[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AAA-ATPase VCP (also known as p97 or CDC48) uses ATP hydrolysis to 'segregate' ubiquitylated proteins from their binding partners. VCP acts through UBX-domain-containing adaptors that provide target specificity, but the targets and functions of UBXD proteins remain poorly understood. Through systematic proteomic analysis of UBXD proteins in human cells, we reveal a network of over 195 interacting proteins, implicating VCP in diverse cellular pathways. We have explored one such complex between an unstudied adaptor UBXN10 and the intraflagellar transport B (IFT-B) complex, which regulates anterograde transport into cilia. UBXN10 localizes to cilia in a VCP-dependent manner and both VCP and UBXN10 are required for ciliogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP destabilized the IFT-B complex and increased trafficking rates. Depletion of UBXN10 in zebrafish embryos causes defects in left-right asymmetry, which depends on functional cilia. This study provides a resource for exploring the landscape of UBXD proteins in biology and identifies an unexpected requirement for VCP-UBXN10 in ciliogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ciliary kinase NEK8 plays a critical role in situs determination and cystic kidney disease, yet its exact function remains unknown. In this study, we identify ANKS6 as a target and activator of NEK8. ANKS6 requires NEK8 for localizing to the ciliary inversin compartment (IC) and activates NEK8 by binding to its kinase domain. Here we demonstrate the functional importance of this interaction through the analysis of two novel mouse mutations, Anks6(Streaker) and Nek8(Roc). Both display heterotaxy, cardiopulmonary malformations and cystic kidneys, a syndrome also characteristic of mutations in Invs and Nphp3, the other known components of the IC. The Anks6(Strkr) mutation decreases ANKS6 interaction with NEK8, precluding NEK8 activation. The Nek8(Roc) mutation inactivates NEK8 kinase function while preserving ANKS6 localization to the IC. Together, these data reveal the crucial role of NEK8 kinase activation within the IC, promoting proper left-right patterning, cardiopulmonary development and renal morphogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohorts with serial kidney function measurements within the CKDGen Consortium, followed by independent replication among additional participants from 13 cohorts. In stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at MEOX2, GALNT11, IL1RAP, NPPA, HPCAL1, and CDH23 showed the strongest associations for at least one trait, in addition to the known UMOD locus, which showed genome-wide significance with an annual change in eGFR. In stage 2 meta-analysis, the significant association at UMOD was replicated. Associations at GALNT11 with Rapid Decline (annual eGFR decline of 3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or more), and CDH23 with eGFR change among those with CKD showed significant suggestive evidence of replication. Combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analyses showed significance for UMOD, GALNT11, and CDH23. Morpholino knockdowns of galnt11 and cdh23 in zebrafish embryos each had signs of severe edema 72 h after gentamicin treatment compared with controls, but no gross morphological renal abnormalities before gentamicin administration. Thus, our results suggest a role in the deterioration of kidney function for the loci GALNT11 and CDH23, and show that the UMOD locus is significantly associated with kidney function decline.Kidney International advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.361.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel biomarkers are being investigated to identify patients with kidney disease. We measured a panel of 13 urinary biomarkers in participants from the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Using an Affymetrix chip with imputation to 2.5 M single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a GWAS of these biomarkers (n=2640) followed by exonic sequencing and genotyping. Functional studies in zebrafish were used to investigate histologic correlation with renal function. Across all 13 biomarkers, there were 97 significant SNPs at three loci. Lead SNPs at each locus were rs6555820 (P=6.7×10(-49); minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.49) in HAVCR1 (associated with kidney injury molecule-1), rs7565788 (P=2.15×10(-16); MAF=0.22) in LRP2 (associated with trefoil factor 3 [TFF3]), and rs11048230 (P=4.77×10(-8); MAF=0.10) in an intergenic region near RASSF8 (associated with vascular endothelial growth factor). Validation in the CKDGen Consortium (n=67,093) showed that only rs7565788 at LRP2, which encodes megalin, was associated with eGFR (P=0.003). Sequencing of exons 16-72 of LRP2 in 200 unrelated individuals at extremes of urinary TFF3 levels identified 197 variants (152 rare; MAF<0.05), 31 of which (27 rare) were nonsynonymous. In aggregate testing, rare variants were associated with urinary TFF3 levels (P=0.003), and the lead GWAS signal was not explained by these variants. Knockdown of LRP2 in zebrafish did not alter the renal phenotype in static or kidney injury models. In conclusion, this study revealed common variants associated with urinary levels of TFF3, kidney injury molecule-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor and identified a cluster of rare variants independently associated with TFF3.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic control of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function is increasingly understood; however, less is known about the interactions specifying the embryonic hematopoietic niche. Here, we report that 17β-estradiol (E2) influences production of runx1+ HSPCs in the AGM region by antagonizing VEGF signaling and subsequent assignment of hemogenic endothelial (HE) identity. Exposure to exogenous E2 during vascular niche development significantly disrupted flk1+ vessel maturation, ephrinB2+ arterial identity, and specification of scl+ HE by decreasing expression of VEGFAa and downstream arterial Notch-pathway components; heat shock induction of VEGFAa/Notch rescued E2-mediated hematovascular defects. Conversely, repression of endogenous E2 activity increased somitic VEGF expression and vascular target regulation, shifting assignment of arterial/venous fate and HE localization; blocking E2 signaling allowed venous production of scl+/runx1+ cells, independent of arterial identity acquisition. Together, these data suggest that yolk-derived E2 sets the ventral boundary of hemogenic vascular niche specification by antagonizing the dorsal-ventral regulatory limits of VEGF.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Developmental Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many pathways regulating blood formation have been elucidated, yet how each coordinates with embryonic biophysiology to modulate the spatio-temporal production of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is currently unresolved. Here, we report that glucose metabolism impacts the onset and magnitude of HSC induction in vivo. In zebrafish, transient elevations in physiological glucose levels elicited dose-dependent effects on HSC development, including enhanced runx1 expression and hematopoietic cluster formation in the Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros (AGM) region; embryonic-to-adult transplantation studies confirmed glucose increased functional HSCs. Glucose uptake was required to mediate the enhancement in HSC development; likewise, metabolic inhibitors diminished nascent HSC production and reversed glucose-mediated effects on HSCs. Increased glucose metabolism preferentially impacted hematopoietic and vascular targets, as determined by gene expression analysis, through mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated stimulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (hif1α); epistasis assays demonstrated hif1α regulates HSC formation in vivo and mediates the dose-dependent effects of glucose metabolism on the timing and magnitude of HSC production. We propose this fundamental metabolic-sensing mechanism enables the embryo to respond to changes in environmental energy input and adjust hematopoietic output to maintain embryonic growth and ensure viability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental signals determine organ morphology and position during embryogenesis. To discover novel modifiers of liver development, we performed a chemical genetic screen in zebrafish and identified retinoic acid as a positive regulator of hepatogenesis. Knockdown of the four RA receptors revealed that all receptors affect liver formation, however specific receptors exert differential effects. Rargb knockdown results in bilateral livers but does not impact organ size, revealing a unique role for Rargb in conferring left-right positional information. Bilateral populations of hepatoblasts are detectable in rargb morphants, indicating Rargb acts during hepatic specification to position the liver, and primitive endoderm is competent to form liver on both sides. Hearts remain at the midline and gut looping is perturbed in rargb morphants, suggesting Rargb affects lateral plate mesoderm migration. Overexpression of Bmp during somitogenesis similarly results in bilateral livers and midline hearts, and inhibition of Bmp signaling rescues the rargb morphant phenotype, indicating Rargb functions upstream of Bmp to regulate organ sidedness. Loss of rargb causes biliary and organ laterality defects as well as asplenia, paralleling symptoms of the human condition right atrial isomerism. Our findings uncover a novel role for RA in regulating organ laterality and provide an animal model of one form of human heterotaxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is increasing and an aggressive subtype of this disease is resistant to treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor. VEGFR2 promotes angiogenesis by triggering endothelial cell proliferation and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms governing VEGFR2 stability in vivo remain unknown. Additionally, whether VEGFR2 influences PTC cell migration is not clear. We show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCF(β-TRCP) promotes ubiquitination and destruction of VEGFR2 in a casein kinase I (CKI)-dependent manner. β-TRCP knockdown or CKI inhibition causes accumulation of VEGFR2, resulting in increased activity of signaling pathways downstream of VEGFR2. β-TRCP-depleted endothelial cells exhibit enhanced migration and angiogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, β-TRCP knockdown increased angiogenesis and vessel branching in zebrafish. Importantly, we found an inverse correlation between β-TRCP protein levels and angiogenesis in PTC. We also show that β-TRCP inhibits cell migration and decreases sensitivity to the VEGFR2 inhibitor sorafenib in poorly differentiated PTC cells. These results provide a new biomarker that may aid a rational use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to treat refractory PTC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic mapping of mutations in model systems has facilitated the identification of genes contributing to fundamental biological processes including human diseases. However, this approach has historically required the prior characterization of informative markers. Here we report a fast and cost-effective method for genetic mapping using next-generation sequencing that combines single nucleotide polymorphism discovery, mutation localization, and potential identification of causal sequence variants. In contrast to prior approaches, we have developed a hidden Markov model to narrowly define the mutation area by inferring recombination breakpoints of chromosomes in the mutant pool. In addition, we created an interactive online software resource to facilitate automated analysis of sequencing data and demonstrate its utility in the zebrafish and mouse models. Our novel methodology and online tools will make next-generation sequencing an easily applicable resource for mutation mapping in all model systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health problem with a hereditary component. We performed a new genome-wide association study in up to 130,600 European ancestry individuals to identify genes that may influence kidney function, specifically genes that may influence kidney function differently depending on sex, age, hypertension, and diabetes status of individuals. We uncovered 6 new loci associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the primary measure of renal function, in or near MPPED2, DDX1, SLC47A1, CDK12, CASP9, and INO80. CDK12 effect was stronger in younger and absent in older individuals. MPPED2, DDX1, SLC47A1, and CDK12 loci were associated with eGFR in African ancestry samples as well, highlighting the cross-ethnicity validity of our findings. Using the zebrafish model, we performed morpholino knockdown of mpped2 and casp9 in zebrafish embryos and revealed podocyte and tubular abnormalities with altered dextran clearance, suggesting a role for these genes in renal function. These results further our understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD and provide insights into potential novel mechanisms of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA), and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and microalbuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B). Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3). In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value = 5.3×10(-7)) and FNDC1 (p-value = 3.0×10(-7)) for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p = 3.6×10(-6)). Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, messenger RNAs in eukaryotes have shown to associate with antisense (AS) transcript partners that are often referred to as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose function is largely unknown. Here, we have identified a natural AS transcript for tyrosine kinase containing immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain-1 (tie-1), tie-1AS lncRNA in zebrafish, mouse, and humans. In embryonic zebrafish, tie-1AS lncRNA transcript is expressed temporally and spatially in vivo with its native target, the tie-1 coding transcript and in additional locations (ear and brain). The tie-1AS lncRNA selectively binds tie-1 mRNA in vivo and regulates tie-1 transcript levels, resulting in specific defects in endothelial cell contact junctions in vivo and in vitro. The ratio of tie-1 versus tie-1AS lncRNA is altered in human vascular anomaly samples. These results directly implicate noncoding RNA-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression as a fundamental control mechanism for physiologic processes, such as vascular development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases play an integral role in several cellular processes. To regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases, cells express members of a counteracting group of proteins called phosphatases. In this study, we have identified a specific role that one member of this family of phosphatases, dual-specific phosphatase-5 (Dusp-5) plays in vascular development in vivo. We have determined that dusp-5 is expressed in angioblasts and in established vasculature and that it counteracts the function of a serine threonine kinase, Snrk-1, which also plays a functional role in angioblast development. Together, Dusp-5 and Snrk-1 control angioblast populations in the lateral plate mesoderm with Dusp-5 functioning downstream of Snrk-1. Importantly, mutations in dusp-5 and snrk-1 have been identified in affected tissues of patients with vascular anomalies, implicating the Snrk-1-Dusp-5 signaling pathway in human disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vertebrates, molecular mechanisms dictate angioblasts' migration and subsequent differentiation into arteries and veins. In this study, we used a microarray screen to identify a novel member of the sucrose nonfermenting related kinase (snrk-1) family of serine/threonine kinases expressed specifically in the embryonic zebrafish vasculature and investigated its function in vivo. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies in vivo, we show that Snrk-1 plays an essential role in the migration, maintenance, and differentiation of angioblasts. The kinase function of Snrk-1 is critical for migration and maintenance, but not for the differentiation of angioblasts. In vitro, snrk-1 knockdown endothelial cells show only defects in migration. The snrk-1 gene acts downstream or parallel to notch and upstream of gridlock during artery-vein specification, and the human gene compensates for zebrafish snrk-1 knockdown, suggesting evolutionary conservation of function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rho GTPases play an important and versatile role in several biological processes. In this study, we identified the zebrafish ortholog of the mammalian Rho A guanine exchange factor, synectin-binding guanine exchange factor (Syx), and determined its in vivo function in the zebrafish and the mouse. We found that Syx is expressed specifically in the vasculature of these organisms. Loss-of-function studies in the zebrafish and mouse point to a specific role for Syx in angiogenic sprouting in the developing vascular bed. Importantly, vasculogenesis and angioblast differentiation steps were unaffected in syx knockdown zebrafish embryos, and the vascular sprouting defects were partially rescued by the mouse ortholog. Syx knockdown in vitro impairs vascular endothelial growth factor-A-induced endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. We have also uncovered a potential mechanism of endothelial sprout guidance in which angiomotin, a component of endothelial cell junctions, plays an additive role with Syx in directing endothelial sprouts. These results identify Syx as an essential contributor to angiogenesis in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Circulation Research