (AUTO) stem cell transplantation in the management of patients with transformed indolent non-follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown.
This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients with biopsy-proven indolent B-cell non-follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and simultaneous or subsequent biopsy-proven aggressive histology transformation who were treated with ALLO or AUTO between 1996-2013. All patients received myeloablative conditioning regimens. Outcomes were compared to a cohort of 246 patients with transformed follicular lymphoma who also underwent ALLO (n=47) or AUTO (n=199) across the same institutions and timeframe.
Thirty-four patients were identified with the following underlying indolent histologies: 15 (44%) marginal zone lymphoma, 11 (32%) chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 6 (18%) small lymphocytic lymphoma, and 2 (6%) lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Patients received various anthracycline or platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens for transformation, incorporating rituximab in 25 (74%). Twelve (35%) subsequently underwent ALLO, while 33 (65%) underwent AUTO. The 3-year OS after transplantation was 67% (ALLO 54%, AUTO 74%), and 3-year PFS was 49% (ALLO 40%, AUTO 54%). The 3-year non-relapse mortality was 14% (ALLO 15%, AUTO 7%). Transplant-related mortality at 100 days was ALLO 17% and AUTO 0%. Adjusted for type of stem cell transplantation, 3-year OS, PFS, and NRM were similar to those of patients with transformed follicular lymphoma receiving ALLO and AUTO (p=0.38, p=0.69, p=0.54 respectively).
ALLO and AUTO may be reasonable treatments for selected patients with transformed non-follicular indolent lymphoma, although medium-term outcomes and toxicity appear to be more favorable with AUTO.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Rituximab is a monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody that is standard of care for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence of rituximab-related interstitial pneumonitis (IP) in NHL patients receiving immunochemotherapy. All patients with NHL who received CHOP, CVP, R-CHOP, or R-CVP in Princess Margaret Hospital between June 1998 and August 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We compared cohorts of patients who did and did not receive rituximab and documented the incidence of IP during and/or post-treatment. 560 patients are included in this analysis. The rate of IP in the entire cohort was 2.9% (16/560) with a trend towards a higher rate in the R group [3.95% vs. 1.3%, (OR 3.1, 0.84-17.27, p=0.074)]. Baseline pulmonary CT abnormalities in lymphoma patients are relatively common. The addition of rituximab to chemotherapy does not significantly increase the risk of symptomatic chemotherapy-related IP.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with hyperleucocytosis have higher early mortality, lower complete remission (CR) and overall survival (OS). Whether different pre-induction leucoreduction strategies can improve outcome is unknown. A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted on AML patients with a white blood cell count (WBC) >100 × 10(9) /l between 1987 and 1997, and on all AML patients between 1998 and 2006, to determine (a) the effect of four different leucoreductive strategies (leukapheresis, hydroxycarbamide, leukapheresis and hydroxycarbamide or no pre-induction leucoreduction) on early (day 28) mortality, CR, and OS; and (b) whether a high presenting WBC remains a negative predictor of OS in patients surviving induction (first 28 d). In the 1998-2006 cohort (n = 702), higher WBC was associated with higher early mortality and lower OS but its effects were greatly diminished in patients who survived the first 28 d (Hazard Ratio 1·094 vs. 1·002). A WBC of 34·1 × 10(9) /l had the highest sensitivity (75·6%) and specificity (67·4%) for early mortality. None of the four leucoreduction strategies differed significantly in early mortality, CR, or OS in patients with WBC>100 × 10(9) /l (n = 166). The number of leucostatic signs was a significant predictor of early mortality (P < 0·0001) and OS (P = 0·0007). The results suggest that AML patients with hyperleucocytosis should be induced, if eligible, without pre-induction leucoreduction.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
For patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphoma, we hypothesized that gemcitabine-based therapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is as effective as and less toxic than standard treatment.
Patients and methods:
We randomly assigned 619 patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphoma to treatment with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) or to dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP). Patients with B-cell lymphoma also received rituximab. Responding patients proceeded to stem-cell collection and ASCT. Coprimary end points were response rate after two treatment cycles and transplantation rate. The noninferiority margin for the response rate to GDP relative to DHAP was set at 10%. Secondary end points included event-free and overall survival, treatment toxicity, and quality of life.
For the intention-to-treat population, the response rate with GDP was 45.2%; with DHAP the response rate was 44.0% (95% CI for difference, -9.0% to 6.7%), meeting protocol-defined criteria for noninferiority of GDP (P = .005). Similar results were obtained in a per-protocol analysis. The transplantation rates were 52.1% with GDP and 49.3% with DHAP (P = .44). At a median follow-up of 53 months, no differences were detected in event-free survival (HR, 0.99; stratified log-rank P = .95) or overall survival (HR, 1.03; P = .78) between GDP and DHAP. Treatment with GDP was associated with less toxicity (P < .001) and need for hospitalization (P < .001), and preserved quality of life (P = .04).
For patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphoma, in comparison with DHAP, treatment with GDP is associated with a noninferior response rate, similar transplantation rate, event-free survival, and overall survival, less toxicity and hospitalization, and superior quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Current treatment of diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) includes rituximab, an expensive drug, combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy. Economic models have predicted rituximab plus CHOP (RCHOP) to be a cost-effective alternative to CHOP alone as first-line treatment of DLBCL, but it remains unclear what its real-world costs and cost-effectiveness are in routine clinical practice.
We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study from 1997 to 2007, using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of RCHOP compared to CHOP alone. A historical control cohort (n = 1,099) with DLBCL who received CHOP before rituximab approval was hard-matched on age and treatment intensity and then propensity-score matched on sex, comorbidity, and histology to 1,099 RCHOP patients. All costs and outcomes were adjusted for censoring using the inverse probability weighting method. The main outcome measure was incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG).
Rituximab was associated with a life expectancy increase of 3.2 months over 5 years at an additional cost of $16,298, corresponding to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $61,984 (95% CI $34,087-$135,890) per LYG. The probability of being cost-effective was 90% if the willingness-to-pay threshold was $100,000/LYG. The cost-effectiveness ratio was most favourable for patients less than 60 years old ($31,800/LYG) but increased to $80,600/LYG for patients 60-79 years old and $110,100/LYG for patients ≥ 80 years old. We found that post-market survival benefits of rituximab are similar to or lower than those reported in clinical trials, while the costs, incremental costs and cost-effectiveness ratios are higher than in published economic models and differ by age.
Our results showed that the addition of rituximab to standard CHOP chemotherapy was associated with improvement in survival but at a higher cost, and was potentially cost-effective by standard thresholds for patients <60 years old. However, cost-effectiveness decreased significantly with age, suggesting that rituximab may be not as economically attractive in the very elderly on average. This has important clinical implications regarding age-related use and funding decisions on this drug.