Peter W. Perschbacher

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, PBF, Arkansas, United States

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Publications (28)41.3 Total impact

  • Bartholomew W Green · Kevin K Schrader · Peter W Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m−3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavours and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5–172.6 g fish−1) at harvest did not differ among treatments, but net yield increased linearly as initial biomass increased (R2 = 0.633). Mean total feed consumption increased linearly with initial catfish biomass (R2 = 0.656) and ranged from 10.7 to 15.8 kg m−3. Total suspended solids (TSS) in all treatments increased linearly with total feed addition, and high TSS appeared to impact negatively daily feed consumption. Initial phytoplankton populations were dominated by small colonial green algae and diatoms, and later transitioned to populations dominated by a small, filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms. Low, variable concentrations of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin were present in biofloc tank water during most of the study and two tanks yielded catfish with 2-methylisoborneol or geosmin concentrations that might be classified as off-flavour. One isolate of actinomycete was isolated sporadically from some biofloc tanks, but its abundance was not correlated with 2-methylisoborneol concentration in tank waters. The microbial sources of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in biofloc tanks remain unidentified.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Aquaculture Research
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    Peter Wesley Perschbacher · Regina Edziyie · Gerald M. Ludwig

    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2012
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    Nathan J. Harris · J. Wesley Neal · Todd D. Sink · Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: Bigmouth sleepers, Gobiomorus dormitor, are diadromous fish that have potential for hatchery production as both food and sport fish and for conservation purposes. Understanding of bigmouth sleeper maturation and seasonal hormone cycling are necessary in order to realize hatchery production. Therefore, seasonal trends in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma vitellogenin, estradiol, progesterone and total testosterone concentrations were examined in wild and captive populations in Puerto Rico during the presumed spawning season. The spawning season for wild river populations of bigmouth sleepers was protracted over several months, but peaks in male testosterone (6.5 ng/mL) and female vitellogenin (11.3 ng/mL), estradiol (3.3 ng/mL), and GSI (9.5—12.0%) demonstrated that the bigmouth sleeper spawning season occurred primarily in July and August in southwestern Puerto Rico. Captive female broodstock held in shallow hatchery ponds demonstrated accelerated maturation, presumably due to warmer water temperatures in the ponds. Therefore, induced and natural spawning attempts using captive female bigmouth sleeper broodstock should be conducted from June through July. However, advanced gonadal maturation and increased testosterone production in captive males was minimal. Hence, induced spawning for captive rearing purposes should use wild broodstock captured during the peak of the natural spawning season in July and August.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
  • Kevin K. Schrader · Bartholomew W. Green · Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to determine the development and composition of phytoplankton communities and related off-flavor problems in these biofloc production systems. In this study, water samples were collected biweekly from May to November and channel catfish samples were collected during harvest in November from nine 18.6m2 biofloc culture tanks. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for levels of the common off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). The development and composition of phytoplankton communities in each culture tank was also monitored. In addition, water and biofloc samples were evaluated to assess the microbial sources of geosmin and MIB within the culture tanks. Phytoplankton (including algae and cyanobacteria attached to bioflocs) biomass, as determined by concentrations of chlorophyll a in the water, gradually increased in all tanks over time. Phytoplankton communities that developed in the culture tanks were dominated by fast-growing, unicellular and small colonial types of green algae (chlorophytes) and diatoms (bacillariophytes) and slower growing, small colonial types of cyanobacteria (cyanophytes). A positive correlation (p
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Aquacultural Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: The bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor, a popular sport fish within its native range, offers a management alternative to exotic species currently managed for recreational fishing. Hatchery production and stocking are needed to create reservoir sport fisheries because this species usually requires access to marine environments for recruitment. Bigmouth sleepers have not been spawned previously in a hatchery, and hence we used natural, artificial and semi-natural spawning techniques. No egg deposition or propagation resulted from natural pond spawning. Artificial spawning techniques using Ovaprim® and Chorulon® injections followed by hand stripping were more successful. Semi-natural (hormone injections plus volitional spawning) spawning trials using Ovaprim® and Chorulon® displayed the greatest potential, and three consecutive evening injections (1.0 mL kg−1) of Chorulon® appeared most conducive. High-fecundity spawning was achieved by injecting bigmouth sleeper pairs and allowing volitional spawning in aquaria with spawning cavities. Initial success in 2007–2008 was isolated to wild-caught fish, but captive broodstock were spawned using these techniques in 2009. Eggs hatched in <20 h at 23–24 °C. The resulting larvae, 1.0–1.5 mm in length, displayed large yolk sacs, unpigmented eyes and no apparent mouth. These hatchery propagation efforts suggest that hormone-induced semi-natural spawning has the greatest potential for bigmouth sleeper propagation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Aquaculture Research
  • Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: Populations of alligator gar Atractosteus spatula are greatly reduced, and interest has been shown in developing culture practices for fingerling production for restocking. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted on stocker-sized advanced fingerlings (>250 mm total length). Presence versus absence of physical structure and forage fish were tested against controls (no structure or forage) at two stocking densities (30,000/ha and 15,000/ha) in Arkansas. At 50 d posthatch (dph; July 8), ungraded 2.7-g alligator gars were stocked into 24 outdoor pools (diameter = 2.4 m, depth = 0.6 m). Fish in all pools were fed at 10% body weight/d (assuming 50% survival) with 1.5–2.5-mm steelhead floating pellets (45% protein). No grading was performed, and the study continued until fish grew to 300 mm. Fish were harvested on August 20 (92 dph). At termination, mean survival was significantly different for the high-density forage (72.2%) and the high-density structure treatments (27.8%), but differences in mean lengths and weights were not significant. Mean growth rates varied from 4.5 to 5.0 g/d.Received July 13, 2010; accepted September 1, 2010
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · North American Journal of Aquaculture
  • Bartholomew W Green · Peter Perschbacher · Gerald Ludwig · Sara E Duke
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    ABSTRACT: Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in twelve 0.1 ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in a multiple-batch culture (initial biomass=5458 kg ha−1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867; initial biomass=449 kg ha−1), during the April–November growing season. We used a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to test the planktivore level (presence or absence of threadfin shad) and channel catfish feeding frequency (daily or every third day). Channel catfish were fed a 32% protein feed to apparent satiation on days fed. The presence of threadfin shad affected phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure more than did feeding frequency, and the impact in ponds was more pronounced after 1 July. The numbers of all major groups of zooplankton were lower in ponds with threadfin shad, but were unaffected by the feeding frequency. Chlorophyll a concentration before 1 July was higher in ponds with threadfin shad and unaffected by the feeding frequency, whereas after 1 July it was higher in ponds without threadfin shad and that were fed daily. Phytoplankton community structure after 1 July was dominated by nuisance algal bloom genera of cyanobacteria in ponds without threadfin shad and by Bacillariophyceae in ponds with threadfin shad.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · Aquaculture Research
  • Gerald M. Ludwig · Peter Perschbacher · Regina Edziyie
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    ABSTRACT: Rooted macrophytes make harvesting fingerling fish difficult because they can smother fish or tangle in the seines during harvest. Aquashade®, a dye, is used to reduce macrophyte growth. Fingerling culturists are reluctant to use it because it may reduce phytoplankton concentrations and zooplankton food supplies of larval fish. Aquashade was applied at 4 mg/L (twice the recommended rate) to three ponds when filled and to three ponds when fry were started on prepared feed. Three ponds served as a control. All ponds were stocked with sunshine bass larvae at 15,000/0.04 ha. Water quality and plankton were monitored daily until harvest. Few differences were found among treatment ponds for water quality, chlorophyll a, primary productivity, phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations, or weight of rooted macrophytes. Unionized ammonia and pH increased to potentially harmful levels in ponds that did not receive the dye. No differences were found in the number, total weight or percent survival of fingerlings harvested. No differences in average individual total length, total weight, or coefficient of condition were found either. At the concentration of dye used, the dye was not effective for rooted macrophyte control but may offer fish some protection from high pH or unionized ammonia concentrations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
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    Bartholomew Green · Peter Perschbacher · Gerald Ludwig
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether stocking threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense as a forage fish in multiple-batch production ponds for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus could substitute for formulated feed when channel catfish were fed daily or every 3 d. A completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used for the experiment, which was conducted in twelve 0.1-ha earthen ponds. Prespawn adult threadfin shad were stocked at 404 kg/ha in six of the ponds, whereas the remaining ponds received no threadfin shad. Channel catfish stockers (0.35 kg/fish) were stocked at 5,040 kg/ha, and fingerlings (28.2 g/fish) were stocked at 14,820 fish/ha. Channel catfish were fed a floating feed (32% protein) to apparent satiation daily (D; 6 ponds) or every 3 d (3D; 6 ponds). After 144 d, mean channel catfish total net yield was unaffected by the presence of threadfin shad but was significantly greater for fish in the D treatment (7,256 kg/ha) than for fish in the 3D treatment (2,431 kg/ha). Mean fish weight at harvest also was greater in the D treatment than in the 3D treatment. The amount of feed administered in the 3D treatment was 62% of that used in the D treatment, thus reducing net total yield by 66% and slowing growth in fish from the 3D treatment. Nearly 90% of stockers in the 3D treatment failed to reach market size (0.68 kg/fish) and would have required a third season to reach harvest weight. At the rate used in this experiment, stocking of threadfin shad as forage fish into channel catfish production ponds did not appear to be a viable method of substituting for formulated feed during the growing season.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · North American Journal of Aquaculture
  • Peter W. Perschbacher · Gerald M. Ludwig · Regina Edziyie

    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
  • Peter W. Perschbacher · Gerald M. Ludwig
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    ABSTRACT: Mesocosm-testing of aerially applied herbicides propanil and Basis Gold (86.8% atrazine) and indicated high drift rates (10–20% of field rates) resulted in adverse impacts on aquaculture production-pond phytoplankton, zooplankton, and critical water-quality variables. Effects on fry pond phytoplankton, zooplankton, and water quality from these herbicides were evaluated at 30% of field application rates, equal to the worst-case scenario from drift to these smaller ponds with consequent higher concentrations. The study was conducted in 12 outdoor pool mesocosms of 500 L volume, filled with pond water from an adjacent 0.1 ha pond fertilized and prepared as recommended for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, fry stocking. Plankton and water quality samples were taken just prior to herbicide application (day 0) and on days 1,2,3,4-zooplankton only, and on day 7 after application. Field application rates for Basis Gold and propanil were 0.8 kg active ingredient and 1.80 kg/ha, respectively. Significant changes from control treatment values were found for several parameters in both herbicide treatments. Following application on June 20, net primary productivity was significantly depressed on day 1 in the propanil treatments, but increased on days 2 and 3. Morning dissolved oxygen (DO) was lower on days 1–3, but not to critical levels. Also, in the presence of propanil, pH and consequently UIA were lower from day 1 to 3. Basis Gold reduced morning DO on days 2 and 3, but not net primary productivity. Nitrite-N, however, was significantly higher on day 1. Phytoplankton total numbers, and the cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp. which dominated, were reduced by propanil on days 1 -3; and similarly affected by Basis Gold on days 2 and 3. Numbers of green algae, Scenedesmus sp. and Coelastrum sp., and diatoms were, however, stimulated by propanil and diatoms by Basis Gold. Zooplankton were little affected by either herbicide. Thus, high levels of drift from propanil and Basis Gold should not result in negative impacts on fry production.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Applied Aquaculture
  • Gerald M. Ludwig · Melissa Hobbs · Peter Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: When sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerling production ponds are filled and fertilized according to recommended practices, high pH and high un-ionized ammonia levels often develop at the time recommended for stocking of 5-d-old fry. These levels often exceed those found to be lethal to sunshine bass. We compared the effects of organic fertilizer only, both organic and inorganic fertilizer, and both organic and inorganic fertilizers with sodium bicarbonate on 0.04-ha culture ponds. Rice bran, the organic fertilizer, was applied at 278 kg/ha during the first week and 55.6 kg/ha during the second week. Liquid 9-27-0 NPK (urea and mono-ammonium phosphate), the inorganic fertilizer, was applied at 48 kg/ha during both weeks. Sodium bicarbonate was applied at 56, 112, or 224 kg/ha. Primary productivity, pH, and the concentrations of ammonia, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and zooplankton were compared among treatments. We include results from the 12-14 d after ponds were filled and fertilized, the period when fry are usually stocked. Sodium bicarbonate application did not reduce (P > 0.05) pH in culture ponds. However, ponds that only received organic fertilizer had pH values that were significantly lower than those of the other treatments on 75% of the experiment days. Chlorophyll-a, total ammonia nitrogen, and un-ionized ammonia nitrogen concentrations were also significantly lower in organic-only fertilized ponds than in the other two treatments on most days and were well below sunshine bass fry tolerance limits. For most water chemistry variables tested, use of sodium bicarbonate did not improve water quality. Although total nutrient input was lowest in the organic-only fertilized ponds, the densities of phytoplankton, rotifers, copepod nauplii, copepod adults, and cladocerans were not significantly different from those of other treatments. These results indicate that sodium bicarbonate does not ameliorate high pH; however, use of only organic fertilizer does reduce pH without reducing zooplankton standing crops.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · North American Journal of Aquaculture
  • Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Alkalinity and hardness were 30 and 26 mg l−1, respectively. The 7–10-g fingerlings were acclimated in four climate chambers at test temperatures of 21, 23, 25, and 27 °C for 2 weeks. After determining an acutely lethal copper dose, aerated tanks of 7.6 l were placed in each climate chamber in quadruplicate. To each, seven acclimated channel catfish fingerlings were added. The 72-h cumulative mortality from 20 mg l−1 copper sulfate was significantly lower in the 27 °C treatment (25%) compared to the 21, 23, and 25 °C treatments, where cumulative mortality was 79–96%. Total mortality at 72 h was significantly correlated (P
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Aquaculture
  • Peter W. Perschbacher · Gerald M. Ludwig
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    ABSTRACT: Seven aerially applied cotton herbicides and defoliants were tested for possible adverse impacts on pond phytoplankton and zooplankton and critical water quality variables. Treatments simulated direct spraying of ponds and high and low amounts of drift judged able to reach the pond, 1/10 and 1/100 direct rates, respectively. The study was conducted in twelve 500-l outdoor pool mesocosms filled with pond water from an adjacent goldfish Carassius auratus culture pond. Plankton and water quality samples were taken just prior to application and at 24 and 48 h after application. Sampling for chemicals showing effects were continued approximately weekly until oxygen levels in drift treatments returned to no significant difference from control. Chemicals tested and direct rates (kg active ingredient ha−1) were diuron as herbicide (1.4), paraquat (0.83), quizalofop (0.05), dimethipin (0.15), diuron as defoliant (0.1675), ethephon (0.176), tribufos (0.99) and sodium chlorate (5.28). Except for the diuron compounds, the cotton herbicides and defoliants produced no measurable impacts on pond plankton or associated water quality. Following application on March 5 of diuron, used as an herbicide, chlorophyll a levels and photosynthesis were significantly depressed in relation to diuron concentration. Recovery occurred slowly, and at the high drift dosage by week 3 morning oxygen levels returned to near control levels, although chlorophyll a levels were 1/3 the control. However, the off-flavor cyanobacterium, Anabaena laevendri, was essentially eliminated by week 3; and pH and thus un-ionized ammonia were much lower in high drift treatments. Copepod adult and nauplii zooplankton levels were depressed at week 2. However, rotifer numbers increased in the low drift treatment in weeks 3 and 4 and those of copepod nauplii in week 3. Fall application of diuron, as a defoliant at 1/10 the spring rate, produced similar effects when compared by concentration. The main adverse impact of diuron drift is on dissolved oxygen levels and can be anticipated by provision of adequate aeration capacity.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Aquaculture
  • Peter W Perschbacher · Gerald M Ludwig · Nathan Slaton
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    ABSTRACT: Ten common aerially applied herbicides for rice were tested for possible adverse impacts on pond phytoplankton and zooplankton and critical water quality variables. Treatments simulated direct spraying of ponds and amounts of drift judged able to reach the pond at 1/10 and 1/100 direct rates. The study was conducted in 12, 500-l outdoor pool mesocosms. Pond water from an adjacent baitfish rearing pond was used. Water quality measurements were made prior to application and at 24 and 48 h after application. Commercial compounds tested and direct rates in kg active ingredient ha−1 were clomazone (0.6), thiobencarb (3.4), pendamethalin (1.1), propanil-dry, flowable (4.5), quinclorac (0.6), halosulfuron (0.07), bensulfuron methyl (0.07), triclopyr (0.4), 2,4-d-amine (1.7), and molinate (5.6). In addition, propanil was evaluated in a second application scenario at the same rates and to the same pond water sample as the initial application. Except for propanil, the rice herbicides produced no measurable effect on pond plankton or associated water quality. Following the first application at full rate for propanil, morning oxygen levels were reduced to critical levels (below 3 mg/l) for 2 days. After a second application of propanil at the full and 1/10 rates, oxygen levels were not decreased, although there were significant increases in chlorophyll a and zooplankton concentrations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Aquaculture
  • Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: Harvestable, fed channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus were given access to two potential prey-fingerling Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and channel catfish in replicated 0.045-ha experimental, channel catfish production ponds. Three ponds were stocked in the spring with the fingerling Nile tilapia, which subsequently reproduced. Stomach contents were examined from subsamples of 50 channel catfish from each pond in October and results tabulated by catfish size group. An average of 19% of channel catfish in subsamples had consumed one or more 40-85 mm total length (TL) tilapia. Although mean frequencies of foraging did not significantly differ among catfish size groups, competition for feed pellets among size groups is hypothesized to have stimulated foraging and produced the greater foraging by smaller size groups when larger size groups were more abundant. The following spring, 90-200 mm TL fingerling channel catfish were stocked in six of the experimental channel catfish production ponds. No catfish fingerlings were found in stomachs from subsamples of 25 fish from each pond one month after stocking of fingerlings. However, a total of six fingerings (125-135 mm TL) from three ponds, seined with the larger catfish, sustained a large bite wound consistent with foraging behavior by catfish.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Applied Aquaculture
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    N. Fijan · P. W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2000
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    Peter W Perschbacher · William A Wurts
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of calcium or magnesium hardness on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in low alkalinity environments. A preliminary bioassay determined the 48-h LC50 of copper sulfate to be 1.25 mg l−1 for juvenile catfish placed in water with calcium hardness and total alkalinity set at 20 mg l−1 CaCO3. In the first experiment, catfish were exposed to 1.25 mg l−1 copper sulfate in environments where calcium hardness was varied from 10–400 mg l−1 CaCO3. Total alkalinity was 20 mg l−1 CaCO3. As calcium hardness increased, copper-induced catfish mortalities decreased significantly from 90% at 10 mg l−1 CaCO3 to 5% at 400 mg l−1 CaCO3. In the second experiment, catfish were exposed to 1.25 mg l−1 copper sulfate in environments containing either calcium or magnesium hardness, 20 and 400 mg l−1 CaCO3, with total alkalinity set at 20 mg l−1 CaCO3. Survival rates in calcium hardness treatments were consistent with those in the first experiment. However, 100% mortality was observed in both treatments containing magnesium-based hardness. These data suggest a calcium-specific mechanism with respect to acute copper toxicity in channel catfish.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1999 · Aquaculture
  • Ming Zhu · Francisco J. Aviles · Eric D. Conte · Dwight W. Miller · Peter W. Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: Presented is a rapid distillation device for use with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). We apply this device specifically for determining two semivolatile off-flavor compounds, methylisoborneol and geosmin, in channel catfish. The presence of these two compounds in channel catfish filets results in unwelcome tastes. In the presented procedure, a catfish tissue sample is placed within a sample container located inside the microwave device. Microwave radiation is applied and distillates formed migrate through a condenser via a purge gas and are collected in a sample vial. A SPME fiber is placed within the stirred collected distillate and methylisoborneol and geosmin are extracted. Qualitative and quantitative results of these extractions are obtained using a gas chromatograph-ion trap mass spectrometer. This solventless technique results in detection limits far below the human threshold for these off-flavor compounds in channel catfish.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • D MILLER · ED Conte · CY Shen · PW Perschbacher
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    ABSTRACT: A colorimetric method to quantify methylisoborneol and geosmin in water and fish flesh based on a spot test by Wood and Snoeyink was developed. To test water samples, one liter of filtered water is pumped through a solid phase extraction device and the off-flavor eluted from the device with toluene. The toluene is combined with a 1 percent vanillin in concentrated sulfuric acid and agitated for 30 min to produce the color change. The standard solution is yellow and at increasing concentrations of 2-methylisobomeol or geosmin the color changes from light orange to blood red. Extraction from 1 liter of water results in a sensitivity of 1 ppb. This is suitable for quality control of seafood. For use in measuring action levels (high and low ppt levels for aquaculture and drinking water, respectively), extraction from greater volumes will be required.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Water Science & Technology

Publication Stats

317 Citations
41.30 Total Impact Points


  • 1994-2014
    • University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
      • Aquaculture and Fisheries
      PBF, Arkansas, United States
  • 1996
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States