Liang-Ming Whang

National Cheng Kung University, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (39)128.08 Total impact

  • Hai-Hsuan Cheng · Liang-Ming Whang · Man-Chien Chung · Kun-Chi Chan
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the recovery of H2 and CH4 from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues (bagasse BEFR) using a two-stage bioprocess. In the hydrogen fermentation bioreactor (HFB), carbohydrate removal efficiency was maintained at 82–93% and the highest hydrogen yield was 8.24 mL/g COD at volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 80 kg COD/m3/day. The results indicated a positive correlation between hydrogen yield and butyrate-to-acetate ratio, which might be due to the mechanisms of lactate/acetate utilization for hydrogen production and acetogenesis occurring in the HFB. Remaining volatile fatty acids and alcohols in the HFB effluent were further utilized for methane production in methane fermentation bioreactor (MFB), in which the highest methane yield of 345.2 mL/g COD was attained at VLR of 2.5 kg COD/m3/day. Overall, the two-stage bioprocess achieved a maximum COD removal of 81% from bagasse BEFR, and converted 0.3% and 72.8% of COD in the forms of H2 and CH4, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Bioresource Technology
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    Hwang-Jen Chang · Tsair-Fuh Lin · Liang-Ming Whang · Yi-Ju Wu
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, water, and fish was studied for 55 fish farms near a contaminated site in Tainan, Taiwan. Samples were collected from the farms and analyzed for seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners. High correlations were found between PCDD/Fs in water and sediment in regard to both concentration and toxicity (R(2) = 0.933 for concentration and R(2) = 0.832 for toxicity). The congener profiles of the 17 PCDD/Fs in water were similar to those in the sediment. However, the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish belly samples were different from those in the sediment and water samples obtained from the same fish farm and were also different among the fish samples. It is thus suggested that the biotic PCDD/Fs distribution is more complex than the abiotic PCDD/Fs distribution. Among the seven factors analyzed, only the lipid percentage presented a relationship with the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish bellies. A multiple linear regression of the concentration of each congener in the fish was conducted using the concentration of each congener in the site-matched sediment and the lipid content of the fish as independent variables. The results showed that only seven PCDD/Fs congeners with a lower degree of chlorination, which were 4-6 chlorine substitutes, in the fish presented a significant correlation with the lipid content in the fish and their concentration in sediment (r > 0.65, P < 0.005 for both independent variables). In addition, the octanol-water partition coefficients were not significantly related to this distribution behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
  • Hai-Hsuan Cheng · Liang-Ming Whang · Shu-Hsien Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2 , or CH4 , from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biotechnology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Piggery wastewater is a potent nutrient source for microalgal lipid production. Wastewater has been usually sterilized when used for microalgal cultivation. This is uneconomical in large-scale applications. Therefore, lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris CY5 using sterilized and non-sterilized diluted anaerobically pretreated piggery wastewater was studied in batch reactors. The maximum average lipid productivity was obtained after 12 days of incubation and it was higher with the sterilized wastewater than with the non-sterilized one (117 g/L/d vs. 91.3 g/L/d), due to the higher biomass concentration. Because of the unexpected increase of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the cultures, second experiment was conducted to characterize the composition of produced DOC in non-sterilized wastewater. Carbohydrate content increased in the liquid phase but decreased in the biomass after nitrogen had been exhausted. After 12 days of incubation, soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) was 414 ± 56 mg/L, biomass production was 2.8 ± 0.15 g/L, and lipid content was 30.3 ± 1.2 wt%. Average lipid productivity from day zero to day 12 was 70.5 ± 1.1 g/L/d. C. vulgaris removed nutrients from the non-sterilized wastewater and produced oleaginous biomass, although the lipid productivity was higher with sterilized wastewater.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Biochemical Engineering Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to select a potential microalgal strain for lipid production and to examine the suitability of anaerobically treated piggery wastewater as a nutrient source for production of lipid-rich biomass with the selected microalga. Biomass and lipid productivity of three microalgal strains (Chlorella sorokiniana CY1, Chlorella vulgaris CY5 and Chlamydomonas sp. JSC-04) were compared by using different media, nitrogen sources, and nitrogen concentrations. The highest lipid content and productivity (62.5wt%, 162mg/L/d) were obtained with C. vulgaris with BG-11 with 62mgN/L. Secondly, C. vulgaris was cultivated in sterilized, diluted (1-20×), anaerobically treated piggery wastewater. Biomass production decreased and lipid content increased, when wastewater was more diluted. The highest lipid content of 54.7wt% was obtained with 20× dilution, while the highest lipid productivity of 100.7mg/L/d with 5× dilution. Piggery wastewater is a promising resource for mass production of oleaginous microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Microalgae can be used as a biological photocatalyst to reduce the CO 2 levels in the atmosphere, with the advantage of not competing with food crops for arable land, and thus offer a potential method for limiting climate change. Microalgae have also been proposed as a sustainable fuel source. This study investigated the microalgae harvest yields, the thermogravimetric behavior of both microalgae oil and microalgae residue, the torrefaction of microalgae residue, and diesel engine tests using diesel-microalgae biodiesel blends. The mean annual harvest rate of microalgae oil in open ponds was found to be 4355 kg per 10000 m
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Aerosol and Air Quality Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study conducted batch experiments to evaluate the potential of butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The results indicated that with 90g/L of glucose as the sole substrate the highest butanol yield of 0.2g/g-glucose was found, but the addition of butyrate significantly enhanced the butanol yield. The highest butanol yield of 0.4g/g-glucose was found with 60g/L of glucose and 18g/L of butyrate. Using microalgae biodiesel residues as substrate, C. acetobutylicum produced 3.86g/L of butanol and achieved butanol yield of 0.13g/g-carbohydrate via ABE fermentation, but the results indicated that approximately one third of carbohydrate was not utilized by C. acetobutylicum. Biological butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues can be possible, but further research on fermentation strategies are required to improve production yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: This study presented an approach by combining the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) to investigate transcriptional responses of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) inhibition. Batch experiments with added ammonium and DMS were conducted using three activated sludges and Nitrosomonas europaea, and the transcriptional responses of the amo subunit A (amoA) mRNA were evaluated. It was found that DMS inhibited ammonium oxidation and amoA mRNA expression in all batch experiments but the inhibition degree observed was different for different sludges examined. It is likely that the different inhibitory effects of DMS on ammonium oxidation and amoA mRNA expression stemmed from different dominant AOB populations in the sludges. The T-RFLP results for amoA mRNA suggested that inhibition of ammonium oxidation by DMS to Nm. europaea-like AOB with T-RF 219/270 is relatively minor compared to other AOB populations in the examined sludges, such as Nm. europaea-like AOB with T-RF 491/491.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Bioresource Technology
  • Hai-Hsuan Cheng · Liang-Ming Whang · Che-An Lin · I-Chun Liu · Chao-Wei Wu
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    ABSTRACT: This study applies metabolic flux network analysis (MFA) to evaluate the metabolic flux of fermentative hydrogen production (FHP) with the use of Clostridium tyrobutyricum fed with either glucose or lactate/acetate as substrates. The MFA results suggest that hydraulic retention time (HRT) presents significant impact on hydrogen production from glucose. At HRT between 4 and 18h, increase of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production, while at HRT below 4h decrease of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production. The flux for lactate, butyrate and acetate seemed to affect H2 production, due presumably to their impacts on the balance of NADH, ferredoxin and ATP. It is suggested that the MFA can be a useful tool to provide valuable information for optimization and design of the fermentative hydrogen production process.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the linkage between performance of two full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater and the population dynamics of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/dimethylsulfide (DMS) degrading bacteria. High DMSO degradation efficiencies were achieved in both MBRs, while the levels of nitrification inhibition due to DMS production from DMSO degradation were different in the two MBRs. The results of real-time PCR targeting on DMSO/DMS degrading populations, including Hyphomicrobium and Thiobacillus spp., indicated that a higher DMSO oxidation efficiency occurred at a higher Hyphomicrobium spp. abundance in the systems, suggesting that Hyphomicrobium spp. may be more important for complete DMSO oxidation to sulfate compared with Thiobacillus spp. Furthermore, Thiobacillus spp. was more abundant during poor nitrification, while Hyphomicrobium spp. was more abundant during good nitrification. It is suggested that microbial population of DMSO/DMS degrading bacteria is closely linking to both DMSO/DMS degradation efficiency and nitrification performance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated impact of food to microorganism (F/M) ratio and colloidal chemical oxygen demand (COD) on nitrification performance in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating monoethanolamine (MEA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-containing thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater. Poor nitrification was observed under high organic loading and high colloidal COD conditions, suggesting that high F/M ratio and colloidal COD situations should be avoided to minimize their negative impacts on nitrification. According to the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) statistical analyses on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, the occurrence of Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was positively related to successful nitrification in the MBR systems, while Nitrosomonas europaea-like AOB was positively linked to nitrification rate, which can be attributed to the high influent total nitrogen condition. Furthermore, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were both abundant in the MBR systems, but the continuously low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Bioresource Technology
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    Yi-Ju Wu · Liang-Ming Whang · Toshikazu Fukushima · Shao-Hsiung Chang
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    ABSTRACT: The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and archaea were investigated in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant where the wastewater conductivity level varied considerably (due to seawater salinity intrusion) during this study between 2004 and 2007. Based on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, an increase in the ammonia oxidizing bacteria amoA gene copies occurred with a decrease in the wastewater salinity level. A corresponding decrease in the average ammonia-oxidizing archaea to bacteria ratio, from 1.22 (2004 and 2005), 0.17 (2006), and then to 0.07 (2007), was observed. Phylogenetic analyses on amoA gene sequences indicated that Nitrosomonas marina-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1a (marina group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea were dominant when the wastewater salinity level fluctuated at high values with an average of 4.83 practical salinity unit (psu), while Nitrosomonas urea-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1b (soil group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea became dominant when the wastewater salinity decreased to a more stable lower level with an average of 1.93 psu. Based on the amoA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, results from this study demonstrated that the observed shift in ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea populations is likely caused by a change of the wastewater salinity level.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the hypothesis that different inorganic carbon (IC) conditions enrich different ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) populations by operating two laboratory-scale continuous-flow bioreactors fed with 15 and 100 mg IC/L, respectively. During this study, both bioreactors maintained satisfactory nitrification performance and stably oxidized 250 mg N/L of influent ammonium without nitrite accumulation. Based on results of cloning/sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene, Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage was identified as the dominant AOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage AOB were dominant in the low-IC bioreactor. Results of real-time polymerase chain reactions for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira 16S rRNA genes indicated that Nitrospira was the predominant NOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrobacter was the dominant NOB in the low-IC bioreactor. Furthermore, batch experiment results suggest that N. europaea and Nitrobacter populations are proliferated in the low-IC bioreactor due to their higher rates under low IC conditions despite the fact that these two populations have been identified as weak competitors, compared with N. nitrosa and Nitrospira, under low ammonium/nitrite environments. This study revealed that in addition to ammonium/nitrite concentrations, limited IC conditions may also be important in selecting dominant AOB/NOB communities of nitrifying bioreactors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated nitrification performance and nitrifying community in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating TFT-LCD wastewater. For the A/O MBR system treating monoethanolamine (MEA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), no nitrification was observed, due presumably to high organic loading, high colloidal COD, low DO, and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions. By including additional A/O or O/A tanks, the A/O/A/O MBR and the O/A/O MBR were able to perform successful nitrification. The real-time PCR results for quantification of nitrifying populations showed a high correlation to nitrification performance, and can be a good indicator of stable nitrification. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of functional gene, amoA, suggest that Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like AOB seemed to be important to a good nitrification in the MBR system. In the MBR system, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like NOB were both abundant, but the low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Bioresource Technology
  • Chao-Wei Wu · Liang-Ming Whang · Hai-Hsuan Cheng · Kan-Chi Chan
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Bioresource Technology
  • Hai-Hsuan Cheng · Liang-Ming Whang · Chao-Wei Wu · Man-Chien Chung
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of supplementary carbon addition for the treatment of high-technology industrial wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR was operated for 302 days under different C/N (BOD(L)/NH(4)(+)-N) ratios, i.e. 0.9-1 to 20 days, 1.6-21 to 42 days, 2.9-43 to 82 days, 3.6-83 to 141 days, 4.8-165 to 233 days and 9.3-240 to 302 days. Irrespective of the C/N ratios investigated, SS and BOD(5) removal efficiencies were above 95% and above 80% COD removal efficiency was observed. In addition, complete nitrification was observed throughout the investigation. However, denitrification and total nitrogen removal efficiencies reached their maximum values at the highest C/N ratio (9.3) investigated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed 10 times higher ammonia oxidizing bacteria to total bacteria ratio under the highest C/N ratio condition (9.3) compared to the low C/N ratio condition (1.6).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Bioresource Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon oil (14,000 mg kg−1) were investigated in six biopiles batches, differing in the remediation strategy: bioaugmentation (selected consortium and kitchen waste were introduced), biostimulation (added with rhamnolipid, high-level, or low-level nutrient), and bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (added both with rhamnolipid and bacterial consortia). After the 140-day operation, the kitchen waste (KW) and the low-level nutrient (NEL) batches achieved the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency (>80%). The result of the hydrocarbon analysis revealed that the bioaugmentation approaches were the most effective ones in removing aromatic component (64% and 68%), and KW and NEL were the only two approaches that can remove the polar component with positive efficiency, 11% and 21%, respectively. The terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism percentage (T-RFLP) abundance applied with nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated a similarity of the bacterial communities during the early fastest remediation stage. The results of the oligonucleotide array targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, along with the hydrocarbon fractional analysis, indicated a successive degradation completed by the bacterial–fungi consortia. Before Day 70, the bacterial community was dominant in decomposing the saturated and partially aromatic hydrocarbons. After Day 70, the fungal community found to be dynamic and responsible for degradation of the polar hydrocarbons composing of recalcitrant metabolites.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation