[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are effective in treating myocardial infarction (MI) and previous reports demonstrated that hypoxia improves MSC self-renewal and therapeutics. Considering that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of the adaptative response to hypoxia, we hypothesized that HIF-1α overexpression in MSC could mimic some of the mechanisms triggered by hypoxia and increase their therapeutic potential without hypoxia stimulation. Transduction of MSC with HIF-1α lentivirus vectors (MSC-HIF) resulted in increased cell adhesion and migration, and activation of target genes coding for paracrine factors. When MSC-HIF were intramyocardially injected in infarcted nude rats, significant improvement was found (after treatment of infarcted rats with MSC-HIF) in terms of cardiac function, angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte proliferation, and reduction of fibrotic tissue with no induction of cardiac hypertrophy. This finding provides evidences for a crucial role of HIF-1α on MSC biology and suggests the stabilization of HIF-1α as a novel strategy for cellular therapies.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells are often transplanted into inflammatory environments where they are able to survive and modulate host immune responses through a poorly understood mechanism. In this paper we analyzed the responses of MSC to IL-1β: a representative inflammatory mediator. Microarray analysis of MSC treated with IL-1β revealed that this cytokine activateds a set of genes related to biological processes such as cell survival, cell migration, cell adhesion, chemokine production, induction of angiogenesis and modulation of the immune response. Further more detailed analysis by real-time PCR and functional assays revealed that IL-1β mainly increaseds the production of chemokines such as CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CX3CL1, interleukins IL-6, IL-8, IL23A, IL32, Toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4, CLDN1, metalloproteins MMP1 and MMP3, growth factors CSF2 and TNF-α, together with adhesion molecules ICAM1 and ICAM4. Functional analysis of MSC proliferation, migration and adhesion to extracellular matrix components revealed that IL-1β did not affect proliferation but also served to induce the secretion of trophic factors and adhesion to ECM components such as collagen and laminin. IL-1β treatment enhanced the ability of MSC to recruit monocytes and granulocytes in vitro. Blockade of NF-κβ transcription factor activation with IκB kinase beta (IKKβ) shRNA impaired MSC migration, adhesion and leucocyte recruitment, induced by IL-1β demonstrating that NF-κB pathway is an important downstream regulator of these responses. These findings are relevant to understanding the biological responses of MSC to inflammatory environments.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12015-012-9364-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Stem cell reviews