[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-throughput CRISPR screens have shown great promise in functional genomics. We present MAGeCK-VISPR, a comprehensive quality control (QC), analysis, and visualization workflow for CRISPR screens. MAGeCK-VISPR defines a set of QC measures to assess the quality of an experiment, and includes a maximum-likelihood algorithm to call essential genes simultaneously under multiple conditions. The algorithm uses a generalized linear model to deconvolute different effects, and employs expectation-maximization to iteratively estimate sgRNA knockout efficiency and gene essentiality. MAGeCK-VISPR also includes VISPR, a framework for the interactive visualization and exploration of QC and analysis results. MAGeCK-VISPR is freely available at http://bitbucket.org/liulab/mageck-vispr .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implications:
The direct collaboration between EZH2 and Rb/E2F1 pathway provides an innovative mechanism underlying the cascade of tumor progression, and lays the foundation for the development of new anticancer targets/strategies.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 17 complex diseases and traits with an average sample size of 73,599. To enable this analysis, we introduce a new method, stratified LD score regression, for partitioning heritability from GWAS summary statistics while accounting for linked markers. This new method is computationally tractable at very large sample sizes and leverages genome-wide information. Our findings include a large enrichment of heritability in conserved regions across many traits, a very large immunological disease-specific enrichment of heritability in FANTOM5 enhancers and many cell type-specific enrichments, including significant enrichment of central nervous system cell types in the heritability of body mass index, age at menarche, educational attainment and smoking behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRISPR/CAS9 system has revolutionized mammalian somatic cell genetics. Genome-wide functional screens employing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout or dCas9 fusion-mediated inhibition/activation (CRISPRi/a) are powerful techniques for discovering phenotype-associated gene function. We systematically assessed the DNA sequence features that contribute to single guide RNA (sgRNA) efficiency in CRISPR-based screens. Leveraging the information from multiple designs, we derived a new sequence model for predicting sgRNA efficiency in CRISPR/Cas9 knockout experiments. Our model confirmed known features, and suggested new features including a preference for cytosine at the cleavage site. The model was experimentally validated for sgRNA-mediated mutation rate and protein knockout efficiency. Tested on independent datasets, the model achieved significant results in both positive and negative selection conditions, and outperformed existing models. We also found that the sequence preference for CRISPRi/a is substantially different from that for CRISPR/Cas9 knockout and propose a new model for predicting sgRNA efficiency in CRISPRi/a experiments. These results facilitate the genome-wide design of improved sgRNA for both knockout and CRISPRi/a studies.
Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose the Model-based Analysis of Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout (MAGeCK) method for prioritizing single-guide RNAs, genes and pathways in genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens. MAGeCK demonstrates better performance compared with existing methods, identifies both positively and negatively selected genes simultaneously, and reports robust results across different experimental conditions. Using public datasets, MAGeCK identified novel essential genes and pathways, including EGFR in vemurafenib-treated A375 cells harboring a BRAF mutation. MAGeCK also detected cell type-specific essential genes, including BCR and ABL1, in KBM7 cells bearing a BCR-ABL fusion, and IGF1R in HL-60 cells, which depends on the insulin signaling pathway for proliferation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0554-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a statistical algorithm MethylPurify that uses regions with bisulfite reads showing discordant methylation levels to infer tumor purity from tumor samples alone. MethylPurify can identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from individual tumor methylome samples, without genomic variation information or prior knowledge from other datasets. In simulations with mixed bisulfite reads from cancer and normal cell lines, MethylPurify correctly inferred tumor purity and identified over 96% of the DMRs. From patient data, MethylPurify gave satisfactory DMR calls from tumor methylome samples alone, and revealed potential missed DMRs by tumor to normal comparison due to tumor heterogeneity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0419-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequencing of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DNase-seq) is a powerful technique for identifying cis-regulatory elements across the genome. We studied the key experimental parameters to optimize performance of DNase-seq. Sequencing short fragments of 50-100 base pairs (bp) that accumulate in long internucleosome linker regions was more efficient for identifying transcription factor binding sites compared to sequencing longer fragments. We also assessed the potential of DNase-seq to predict transcription factor occupancy via generation of nucleotide-resolution transcription factor footprints. In modeling the sequence-specific DNase I cutting bias, we found a strong effect that varied over more than two orders of magnitude. This indicates that the nucleotide-resolution cleavage patterns at many transcription factor binding sites are derived from intrinsic DNase I cleavage bias rather than from specific protein-DNA interactions. In contrast, quantitative comparison of DNase I hypersensitivity between states can predict transcription factor occupancy associated with particular biological perturbations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If trait-associated variants alter regulatory regions, then they should fall within chromatin marks in relevant cell types. However, it is unclear which of the many marks are most useful in defining cell types associated with disease and fine mapping variants. We hypothesized that informative marks are phenotypically cell type specific; that is, SNPs associated with the same trait likely overlap marks in the same cell type. We examined 15 chromatin marks and found that those highlighting active gene regulation were phenotypically cell type specific. Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) was the most phenotypically cell type specific (P < 1 × 10(-6)), driven by colocalization of variants and marks rather than gene proximity (P < 0.001). H3K4me3 peaks overlapped with 37 SNPs for plasma low-density lipoprotein concentration in the liver (P < 7 × 10(-5)), 31 SNPs for rheumatoid arthritis within CD4(+) regulatory T cells (P = 1 × 10(-4)), 67 SNPs for type 2 diabetes in pancreatic islet cells (P = 0.003) and the liver (P = 0.003), and 14 SNPs for neuropsychiatric disease in neuronal tissues (P = 0.007). We show how cell type-specific H3K4me3 peaks can inform the fine mapping of associated SNPs to identify causal variation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic regulators represent a promising new class of therapeutic targets for cancer. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), silences gene expression via its histone methyltransferase activity. We found that the oncogenic function of EZH2 in cells of castration-resistant prostate cancer is independent of its role as a transcriptional repressor. Instead, it involves the ability of EZH2 to act as a coactivator for critical transcription factors including the androgen receptor. This functional switch is dependent on phosphorylation of EZH2 and requires an intact methyltransferase domain. Hence, targeting the non-PRC2 function of EZH2 may have therapeutic efficacy for treating metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone modifications play important roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and have been used to model expression
levels. Here, we present a regression model to systematically infer mRNA stability by comparing transcriptome profiles with
ChIP-seq of H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3. The results from multiple human and mouse cell lines show that the inferred unstable
mRNAs have significantly longer 3′Untranslated Regions (UTRs) and more microRNA binding sites within 3′UTR than the inferred
stable mRNAs. Regression residuals derived from RNA-seq, but not from GRO-seq, are highly correlated with the half-lives measured
by pulse-labeling experiments, supporting the rationale of our inference. Whereas, the functions enriched in the inferred
stable and unstable mRNAs are consistent with those from pulse-labeling experiments, we found the unstable mRNAs have higher
cell-type specificity under functional constraint. We conclude that the systematical use of histone modifications can differentiate
non-expressed mRNAs from unstable mRNAs, and distinguish stable mRNAs from highly expressed ones. In summary, we represent
the first computational model of mRNA stability inference that compares transcriptome and epigenome profiles, and provides
an alternative strategy for directing experimental measurements.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nucleic Acids Research