Masaji Koshioka

National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (134)265.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to identify the main compounds responsible for low temperature-induced yellow pigmentation of the bracts of Zantedeschia aethiopica 'Wedding March'. On the basis of the area ratios estimated from absorbance at 400 nm in HPLC analyses, we identified two flavonoids, isoorientin and swertiajaponin, as such compounds. We also identified two additional flavonoids, isovitexin and swertisin, which do not contribute considerably to the yellow pigmentation. Flavonoids of Zantedeschia bracts seem to belong to the class of flavone C-glycosides.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Natural product communications
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    ABSTRACT: Five anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified. Three anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, were putatively identified based on C18 HPLC retention time, absorption spectrum, including λmax, and comparisons with those of corresponding standard anthocyanins, as the compounds responsible for the pink to purple-red pigmentation of the bracts of Curcuma alismatifolia and five related species. Cluster analysis based on four major anthocyanins formed two clusters. One consisted of only one species, C. alismatifolia, and the other consisted of five. Each cluster further formed sub-clusters depending on either species or habitats.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Natural product communications
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of gibberellin (GA) on chilling-induced stem elongation and flowering in Lavandula × intermedia was investigated using several GAs and GA biosynthesis inhibitors related to chilling temperature and its period. Identification of GA1, GA19, GA20, and GA53 as endogenous GAs by GC/MS suggests the early C-13 hydroxylation pathway (→GA53→GA44→GA19→GA20→GA1→) is functioning, and GA1 is the biologically active GA in L. × intermedia. GA3 increased stem elongation with or without chilling treatment (CT), but did not induce flowering without CT. There was little difference in the effects on stem elongation and flowering among GA1, GA3, GA5, and dimethyl-GA4. GA biosynthesis inhibitor, especially uniconazole-P, inhibited stem elongation and flowering, but the inhibition was abolished by GA3. At least several weeks of CT were necessary for flowering, for example, in 8-week CT at 5°C, 9-week CT at 6°C and 12-week CT at 7°C. This period was defined as the minimum CT period. Under the minimum CT period, GA3 enhanced the flowering. However, the effect on flowering by GA3 was not found when the CT period became longer, for example, in 12-week CT at 5°C, 12-week CT at 6°C and 15-week CT at 7°C. This longer period was defined as the maximum CT period. These results suggest that the expression of endogenous GA is necessary for flowering in L. × intermedia, that the florigenic effect of GA3 on flowering varies with the period of CT, and that GA3 enhances the effect of CT on flowering in L. × intermedia, but cannot replace CT.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Horticulture Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.), whose growth and flowering are retarded by high temperatures during the summer season, was used in this experiment to investigate the effect of root-zone cooling on growth and flowering. Root-zone temperatures were preset at 20, 23, and 26°C during the summer season. The control was without root-cooling. Each root-zone temperature was maintained at ±1 to 2°C of the preset temperature. The averages of minimum and maximum temperatures of the control were about 25 and 28°C, respectively. Vegetative growth was promoted at 23°C compared with that of the control. Flowering at 20°C started in the middle of October, and the number of flowers per plant reached about 7 after 20 days. Flowering rates increased with a drop in the root-zone temperature: 20% at the control temperature, 44% at 26°C, 60% at 23°C, and 88% at 20°C. The number of flower buds per plant was maximal at 23°C, and was about 65, having 25 and 10 more than those at 20°C and the control temperature, respectively. In conclusion, root-zone cooling at 23°C significantly promoted both vegetative growth and flower bud formation of cyclamen, and that at 20°C accelerated the flowering rate. Thus, controlling the root-zone temperature between 23 and 20°C may be markedly advantageous for cyclamen cultivation during the hot summer season.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Horticultural Research (Japan)
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    ABSTRACT: Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones controlling many aspects of plant growth and development including stem elongation, germination and transition from vegetative growth to flowering. GA 20-oxidase (GA 20ox) and GA 3-oxidase (GA 3ox), classes of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, catalyze the conversion of precursor GAs to their bioactive forms, and therefore play a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs in plants. Transgenic plants of the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. 'Shinonome' overexpressing the GA 20ox or GA 3ox gene from Torenia fournieri (TfGA20ox2 and TfGA3oxl) were produced. After 3 years of cultivation, 4 and 2 independent transgenic plants containing TfGA20ox2 and TfGA3oxl, respectively, were subjected to morphological characterization at the flowering stage. Because GA 20ox and GA 3ox catalyze the last step in the formation of bioactive GAs, overexpression of TfGA20ox2 or TfGA3oxl was initially expected to induce a GA-overproduction phenotype in transgenic plants, such as internode elongation. However, on the contrary, all the transgenic plants exhibited reduced plant height, reduced internode length and reduced stem diameter compared with the control, non-transgenic plants, irrespective of the kind of transgene. In addition, all the transgenic plants had slender leaves and narrow flower tepals. Exogenous treatment of transgenic plants with gibberellic acid and a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazol, resulted in increased and decreased plant height, respectively. Possible factors leading to morphological alterations, observed in the present study, of transgenic Tricyrtis sp. were proposed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Acta horticulturae
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    ABSTRACT: The gibberellin 2-oxidase catalyzes the bioactive gibberellins or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. We have previously produced transgenic plants of the liliaceous plant Tricyrtis sp. containing the GA2ox gene from the linderniaceous plant Torenia fournieri. These transgenic plants showed dwarf phenotypes as expected but unfortunately had no flowers or only small, unopened flowers. Recently, one newly produced transgenic line (G2-55) formed fully opened flowers. G2-55 showed a moderately dwarf phenotype and the shoot length decreased to 63.4% of that of the control, non-transgenic plants. No significant differences in the number of flowers per shoot and in the flower size were observed between G2-55 and the control. Flow cytometry analysis and chromosome observation showed that G2-55 was tetraploid (2n=4x=52), whereas the other transgenic lines producing no or only small flowers were diploid (2n=2x=26) as the mother plant. Pollen fertility of G2-55 was 81.2% as determined by acetocarmine staining. The tetraploidy in G2-55 might be resulted from somaclonal variation of embryogenic calluses used as a target material for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The tetraploid transgenic plant G2-55 may be useable not only directly as a potted plant, but also as a material for further breeding of Tricyrtis spp.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Plant Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: In senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers, ethylene production begins in the gynoecium, and the resulting ethylene acts on petals, inducing autocatalytic ethylene production. We investigated the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in ethylene production in the gynoecium of flowers. First, cDNAs of major genes involved in ABA biosynthesis and signaling were cloned from carnation flower tissues. Then, changes in ABA content and gene expression of ABA biosynthesis and signaling in the ovary were examined using three cultivars, ‘Light Pink Barbara (LPB)’ and ‘Excerea’, whose cut flowers produce ethylene during senescence and have an ordinary vase-life of about one week, and ‘Miracle Rouge’, whose cut flowers produce no detectable ethylene during senescence and have a vase-life of about three weeks. ABA content in the ovary was 530–710 pmol·g−1 fresh weight (FW) from Os 2 (early opening stage) to Os 6 (end of opening stage) in ‘LPB’, and at 200–380 pmol·g−1 FW in ‘Excerea’ at the same stages; but 930 pmol·g−1 FW at Ss 1 (early senescence stage). The ABA content remained at 70– 160 pmol·g−1 FW in ‘Miracle Rouge’. The changes in ABA content were in parallel with the transcript levels of DcNCED1 (carnation gene for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase). DcPYR1 (ABA receptor gene) transcript was 0.004–0.007 relative expression level (r.e.l.) in ‘LPB’ ovary at Os 1–Os 3, and 0.028 r.e.l. at Ss 1 (beginning of senescence stage). In ‘Excerea’ ovary, DcPYR1 transcript was 0.025–0.037 r.e.l. during flower opening and higher at Ss 1. By contrast, DcPYR1 transcript remained at 0.002–0.006 r.e.l. in ‘Miracle Rouge’ ovary during flower opening and senescence. The transcripts of DcACS1, the key gene for ethylene biosynthesis, were detected at Ss 1 in ‘LPB’, and at Ss 2 in ‘Excerea’, but not in ‘Miracle Rouge’ throughout flower opening and senescence stages. These findings suggest that ABA plays a causal role in inducing the expression of the DcACS1 gene in the gynoecium, leading to ethylene biosynthesis, and that both the ABA content and DcPYR1 expression must be above putative threshold levels for ABA to exert its action.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal- Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
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    ABSTRACT: Gibberellins (GAs) are the plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, including stem elongation. Genes encoding enzymes related to the GA biosynthetic and metabolic pathway have been isolated and characterized in many plant species. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) catalyzes bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms; therefore, playing a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs. In the present study, we produced transgenic plants of the liliaceous monocotyledon Tricyrtis sp. overexpressing the GA2ox gene from the linderniaceous dicotyledon Torenia fournieri (TfGA2ox2). All six transgenic plants exhibited dwarf phenotypes, and they could be classified into two classes according to the degree of dwarfism: three plants were moderately dwarf and three were severely dwarf. All of the transgenic plants had small or no flowers, and smaller, rounder and darker green leaves. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the TfGA2ox2 expression level generally correlated with the degree of dwarfism. The endogenous levels of bioactive GAs, GA1 and GA4, largely decreased in transgenic plants as shown by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, and the level also correlated with the degree of dwarfism. Exogenous treatment of transgenic plants with gibberellic acid (GA3) resulted in an increased shoot length, indicating that the GA signaling pathway might normally function in transgenic plants. Thus, morphological changes in transgenic plants may result from a decrease in the endogenous levels of bioactive GAs. Finally, a possibility of molecular breeding for plant form alteration in liliaceous ornamental plants by genetically engineering the GA metabolic pathway is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of plant physiology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Horticultural Research (Japan)
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    ABSTRACT: Germination of Styrax japonicus seeds is promoted by warm stratification (WS) at 18–20°C followed by cold stratification (CS) at 4–5°. The objective of this work was to analyze the state and mobility of water molecules measured by 1H-NMR and endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) by ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) as influenced by WS and CS treatments had not previously been investigated. Styrax seeds that received 35 days of WS (35D WS) followed by 63 days of CS (63D CS) (35D WS + 63D CS) germinated. Seeds that received only 35D WS failed to germinate. Endogenous GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, and GA53 were identified as well as GA17, GA23, GA28, GA29, and GA97 by gas chromatography/MS (GC/MS) and UPLC-MS/MS in seeds that were treated with warm and cold stratification (WS + CS). This suggests that the early C-13 hydroxylation pathway [-GA53-(GA44)-GA19-GA20-GA1-GA8] of GAs is a major biosynthetic pathway in the seeds. The concentration of GA53 and GA19 increased following WS and that of GA53 increased after WS + CS. The concentration of GA19 increased only slightly after WS + CS. The concentration of GA1 increased only after WS + CS. ABA concentration significantly decreased following the WS treatment. It is concluded that the mobility of water molecules and water content in cotyledons and endosperm is increased following WS + CS treatments. The occurrence of C-13 hydroxylated GAs suggests that the early C-13 hydroxylation pathway, → GA53 → GA44 → GA19 → GA20 → GA1 → GA8, is a major biosynthetic pathway in Styrax seeds. Additional key wordsgibberellin metabolism–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)–ultra performance liquid chromatography–water mobility
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Horticultural Research (Japan)
  • Satoshi KUBOTA · Hirofumi MOMOSE · Kazuo YONEDA · Masaji KOSHIOKA
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    ABSTRACT: Lavandula × intermedia is cultivated as an ornamental plant in Japan but its fiowering characteristics have not been elucidated. So, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the infiuence of cold treatment and day length on fiowering. An exposure to a 14-week cold treatment (CT) under natural winter condition induced fiowering. An increasing duration of day length was associated with an increase in fiowering rates and with a decrease in days to the first visible bud (VB) and the first open fiower (FLW). This suggests that L. × intermedia may be an essential quantitative long-day plant. When the plants were treated with a low temperature in a cold room at 5°C, a 10-week CT resulted in perfect fiowering. Plants without CT and plants after a 6-week CT did not initiate fioral buds. An increasing duration of CT was also associated with an increase in the rate of fiowering shoots and with a decrease in days to VB and FLW. Thus, exposure to a period of low temperature is the primary factor promoting fiowering in L. × intermedia. Apical dissections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed vegetative meristems at the end of a 10-week CT at 5°C. Then, dome formation and sepal initiation of the first fioret of each shoot apex were observed at 7 and 21 days after CT, respectively. This suggests that L. × intermedia is a so-called “after effect” fiowering plant. Thus, we conclude that L. × intermedia is a typical vernalization type plant.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly
  • L. Li · T. Niki · T. Nishijima · M. Douzono · M. Koshioka · T. Hisamatsu
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    ABSTRACT: The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is marked by the termination of vegetative development and adoption of a floral identity by the shoot apical meristem. This process is called the floral transition. To elucidate the molecular determinants involved in this process in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.),we isolated the following three floral identity and/or integrator genes from plants: CmFL, a homologue of FLORICAULA (FLO)ZLEAFY (LFY); CmAFLl, a member of the APETALA1 (AP1)/FRUITFULL (FUL) sub-family; and CmSOCl, a member of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1) sub-family. Up-regulated expression of CmFL in Arabidopsis resulted in an early-flowering phenotype. Our data show significant up-regulation of expression of all three of the above-mentioned genes and a strong correlation between the floral transition and gene expression under three different photoperiodic conditions. This study strongly suggests that CmFL, CmAFLl, and CmSOCl are involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, and are activated co-ordinately after the floral transition in early-developing inflorescences in chrysanthemum.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Horticultural Research (Japan)
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the Woody Landscape Plants Germplasm Repository (WLPGR) program at the US National Arboretum (USNA) are composed of two parts, repository activities and a research component. Repository activities are to introduce, maintain, and distribute diverse and wild-origin genetic resources of trees and shrubs for landscape use. Research components include evaluation, characterization and identification of germplasm. Seed germination and over-wintering survival problems in Styrax japonicus have been studied. Seeds require one month of warm stratification followed by two to three months of cold stratification to achieve greater than 85% germination within one month of sowing. The viability of Ardisia crenata seeds, which are recalcitrant and viable for about 2 to 4 weeks, can be extended to 15 weeks. Identification of Acer griseum germplasm and of an interspecific hybrid was investigated using RAPD. Characterization of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis by cpDNA and SSR revealed that the hybrid formula, P. densiflora H P. sylvestris may be appropriate, rather than P. sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. Molecular markers including RAPD, ISSR, and SNP have also been utilized to study Ilex x wandoensis, Prunus including P. yedoensis from wild populations and cultivated sources, and Corylopsis including C. coreana, C. glabrescens, and C. gotoana. A SCAR marker differentiated a subgroup of seedlings from a natural cross of a white berry form of A. crenata with variegated foliage form of A. crenata with red berries. For Camellia, SCAR markers for cold hardiness are being developed to screen progeny of crosses between cold hardy and non-cold hardy lines.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Acta horticulturae
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    ABSTRACT: Three new 11β-hydroxy C20 gibberellins have been isolated from immature loquat fruit and their structures were established as 11β-hydroxy-GA12, 11β-hydroxy-GA15 and 11β-hydroxy-GA53, respectively, by direct GC–MS comparisons with authentic samples obtained from gibberellic acid by multistep syntheses. An advanced intermediate (30) was prepared in 20 steps from which 6 11β-hydroxy C20 gibberellins were prepared by parallel routes involving up to a further 5 steps for each sequence. The key steps involved a much improved synthesis of gibberellenic acid derivatives, a Lewis acid catalysed cyclisation of a diazoketone, a domino-hydroboration of a diene and oxidative cleavage of a ketone derived enolate.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Tetrahedron

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Horticultural Research (Japan)

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Horticultural Research (Japan)

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Horticultural Research (Japan)

Publication Stats

2k Citations
265.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2008-2015
    • Nihon University
      • • College of Bioresource Sciences
      • • Department of Plant Science and Resources
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2002-2004
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1998-1999
    • National Engineering Research Center for Vegetables
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1997
    • Japan Research Institute
      Hokodate, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 1993-1997
    • Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1987-1989
    • National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences in Japan
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1988
    • Australian National University
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 1985-1987
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia