Neil G Parry

London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (22)48.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The optimal timing of initiating low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients who have undergone nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt solid organ injuries (SOIs) remains controversial. We describe the safety of early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among patients undergoing NOM of blunt SOIs. Methods: We retrospectively studied severely injured adults who sustained blunt SOI without significant intracranial hemorrhage and underwent an initial NOM at a Canadian lead trauma hospital between 2010 and 2014. Safety was assessed based on failure of NOM, defined as the need for operative intervention, in patients who received early (< 48 h) or late LMWH (≥ 48 h, or early discharge [< 72 h] without LMWH). Results: We included 162 patients in our analysis. Most were men (69%), and the average age was 42 ± 18 years. The median injury severity score was 17, and splenic injuries were most common (97 [60%], median grade 2), followed by liver (57 [35%], median grade 2) and kidney injuries (31 [19%], median grade 1). Combined injuries were present in 14% of patients. A total of 78 (48%) patients received early LMWH, while 84 (52%) received late LMWH. The groups differed only in percent of high-grade splenic injury (14% v. 32%). Overall 2% of patients failed NOM, none after receiving LMWH. Semielective angiography was performed in 23 (14%) patients. The overall rate of confirmed VTE on imaging was 1.9%. Conclusion: Early initiation of medical thromboembolic prophylaxis appears safe in select patients with isolated SOI following blunt trauma. A prospective multicentre study is warranted. Contexte: Le moment optimal pour commencer le traitement à l'héparine de bas poids moléculaire (HBPM) chez les patients ayant subi un traumatisme fermé à un organe plein (TFOP) avec prise en charge non chirurgicale (PCNC) demeure un sujet controversé. Nous décrivons l'innocuité d'une initiation hâtive de la chimioprophylaxie de la thromboembolie veineuse (TEV) chez les patients dont le TFOP est pris en charge de façon non chirurgicale. Méthodes: Nous avons étudié rétrospectivement les cas d'adultes gravement blessés ayant subi un TFOP sans hémorragie intracrânienne importante pris en charge de façon non chirurgicale dans un hôpital canadien de premier plan spécialisé en traumatologie entre 2010 et 2014. L'innocuité a été évaluée en fonction du taux d'échec de la PCNC, défini comme la nécessité de recourir à une intervention chirurgicale, chez des patients qui ont reçu de l'HBPM plus tôt (< 48 h) ou plus tard (≥ 48 h, ou qui ont reçu un congé précoce [< 72 h]). Résultats: Pour notre analyse, nous avons retenu 162 patients, en majorité des hommes (69 %), dont l'âge moyen était de 42 ± 18 ans. L'indice médian de gravité de la blessure était de 17; les lésions à la rate étaient les plus fréquentes (97 [60 %], stade médian 2), suivies des lésions du foie (57 [35 %], stade médian 2) et des lésions du rein (31 [19 %], stade médian 1). Il y avait présence de lésions combinées chez 14 % des patients. Au total, 78 patients (48 %) ont reçu de l'HBPM plus tôt, comparativement à 84 (52 %) qui en ont reçu plus tard. Seul le pourcentage de lésions spléniques graves était différent chez les 2 groupes (14 % comparativement à 32 %). La PCNC a échoué chez 2 % des patients, et chez aucun patient après l'administration d'HBPM. Une angiographie semi-urgente a été réalisée chez 23 patients (14 %). Le taux global de TEV confirmée par imagerie était de 1,9 %. Conclusion: L'initiation hâtive de la prophylaxie de la TEV semble être sans danger chez certains patients ayant subi un traumatisme fermé et isolé à un organe plein. Il y a lieu de réaliser une étude multicentrique prospective.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • Neil G Parry · Bradley Moffat · Kelly Vogt
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The treatment of blunt thoracic injuries is complex and evolving. The aim of this review is to focus on what is new with ventilation for blunt chest trauma as well as an update on the current management strategies for blunt aortic injury and rib fractures. Recent findings: Early use of noninvasive ventilation appears to be well tolerated in select hemodynamically stable blunt trauma patients. For those patients requiring intubation, airway pressure release ventilation is an excellent mode to decrease the risk of posttraumatic acute lung injury. Endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic injuries provides benefit over open repair and, if possible, delayed repair confers a mortality advantage. Despite its increasing use, there continue to be conflicting results about the role of surgical rib fixation for the treatment of flail chest. Summary: Blunt thoracic injuries are commonly treated in the ICU and a solid knowledge of mechanical ventilation strategies (both noninvasive and invasive) is essential. Blunt thoracic aortic injuries require early diagnosis and aggressive blood pressure management. Not all such injuries need operative repair but those that do benefit from an endovascular approach. The management of flail chest includes early aggressive multimodal analgesia, adequate oxygen, and ventilatory support. Surgical rib fixation should be considered in select patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Current opinion in critical care
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A triple-dose abusive head trauma (AHT) prevention program (Period of PURPLE Crying) was implemented. The third dose consisted of an education media campaign. The study objectives were to describe the qualitative and spatial methods developed to target AHT prevention and to evaluate this campaign. Methods: A questionnaire on the level of importance of factors, rated on a 7-point Likert scale, was distributed to a panel of experts to determine the best advertising locations. Ranked factors were used to create weights for statistical modeling and mapping within a Geographic Information Systems to determine optimal ad locations. The media campaign was evaluated via a telephone survey of randomly selected households. Results: The survey found locations of new families, high population density, and high percentage of lone parents to be the most important factors for selecting billboard sites. Spatial analysis revealed six areas that ranked highest in our factors. Five billboards, four media posters, and six transit shelters were selected for our advertisements. A population-based telephone survey revealed that 23% of respondents knew the campaign. Nearly half (42%) heard the radio public service announcements, and 9% saw billboards. Conclusion: Extending primary prevention efforts to the public helps to create a cultural change in the way inconsolable crying, the trigger for AHT, is viewed. With the use of ranked factors and Geographic Information Systems, geographic locations with high visibility and specific risk factors for AHT were identified for targeting the campaign, facilitating the likelihood that our message was reaching the population in greatest need.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current practice guidelines for management of gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) recommend early cholecystectomy for patient stabilization and bile duct clearance, preferably at index admission. Historically, this has been difficult to achieve due to lack of emergency surgical resources. We investigated whether implementation of an acute care surgery (ACS) model would allow better adherence to current practice guidelines for GSP. Study design: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients admitted with the diagnosis of GSP to 2 tertiary care university teaching hospitals from January 2002 to October 2013. Diagnosis was confirmed on review of clinical, biochemical, and radiographic criteria. Patients were divided into pre-ACS (2002 to 2009) and post-ACS (2010 to 2013) eras. Only 1 of the 2 hospitals implemented an ACS service in the latter era. Data were collected on demographics, admissions, cholecystectomy timing, and emergency department visits. Results: Before implementation of an ACS service, the rate of index cholecystectomy was 3% at both hospital sites. The rate of index cholecystectomy increased significantly with the addition of ACS, from 2.4% to 67% (p < 0.001). The presence of an ACS team was highly predictive of index cholecystectomy (odds ratio = 10.4; 95% CI 2.0 to 55.1). Patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy during the index admission had an overall readmission rate of 24.9% at both sites. In the ACS hospital, repeat emergency department visits decreased from 24.8% to 8.3% (p < 0.001) and readmission rate decreased from 16.8% to 7.3% (p = 0.04) in the pre-and post-ACS eras, respectively. Conclusions: Implementation of an ACS service resulted in a higher rate of index cholecystectomy and decreased emergency department visits and readmissions for biliary disease, and allowed for increased adherence to clinical practice guidelines for GSP.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) can be a highly lethal injury but in the last decade major advances have been made in diagnostic accuracy, injury grading, and therapy. Traditionally, emphasis has been on studying survival post-injury with a paucity of studies examining the discharge characteristics of patients that survive a BTAI. The purpose of this study is to define the epidemiology and predictors of disposition in patients with BTAI in a provincial database. Methods: Using the Ontario Trauma Registry (OTR), all patients were identified who were hospitalized with a BTAI between 1999 -2009. Trends in therapy and discharge disposition were determined. Results: We identified 264 cases of BTAI. Of these, 157 were discharged from hospital with 36% (N=56) going directly home and 64% (N=101) going to continuing care facilities. There was no difference in disposition in those with BTAI treated operatively or non-operatively (P=0.48). In those that had repair of BTAI, there was no difference in discharge home between open and endovascular repair (P=1.00). Univariate analyses identified younger age, male sex, lower injury severity score (ISS) and lower Charlson comorbidity indices as being predictors of discharge home. On adjusted multivariate regression analysis, lower ISS (OR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.87-0.95, P<.001) was the only independent predictors of discharge home. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the only independent predictor for discharge home for patients who survive is the overall severity of all their injuries irrespective of their condition on admission or management of their BTAI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of Vascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The Impact program is an adolescent, injury prevention program with both school- and hospital-based components aimed at decreasing high-risk behaviors and preventing injury. The objective of this study was to obtain student input on the school-based component of Impact, as part of the program evaluation and redesign process, to ensure that the program content and format were optimal and relevant, addressing injury-related issues important for youth in our region. Secondary schools were selected in various geographic regions with students varying in language, religion, and socioeconomic status. A mixed-methods questionnaire was developed and pretested on program content, format, relevance, quality, and effectiveness. Attitude and opinion questions on issues facing teens today were ranked on a 7-point Likert scale. Open-ended, qualitative questions were included in the focus groups, with responses themed. There were 167 respondents in the nine geographically, socioeconomically, and culturally diverse focus groups with a mean age of 16 years, 52% were male, and 69% were in Grade 11. Ninety-three percent of respondents rated the content of Impact as comprehensive (median, 6 of 7, with 7 being very comprehensive), and 29% rated the format a 5 of 7. Impact was rated relevant (89%), addressing issues for teens (median, 6 of 7). Issues suggested to highlight included texting and driving, drugs, partying, self-harm, and abusive relationships. Texting while driving was perceived as a significantly more common (81%) injury issue for adolescents compared with other driving risk factors (p < 0.001), with one student commenting, "If you don't (text and drive), you either don't have a phone or don't have a driver's license." Injury prevention programs must be continually evaluated to ensure they are relevant, addressing issues important for youth, and presented in a format that resonates with the audience. Student focus groups identified motor vehicle collisions and texting as important issues as well as a desire for teens to hear personal stories with a visual element. This provided the information needed to develop the next logical direction for our program, the production of a distracted driving video ("Distracted Driving: Josh's Story," http://youtu.be/BFPke9gBybc) to be incorporated into school presentations. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns have arisen regarding the use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCFs) in trauma patients due to increasing reports of low retrieval rates. We hypothesized that complete follow-up with a dedicated trauma nurse practitioner would be associated with a higher rate of retrievability. This study was undertaken to determine the rate of retrievability of rIVCFs placed in a Canadian Lead Trauma Centre, and to compare the rate of retrievability in our trauma population to our non-trauma patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with rIVCF placed between Jan 1 2000 and June 30 2014. Data were collected on demographics, indication for filter placement, retrieval status, and reasons for non-retrieval. Comparison was made between trauma patients and non-trauma patients. A total of 374 rIVCFs were placed (61 in trauma patients and 313 in non-trauma patients) and follow-up was complete for the entire cohort. Filter retrieval was achieved in 86.9 % of trauma patients. Reasons for non-retrieval were technical in two patients, and death before retrieval in six patients. Retrieval was successful in 48.9 % of non-trauma patients. This study demonstrates that rIVCFs can be successfully retrieved amongst trauma patients. We demonstrated a higher rate of successful retrieval amongst trauma patients than non-trauma patients in our institution. Careful patient follow-up may play a role in successful retrieval of rIVCFs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be a major difficulty for any clinical research study. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the extent of LTFU and its potential effect in studies of adult trauma patients with blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAIs). Studies comparing management of BTAIs were systematically reviewed. Duplicate independent review was used for study selection, data abstraction, and critical appraisals. Thirty-six studies were included for synthesis, of which 94.1% applied a retrospective cohort design to prospective institutional databases. The mean LTFU at 1 year was 26.5% ± 31.6% for endovascular repair and 20.6% ± 34.2% for open repair groups. Not having a surgical/interventional specialist as a first or senior author was associated with a 39.7% higher LTFU at 1 year (P = .002). Studies with a higher risk of bias, later publication year, or North American origin were associated with a significantly higher risk for LTFU at 1 year (P ≤ .001). Nearly half of included studies assessed in-hospital outcomes exclusively. Only 38.2% explicitly reported LTFU data. Eight studies explicitly described the method of dealing with LTFU: eight used survival analysis and one used a national Social Security Death Index. Sensitivity analyses using plausible worst-case LTFU scenarios resulted in 14% to 17% of studies changing direction of effect. There is significant LTFU in trauma studies comparing operative methods for BTAIs. LTFU is generally handled and reported suboptimally, and sensitivity analyses suggest that study results are sensitive to differential LTFU. This has implications for the evidence-based choice of the operative method. Some protective factors that may aid in reducing LTFU were identified, one of which was involvement of a surgical or interventional specialist as a key author. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
  • N. Parry · W.R. Leeper
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter will focus on the acutely injured and/or post-operative trauma patient. There are many similarities in terms of proinflammatory and neuro-hormonal stress state created by both injury and surgery. The chapter will be structured into three main segments: Epidemiology Trauma remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide and is the leading cause of death in children and adults up to age 44. Not surprisingly, care of the traumatically injured patient consumes a great deal of resources. The economic burden of unintentional and intentional injuries combined is estimated to be greater than $19.8 billion per year in Canada [1]. This includes the direct costs to the healthcare system, as well as the indirect costs of reduced productivity due to injury or death. Alcohol and other intoxications are common. Care of the multiply injured trauma patient is likely more closely linked to critical care medicine than any other surgical speciality. Trauma death still follows the classic "trimodal distribution cinitially described by Trunkey [2]. Most deaths (approximately 50%) occur at the scene from major anatomic injury, which results in exsanguination, neurologic and/or respiratory catastrophe. An additional 30% die within hours to days from injury from complications of severe hemorrhage or major neurologic dysfunction.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed splenic rupture is the Achilles' heel of nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI). Early computed tomographic (CT) scanning for features suggesting high risk of nonoperative failure, splenic pseudoaneurysms (SPAs), and arterial extravasation (AE), in concert with the appropriate use of splenic arterial embolization (SAE) is a viable method to reduce rates of failure of NOM. We report our 12-ear experience with a protocol for mandatory repeat CT evaluation at 48 hours and selective SAE.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have identified missed injuries as a common and potentially preventable occurrence in trauma care. Several patient- and injury-related variables have been identified, which predict for missed injuries; however, differences in rate and severity of missed injuries between surgeon and nonsurgeon trauma team leaders (TTLs) have not previously been reported. A retrospective review was conducted on a random sample of 10% of all trauma patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 12) from 1999 to 2009 at a Canadian Level I trauma center. Missed injuries were defined as those identified greater than 24 hours after presentation and were independently adjudicated by two reviewers. TTLs were identified as either surgeons or nonsurgeons. Of our total trauma population of 2,956 patients, 300 charts were randomly pulled for detailed review. Missed injuries occurred in 46 patients (15%). Most common missed injuries were fractures (n = 32, 70%) and thoracic injuries (n = 23, 50%). The majority of missed injuries resulted in minor morbidity with only 5 (11%) requiring operative intervention. On univariate analysis, higher ISS (p < 0.01), higher maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) score of the thorax (p < 0.01), and nonsurgeon TTL status were predictive of missed injuries (p = 0.02). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that, after adjustment for age, ISS, and severe head injuries, the presence of a nonsurgeon TTL was associated with an increased odds of missed injury (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-4.20). Missed injuries occurred in 15% of patients. A unique finding was the increased odds of missed injury with nonsurgeon TTLs. Further research should be undertaken to explore this relationship, elucidate potential causes, and propose interventions to narrow this discrepancy between TTL provider types. Therapeutic study, level IV. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013
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    Biniam Kidane · Neil G Parry · Thomas L Forbes
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    ABSTRACT: Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is associated with high mortality. Recent Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) guidelines recommend repair of all but SVS grade I injuries. This study's objective was to retrospectively determine guideline adherence at the authors' trauma center, and its impact on mortality. A retrospective review of the trauma database at the authors' university-affiliated trauma center identified and graded all BTAIs between 1999 and 2011. Patient demographics, treatment, and outcomes were recorded. Imaging was available for 52 of 59 (85.2%) patients with BTAI. For these 52 patients, injury distribution was: 14 (27.0%) grade 1; 1 (1.9%) grade 2; 35 (67.3%) grade 3; and 2 (3.8%) grade 4. Nonoperative management was used for 92.8% (13), 100% (1), 34.3% (12), and 0% of grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 injuries, respectively. The operatively managed grade I injury was initially misclassified as grade 3. He was lost to follow-up after discharge. Of the 12 patients with nonoperatively managed grade 3 injuries, 7 (58.3%) died before consideration of endovascular repair and another died early secondary to brain injury. The remaining 4 (11.4%) with nonoperatively managed grade 3 injuries survived to discharge but were lost to follow-up. For grade 3 injuries, endovascular repair was significantly associated with decreased mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 0.02-0.53; P = 0.007). Exclusion of those with presentation-day mortality negated this significant association (OR, 0.84; 0.07-9.68; P = 1.00). Minor deviation (9.6%) from guidelines did not result in additional morbidity/mortality. However, a high rate of loss to follow-up limits conclusions. The mortality reduction seen with endovascular repair for grade 3 injury is inflated by patients who die before repair is considered in the nonoperative group. Larger prospective studies with appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria and improved follow-up are needed to determine the consequences of selective nonoperative management of these injuries.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Annals of Vascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine if, amongst civilian trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (MT), the use of a formal trauma transfusion pathway (TTP), in comparison with transfusion without a TTP, is associated with a reduction in mortality, or changes in indices of coagulation, blood product utilisation and complications. A systematic review of three bibliographic databases, reference lists and conference proceedings was conducted. Studies were included if comparisons were made between patients receiving transfusion with and without a TTP. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers on population characteristics, transfusion strategies, blood product utilisation, indices of coagulation, clinical outcomes and complications. Data were pooled using a random effects model and heterogeneity explored. Seven observational studies met all eligibility criteria. Amongst 1801 patients requiring MT, TTPs were associated with a significant reduction in mortality (RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·55, 0·87). No significant increase in the mean number of PRBC transfused between TTP and control patients was seen (MD -1·17 95% CI -2·70, 0·36). When studies assessing only trauma patients were considered, TTPs were associated with a reduction in the mean number of units of plasma transfused (MD -2·63, 95% CI -4·24, -1·01). In summary, the use of TTPs appears to be associated with a reduction in mortality amongst trauma patients requiring MT without a clinically significant increase in the number of PRBC transfused and a potential reduction in plasma transfusion. Effects of TTPs on platelet transfusion, indices of coagulation and complications remain unclear. A randomised controlled trial is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Transfusion Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary embolisms (PE) are an often preventable cause of late morbidity and mortality after trauma. Although there is evidence for the use of therapeutic inferior vena cava (IVC) filters (defined as IVC filters implanted in those with proven deep venous thrombosis [DVT] in order to prevent PE), there is not as much evidence to support the use of prophylactic IVC filters. Thus, we undertook a systematic review of the literature to assess the following in prophylactic IVC filters: efficacy in PE reduction, prevalence of filter-related complications and the indications for use. After screening 249 studies, 24 studies met inclusion criteria for qualitative synthesis. Overall, the literature is supportive of the use of prophylactic IVC filters in high-risk poly-trauma patients who may have contraindications to DVT prophylaxis. Filter-associated complications are uncommon and, when they do occur, tend to be of limited clinical significance. Limited data, mostly in the form of case series, supports a reduction in PE and PE-related mortality. There has been increasing use of retrievable filters as well as the ability to safely retrieve them at longer intervals. Despite the addition of a few matched-control studies, the literature is still plagued by a lack of high quality data, and therefore the true efficacy of prophylactic IVC filters for prevention of PE in trauma patients remains unclear. Further studies are required to determine the true role of prophylactic IVC filters in trauma patient.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Injury
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of research on substance use in the pediatric trauma population. This study aims to describe trends in substance use and screening in the Canadian pediatric trauma population. A retrospective review of the London Health Sciences Centre trauma database from April 1999 to January 2009 identified patients less than 18 years old admitted after major trauma [injury severity score (ISS) > 12]. Data extracted included age, gender, ISS, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and results of toxicology screens. BAC data were available for 799 patients and toxicology screens for 761 patients. BAC testing was completed in 30% (21% positive). Toxicology screens were completed in 7% (44% positive). Increasing age was associated with screening for alcohol (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.3-1.5). Screening for drug use had a bimodal distribution, with no children aged 4-10 years screened. Those screened for drugs and alcohol had a significantly higher ISS than those not tested (BAC 28 versus 23, P < 0.001, toxin screening 29 versus 24, P = 0.003). The most common ingestions were alcohol, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, and opiates. Screening for drugs and alcohol is sporadic in the pediatric trauma population. Further study utilizing a universal approach to drug and alcohol screening is needed to further delineate the true prevalence of substance use in this population.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Therapeutic drug monitoring
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric volvulus can occur along the organoaxial axis or the mesenteroaxial axis. We present a patient with a gastric bascule: a gastric volvulus due to two lead points. A 17-year-old boy with dextrogastria, asplenia, and left diaphragmatic eventration presented with acute onset of nonbilious emesis, jaundice, and diffuse abdominal tenderness. Surgical exploration demonstrated a gastric volvulus, with lead points of torsion at the gastroesophageal junction and the second part of the duodenum, causing biliary obstruction. After decompression, reduction, and gastropexy, the patient recovered well. Gastric bascule is a subtype of gastric volvulus, whereby two lead points cause gastric rotation and folding of the stomach upon itself.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase (HO) represents the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Recent evidence suggests that several of the beneficial properties of HO, may be linked to CO. The objectives of this study were to determine if low-dose inhaled CO reduces remote intestinal leukocyte recruitment, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and oxidative stress elicited by hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Male mice underwent 1 h of hindlimb ischemia, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Throughout reperfusion, mice were exposed to AIR or AIR + CO (250 ppm). Following reperfusion, the distal ileum was exteriorized to assess the intestinal inflammatory response by quantifying leukocyte rolling and adhesion in submucosal postcapillary venules with the use of intravital microscopy. Ileum samples were also analyzed for proinflammatory cytokine expression [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta] and malondialdehyde (MDA) with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays, respectively. I/R + AIR led to a significant decrease in leukocyte rolling velocity and a sevenfold increase in leukocyte adhesion. This was also accompanied by a significant 1.3-fold increase in ileum MDA and 2.3-fold increase in TNF-alpha expression. Treatment with AIR + CO led to a significant reduction in leukocyte recruitment and TNF-alpha expression elicited by I/R; however, MDA levels remained unchanged. Our data suggest that low-dose inhaled CO selectively attenuates the remote intestinal inflammatory response elicited by hindlimb I/R, yet does not provide protection against intestinal lipid peroxidation. CO may represent a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic treatment to target remote organs following acute trauma and/or I/R injury.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The distance beyond which helicopter transport is faster than ground for interfacility transfer of trauma patients has not been established. Our objective was to determine whether such a threshold exists. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 243 patients transported by land and 139 patients by air from 13 sites during a 3-year period. Time intervals between critical events were compared for the two modes of transport at each site. The time interval between the decision to transfer and the actual departure time was shorter for patients transferred by land from all sites studied (mean 41.3 versus 89.7 minutes, p < 0.001). The travel time was shorter by helicopter from all sites (mean 58.4 versus 78.9 minutes, p < 0.001). The time between the decision to transfer and the arrival at the trauma center was similar at most sites but faster by land overall (mean 120.3 versus 150.0 minutes, p = 0.014). No threshold was detected beyond which helicopter transport was superior. Several factors other than the distance to be traveled determine the time required for interfacility transfer of trauma patients. A fixed distance threshold beyond which helicopter transport should be used does not exist. The decision as to which mode of transport to use for emergent trauma patient transfers should be based upon multiple factors including the distance traveled and ambulance availability, and must be individualized for each site that transfers patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · The Journal of trauma

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Critical Care Medicine

Publication Stats

88 Citations
48.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      • Division of Critical Care
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004-2015
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of General Surgery
      • • Division of Vascular Surgery
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Lawson Health Research Institute
      London, Ontario, Canada