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ABSTRACT: Bioassay/RIA-directed HPLC purification of a MeOH extract of the seeds of Xerophyllum tenax yielded 20-hydroxyecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone 2-β-d-glucopyranoside, the latter being a novel natural product. The structures were elucidated primarily on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic evidence. The ecdysteroid agonist activity of these isolates was determined on the BII tumorous blood cell line of Drosophila melanogaster. ED50 values for 20-hydroxyecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone 2-β-d-glucopyra-noside were found to be 8.0 × 10−9M and 1.3 × 10−4M, respectively. The significance of the presence of ecdysteroid conjugates in plants is discussed.