Koichi Fujikawa

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

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Publications (8)31.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential transcriptional regulator of osteoblast differentiation and its haploinsufficiency leads to cleidocranial dysplasia because of a defect in osteoblast differentiation during bone formation through intramembranous ossification. The cellular origin and essential period for Runx2 function during osteoblast differentiation in intramembranous ossification remain poorly understood. Paired related homeobox 1 (Prx1) is expressed in craniofacial mesenchyme, and Runx2 deficiency in Prx1(+)-derived cells (Runx2prx1 (-/-) mice) resulted in defective intramembranous ossification. Runx2 was heterogeneously expressed in Prx1-green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) cells located at the intrasutural mesenchyme in the calvaria of transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the Prx1 promoter. Double-positive cells for Prx1-GFP and stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1) (Prx1(+)Sca1(+) cells) in the calvaria expressed Runx2 at lower levels and were more homogeneous and primitive as compared with Prx1(+)Sca1(-) cells. Osterix (Osx) is another transcriptional determinant of osteoblast lineages expressed by osteoblast precursors; therefore, Osx is highly expressed by Prx1(-)Runx2(+) cells at the osteogenic front and on the surface of mineralized bone in the calvaria. Runx2 deficiency in Osx(+)-derived cells (Runx2osx (-/-) mice) resulted in severe defects in intramembranous ossification. These findings indicate that the essential period of Runx2 function on intramembranous ossification would begin at the Prx1(+)Sca1(+) mesenchymal stem cell stage and end at the Osx(+)Prx1(-)Sca1(-) osteoblast precursor stage.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Development
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    ABSTRACT: Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Although interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) has been identified as a transcriptional coactivator/repressor in various cells, little attention has been paid to its role in osteoblastogenesis and bone homeostasis thus far. Here, we show that Ifrd1 is a critical mediator of both the cell-autonomous regulation of osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblast-specific deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, causing high bone mass. Ifrd1 deficiency enhanced osteoblast differentiation and maturation along with increased expression of Runx2 and Osterix (Osx). Mechanistically, Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation status of p65, a component of NF-κB, at residues K122 and K123 via the attenuation of the interaction between p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC). This led to the nuclear export of p65 and a decrease in NF-κB-dependent Smad7 expression and the subsequent enhancement of Smad1/Smad5/Smad8-dependent transcription. Moreover, a high bone mass phenotype in the osteoblast-specific deletion of Ifrd1 was markedly rescued by the introduction of one Osx-floxed allele but not of Runx2-floxed allele. Coculture experiments revealed that Ifrd1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher osteoprotegerin (Opg) expression and a lower ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Ifrd1 deficiency attenuated the interaction between β-catenin and HDAC, subsequently increasing the acetylation of β-catenin at K49, leading to its nuclear accumulation and the activation of the β-catenin-dependent transcription of Opg. Collectively, the expression of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts repressed osteoblastogenesis and activated osteoclastogenesis through modulating the NF-κB/Smad/Osx and β-catenin/OPG pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that Ifrd1 has a pivotal role in bone homeostasis through its expression in osteoblasts in vivo and represents a therapeutic target for bone diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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    ABSTRACT: Several chemicals have been widely used to evaluate the involvement of free Ca2+ in mechanisms underlying a variety of biological responses for decades. Here, we report high reactivity to zinc of well-known Ca2+-sensitive reagents in diverse cultured cells. In rat astrocytic C6 glioma cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ dye Fluo-3, the addition of ZnCl2 gradually increased the fluorescence intensity in a manner sensitive to the Ca2+ chelator EGTA irrespective of added CaCl2. The addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 drastically increased Fluo-3 fluorescence in the absence of ZnCl2, while the addition of the Zn2+ ionophore pyrithione rapidly and additionally increased the fluorescence in the presence of ZnCl2, but not in its absence. In cells loaded with the zinc dye FluoZin-3 along with Fluo-3, a similarly gradual increase was seen in the fluorescence of Fluo-3, but not of FluoZin-3, in the presence of both CaCl2 and ZnCl2. Further addition of pyrithione drastically increased the fluorescence intensity of both dyes, while the addition of the Zn2+ chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) rapidly and drastically decreased FluoZin-3 fluorescence. In cells loaded with FluoZin-3 alone, the addition of ZnCl2 induced a gradual increase in the fluorescence in a fashion independent of added CaCl2 but sensitive to EGTA. Significant inhibition was found in the vitality to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide in a manner sensitive to TPEN, EDTA and BAPTA in C6 glioma cells exposed to ZnCl2, with pyrithione accelerating the inhibition. Similar inhibition occurred in an EGTA-sensitive fashion after brief exposure to ZnCl2 in pluripotent P19 cells, neuronal Neuro2A cells and microglial BV2 cells, which all expressed mRNA for particular zinc transporters. Taken together, comprehensive analysis is absolutely required for the demonstration of a variety of physiological and pathological responses mediated by Ca2+ in diverse cells enriched of Zn2+.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown the involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in the cytotoxicity by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) through a mechanism relevant to the increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in HEK293 cells with acquired NMDAR channels. Here, we evaluated pharmacological profiles of ethanol on the NMDA-induced increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in cultured murine neocortical neurons. In neurons exposed to glutamate or NMDA, a significant increase was seen in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels determined by Rhod-2 at concentrations of 0.1 to 100 µM. Further addition of 250 mM ethanol significantly inhibited the increase by glutamate and NMDA in Rhod-2 fluorescence, while similarly potent inhibition of the NMDA-induced increase was seen after exposure to ethanol at 50 to 250 mM in cultured neurons. Lentiviral overexpression of UCP2 significantly accelerated the increase by NMDA in Rhod-2 fluorescence in neurons, without affecting Fluo-3 fluorescence for intracellular Ca(2+) levels. In neurons overexpressing UCP2, exposure to ethanol resulted in significantly more effective inhibition of the NMDA-induced increase in mitochondrial free Ca(2+) levels than in those without UCP2 overexpression, despite a similarly efficient increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels irrespective of UCP2 overexpression. Overexpression of UCP2 significantly increased the number of dead cells in a manner prevented by ethanol in neurons exposed to glutamate. In HEK293 cells with NMDAR containing GluN2B subunit, more efficient inhibition was similarly induced by ethanol at 50 and 250 mM on the NMDA-induced increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels than in those with GluN2A subunit. Decreased protein levels of GluN2B, but not GluN2A, subunit were seen in immunoprecipitates with UCP2 from neurons with brief exposure to ethanol at concentrations over 50 mM. Ethanol could inhibit the interaction between UCP2 and NMDAR channels to prevent the mitochondrial Ca(2+) incorporation and cell death after NMDAR activation in neurons.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanisms are still unclear for the neuroprotective properties of nicotine to date, whereas we have shown functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) responsible for the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of astrocytic nAChRs in the neuroprotection by this agonist. Exposure to nicotine predominantly induced mRNA expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) among the different neurotrophic factors examined in cultured astrocytes, in a manner sensitive to nAChR antagonists, nifedipine, and aCa(2+) chelator. Nicotine significantly increased GDNF in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured astrocytes but not in neurons or neural progenitors even at the highest concentration used. In cultured astrocytes, a transient increase was seen in the expression of mRNA and corresponding protein for GDNF during sustained exposure to nicotine for 24 hr. Cytotoxicity mediated by oxidative, calcium, mitochondrial, or endoplasmic reticulum stress was invariably protected against in cortical neurons cultured with conditioned medium from astrocytes previously exposed to nicotine, and preincubation with the anti-GDNF antibody reduced the neuroprotection by conditioned medium from astrocytes exposed to nicotine. Intraperitoneal administration of nicotine transiently increased the number of cells immunoreactive for both GDNF and glial fibrillary acidic protein in rat cerebral cortex. These results suggest that astrocytic nAChRs play a role in the neuroprotection against different cytotoxins after predominant upregulation of GDNF expression through a mechanism relevant to the acceleration of extracellular Ca(2+) influx in rat brain in a particular situation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotic damage leads to a massive leakage from injured cells of different intracellular constituents such as glutamate (Glu) and ATP, which are believed to play a role in the neuronal survival in the brain. In this study, we evaluated pharmacological properties of ATP, which is shown to be an endogenous inhibitor of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, on the neurotoxicity relevant to mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Exposure to Glu or NMDA significantly inhibited cellular viability determined 24 and 48 h later, while simultaneous addition of 1 mM ATP significantly ameliorated the decreased viability in neurons exposed to Glu and NMDA, but not in those exposed to other cytotoxins. Both Glu and NMDA markedly increased intracellular free Ca(2+) levels in a manner sensitive to blockade by the exposure to ATP, but not by that to adenosine. Exposure to ATP significantly delayed the rate of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption induced by Glu and NMDA. These results suggest that extracellular ATP would play a role as an endogenous antagonist endowed to protect rat hippocampal neurons from the excitotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors in association with the delayed mitochondrial membrane potential disruption after the liberation from adjacent cells under necrotic death.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown the possible involvement of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity seen after activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate a pivotal role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) as a determinant of the NMDA neurotoxicity by using acquired NMDAR channels artificially orchestrated in HEK293 cells. In cells with overexpression of UCP2, immunoreactive UCP2 was exclusively detected at intracellular locations stained with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. In cells with acquired NMDAR channels, exposure to either NMDA or the calcium ionophore A23187 similarly led to a significant increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels determined by Fluo-3 imaging irrespective of the overexpression of UCP2. By contrast, NMDA, but not A23187, was significantly more effective in increasing mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels determined by Rhod-2 fluorescence imaging in cells transfected with NMDAR subunit and UCP2 expression vectors than in those without UCP2 overexpression. Overexpression of UCP2 significantly increased the number of cells stained with propidium iodide in cultures with acquired NMDAR channels, but failed to significantly affect that in cells exposed to A23187. Immunocytochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses similarly revealed the possible interaction between GluN1 subunit and UCP2 in HEK293 cells with acquired NMDAR channels and UCP2 overexpression. These results suggest that UCP2 could play a role as a determinant of the neurotoxicity mediated by NMDAR through a mechanism related to the unidentified interaction with the essential GluN1 subunit toward modulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels in neurons.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Neurochemistry International