[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The large GTPase Dynamin 2 (Dyn2) is markedly upregulated in pancreatic cancer, is a potent activator of metastatic migration, and is required for Rac1-mediated formation of lamellipodia. Here we demonstrate an unexpected mechanism of Dyn2 action in these contexts via direct binding to the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1. Surprisingly, disruption of the Dyn2-Vav1 interaction targets Vav1 to the lysosome for degradation via an interaction with the cytoplasmic chaperone Hsc70, resulting in a dramatic reduction of Vav1 protein stability. Importantly, a specific mutation in Vav1 near its Dyn2-binding C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain prevents Hsc70 binding, resulting in a stabilization of Vav1 levels. Dyn2 binding regulates the interaction of Vav1 with Hsc70 to control the stability and subsequent activity of this oncogenic GEF. These findings elucidate how Dyn2 activates Rac1, lamellipod protrusion, and invasive cellular migration and provide insight into how this specific Vav is ectopically expressed in pancreatic tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell migration and the concomitant degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) are two essential steps in the metastatic process. It is well established that focal adhesions (FAs) play an important role in regulating migration; however, whether these structures contribute to matrix degradation is not clear. In this study, we report that multiple cancer cell lines display degradation of ECM at FA sites that requires the targeted action of MT1-MMP. Importantly, we have found that this MT1-MMP targeting is dependent on an association with a FAK-p130Cas complex situated at FAs and is regulated by Src-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr 573 at the cytoplasmic tail of MT1. Disrupting the FAK-p130Cas-MT1 complex significantly impairs FA-mediated degradation and tumor cell invasion yet does not appear to affect invadopodia formation or function. These findings demonstrate a novel function for FAs and also provide molecular insights into MT1-MMP targeting and function.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface are tightly regulated by a complex endocytic machinery. Following internalization, EGFR is either recycled back to the cell surface or transported to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation. Currently, the molecular machinery that regulates this sorting pathway is only partially defined. Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate 15) is an endocytic adaptor protein that is well known to support clathrin-mediated internalization of EGFR at the plasma membrane. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a novel short form of Eps15 (Eps15S) from rat liver that lacks the 111 C-terminal amino acids present in the traditional Eps15 form. The goal of this study was to define the functional role of the novel Eps15S form in EGFR trafficking. Overexpression of a mutant form of Eps15S (Eps15S ΔEH2/EH3) did not block EGFR internalization but reduced its recycling to the cell surface. After knockdown of all Eps15 forms, re-expression of Eps15S significantly reduced EGFR degradation while promoting recycling back to the cell surface. In contrast, re-expression of Eps15 did not potentiate receptor recycling. Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant Eps15S substantially reduced cell proliferation, linking EGFR recycling to downstream mitogenic effects. Finally, we found that Eps15S is localized to the Rab11-positive recycling endosome that is disrupted in cells expressing the Eps15S mutant, leading to an accumulation of the EGFR in early endosomes. These findings suggest that distinct forms of Eps15 direct EGFR to either the late endosome/lysosome for degradation (Eps15) or to the recycling endosome for transit back to the cell surface (Eps15S).
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell migration is supported in part by the cyclic formation and disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs); however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not fully defined. The large guanosine 5'-triphosphatase dynamin (Dyn) plays an important role in FA dynamics and is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using a novel antibody specific to phospho-dynamin (pDyn-Tyr-231), we found that Dyn2 is phosphorylated at FAs by Src kinase and is recruited to FAs by a direct interaction with the 4.1/ezrin/radizin/moesin domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which functions as an adaptor between Src and Dyn2 to facilitate Dyn2 phosphorylation. This Src-FAK-Dyn2 trimeric complex is essential for FA turnover, as mutants disrupting the formation of this complex inhibit FA disassembly. Importantly, phosphoactivated Dyn2 promotes FA turnover by mediating the endocytosis of integrins in a clathrin-dependent manner. This study defines a novel mechanism of how Dyn2 functions as a downstream effector of FAK-Src signaling in turning over FAs.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is overexpressed in many cancers and is a substrate for both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin has been observed to increase cell motility and invasion in vivo, although it has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on actin polymerization in vitro. In contrast, serine phosphorylation of cortactin has been shown to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. Currently, the effects of cortactin serine phosphorylation on cell migration are unclear, and furthermore, how the distinct phospho-forms of cortactin may differentially contribute to cell migration has not been directly compared. Therefore, we tested the effects of different tyrosine and serine phospho-mutants of cortactin on lamellipodial protrusion, actin assembly within cells, and focal adhesion dynamics. Interestingly, while expression of either tyrosine or serine phospho-mimetic cortactin mutants resulted in increased lamellipodial protrusion and cell migration, these effects appeared to be via distinct processes. Cortactin mutants mimicking serine phosphorylation appeared to predominantly affect actin polymerization, whereas mutation of cortactin tyrosine residues resulted in alterations in focal adhesion turnover. Thus these findings provide novel insights into how distinct phospho-forms of cortactin may differentially contribute to actin and focal adhesion dynamics to control cell migration.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · AJP Cell Physiology