- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of Wilson's disease (WD) still remains a challenge since no single test has an accuracy of 100%. Molecular testing for ATP7B gene mutations can help reach the diagnosis when routine testing is equivocal. We herein report an asymptomatic WD patient diagnosed accidentally by genetic analysis. Th is case suggests that WD is a challenge even in particular contexts such as family screening. Genetic testing of ATP7B gene should be recommended in the family members of WD patients with minimal alterations of specific tests such as ceruloplasmin, and presence of steatosis or increased body mass index.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of Wilson's disease (WD) diagnosed at 5years after routine biochemical test showed increased aminotransferases. Mutation analysis of the ATP7B gene revealed a 3039-bp deletion in the homozygous state spanning from the terminal part of intron 1 to nt position 368 of exon 2. This deletion results in the activation of 3 cryptic splice sites: an AG acceptor splice site in nt positions 578-579 producing a different breakpoint and removing the first 577 nts of exon 2, an acceptor and a donor splice site in nt positions 20363-4 and 20456-7, respectively, in intron 1, resulting in the activation of a 94-bp cryptic Alu exon being incorporated into the mature transcript. The resulting alternative transcript contains a TAG stop codon in the first amino acid position of the cryptic exon, likely producing a truncated, non-functional protein. This study shows that intron exonization can also occur in humans through naturally occurring gross deletions. The results suggest that the combination of DNA and RNA analyses can be used for molecular characterization of gross ATP7B deletions, thus improving genetic counselling and diagnosis of WD. Moreover these studies help to better establish new molecular mechanisms producing Wilson's disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article: Wilson's disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Wilson's disease (WD) is a disorder of copper transport resulting from the defective function of a copper transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7B. The WD incidence is approximately 1/50-10,000 live births worldwide. Clinical manifestations of WD may be of any kind, but usually the symptoms of presentation are hepatic or neuropsychiatric, with a vast range of disturbances for both groups of symptoms. In children, however, clinical symptoms may be absent, making the diagnosis of the disease more difficult than in adults. Hepatic manifestations may range from asymptomatic minor biochemical disturbances, to acute, but mostly chronic, hepatitis, cirrhosis or severe fulminant hepatic failure. The spectrum of neurological manifestations is wide, including tremor, hypersalivation, Dysarthria, coordination defects, dystonia, ataxia. The spectrum of psychiatric manifestations is considerable and may include different disturbances such as altered working performance, anxiety, depression and antisocial behaviour. Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF) are present in 95% of patients with neurological symptoms and somewhat over half of those without neurological symptoms. In children presenting with liver disease, KF rings are usually absent. To obtain a more reliable diagnosis of WD, the Leipzig scoring system was proposed by an international consensus of experts. Wilson's disease copper overload is treated with chelating agents such as penicillamine, trientine and tetrathiomolybdate. Zinc is used mostly for mantainance therapy or the treatment of asymptomatic WD patients. Key words: Wilson diseases, copper, cirrhosis, children.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease diagnosis is still a challenge for clinicians. AIM: To underline the importance of genetic testing in carrier detection and diagnosis of atypical Wilson's disease cases. METHODS: Two families with Wilson's disease in two consecutive generations were analysed with clinical, biochemical and genetic testing. RESULTS: In one family with triplet siblings, two of whom monozygotic, molecular screening of ATP7B, the gene responsible for Wilson's disease phenotype, allowed detection of 3 disease alleles, the discrimination between carrier and disease state and the postmortem diagnosis of Wilson's disease in the siblings' father. In the second family, molecular analysis detected 3 disease alleles and confirmed the diagnosis of Wilson's disease in two asymptomatic monozygotic twins. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that mutational analysis is determinant for carrier identification and diagnosis of atypical Wilson's disease patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wilson's disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport with a broad range of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, results from mutations in the ATP7B gene. Herein we report the results of mutation analysis of the ATP7B gene in a group of 118 Wilson disease families (236 chromosomes) prevalently of Italian origin. Using DNA sequencing we identified 83 disease-causing mutations. Eleven were novel, while twenty one already described mutations were identified in new populations in this study. In particular, mutation analysis of 13 families of Romanian origin showed a high prevalence of the p.H1069Q mutation (50%). Detection of new mutations in the ATP7B gene in new populations increases our capability of molecular analysis that is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of WD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 520 Wilson disease-causing mutations in the ATP7B gene have been described to date. In this study we report DNA and RNA analyses carried out for molecular characterization of a consensus sequence splicing mutation found in homozygosity in a Swiss Wilson disease patient. RNA analysis of 1946 +6 T→C in both the peripheral lymphoblasts and liver resulted in the production in the propositus of only an alternative transcript lacking exons 6, 7, and 8 resulting most likely in alterations of cell biochemistry and disease. The patient presents an early form of severe hepatic disease characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, reduced hepatic function, anemia and thrombocytopenia indicating that 1946 +6 T→C is a severe mutation. Since identical results were obtained from both peripheral lymphoblasts and liver they also suggest that RNA studies of illegitimate transcripts can be safely used for molecular characterization of ATP7B splicing mutations, thus improving genetic counseling and diagnosis of Wilson disease. Moreover these studies, contribute to reveal the exact molecular mechanisms producing Wilson disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective function of the copper transporting protein ATP7B. Approximately 520 Wilson disease-causing mutations have been described to date. In this study we report the use of DNA and RNA analysis for molecular characterization of a gross deletion of the ATP7B gene detected in homozygosity in a Wilson disease patient. The c.51+384_1708-953del mutation spans an 8798 bp region of the ATP7B gene from exon 2 to intron 4. The results obtained suggest that the combination of DNA and RNA analyses can be used for molecular characterization of gross ATP7B deletions, thus improving genetic counselling and diagnosis of Wilson disease. Moreover these studies, help to better establish the molecular mechanisms producing Wilson disease.
Università degli studi di Cagliari
Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
- Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine