Daniel B. Wall

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (14)44.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We describe a novel LCMS approach to the relative quantitation and simultaneous identification of proteins within the complex milieu of unfractionated Escherichia coli. This label-free, LCMS acquisition method observes all detectable, eluting peptides and their corresponding fragment ions. Postacquisition data analysis methods extract both the chromatographic and the mass spectrometric information on the tryptic peptides to provide time-resolved, accurate mass measurements, which are subsequently used for quantitation and identification of constituent proteins. The response of E. coli to carbon source variation is well understood, and it is thus commonly used as a model biological system when validating an analytical method. Using this LCMS approach, we characterized proteins isolated from E. coli grown in glucose, lactose, and acetate. The change in relative abundance of the corresponding proteins was measured from peptides common to both conditions. Protein identities were also determined for those peptides that were unique to each condition, and these identities were found to be consistent with the underlying biochemical restrictions imposed by the growth conditions. The relative change in abundance of the characterized proteins ranged from 0.1- to 90-fold among the three binary comparisons. The overall coverage of the characterized proteins ranged from 10 to 80%, consisting of one to 34 peptides per protein. The quantitative results obtained from our study were comparable to other existing proteomic and transcriptional profiling approaches. This study illustrates the robustness of this novel LCMS approach for the simultaneous quantitative and comprehensive qualitative analysis of proteins in complex mixtures.
    Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
  • Daniel B Wall · Jeffrey W Finch · Steven A Cohen
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    ABSTRACT: Desorption/ionization on silicon with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DIOS-TOFMS) was employed for rapid quantification of small molecules and the measurement of critical constants used in enzyme kinetics studies. The approach was used to determine the Michaelis constant (Km) for acetylcholine esterase and the 50% inhibition constant (IC50) for tacrine. The Km was determined from a Lineweaver-Burk plot to be 98 microM. The IC50 was determined by assaying acetylcholine esterase activity with a range of tacrine concentrations, and measuring the amount of choline produced at a fixed time point by either DIOS-TOFMS or by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). DIOS-TOFMS indicated an IC50 of 32.0 nM while LC/MS/MS gave a value of 31.8 nM. The excellent correlation with the reported IC50 values, ranging from 30.0 to 50.0 nM, and equivalence with the LC/MS/MS results, confirms that the DIOS-TOFMS method can be used for rapid and specific quantification of enzyme-inhibition assays.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
  • Daniel B. Wall · Jeffrey W. Finch · Steven A. Cohen

    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the standard high-throughput methods for protein identification today. Traditionally this method has been based on spotting peptide mixtures onto MALDI targets. While this method works well for more abundant proteins, low-abundance proteins mixed with high-abundance proteins tend to go undetected due to ion suppression effects, instrumental dynamic range limitations and chemical noise interference. We present an alternative approach where liquid chromatography (LC) effluent is continuously collected as linear tracks on a MALDI target. In this manner the chromatographic separation is spatially preserved on the target, which enables generation of off-line LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data by MALDI. LC-MALDI sample collection provides improved sensitivity and dynamic range, spatial resolution of peptides along the sample track, and permits peptide mass mapping of low-abundance proteins in mixtures containing high-abundance proteins. In this work, standard and ribosomal protein digests are resolved and captured using LC-MALDI sample collection and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Electrophoresis
  • Daniel B Wall · Stephen J Parus · David M Lubman
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    ABSTRACT: A three-dimensional method has been developed to map the protein content of cells according to pI, M(w) and hydrophobicity. The separation of complex protein mixtures from cells is performed using isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the liquid phase in the first dimension, non-porous silica (NPS) RP-HPLC in the second dimension and on-line electrospray ionization (ESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection in the third dimension. The experimentally determined pI, M(w) and hydrophobicity can then be used to produce a three-dimensional map of the protein expression of a cell, where now each protein can be tagged by three independent parameters. The ESI-TOF-MS provides an accurate M(w) for the intact protein while the hydrophobicity dimension results from the RP-HPLC component of the separation. The elution time, or percent acetonitrile at time of elution, of the protein is related to the hyrophobicity, which is an inherent property of the protein. 3D protein maps can thus be generated showing pI, M(w) and % acetonitrile at time of elution as well as pI, M(w) and hydrophobicity. The potential of the 3D plot for effective mapping of proteins from cells compared to current 2D methods is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Chromatography B
  • Daniel B Wall · Stephen J Parus · David M Lubman
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    ABSTRACT: Nonporous silica reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization with on-line time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (NPS-RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) is shown to be an effective liquid phase method for obtaining the molecular masses of proteins from pH fractionated cellular lysates where the method is capable of generating the same banding patterns typically observed using gel phase one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The liquid-phase mass spectrometry-based method provides a mass accuracy of at least 150 ppm, with 4000 mass resolution and provides improved sensitivity as the protein molecular mass (MW) decreases. The liquid and gel phase methods are shown to be complementary in terms of their mass range but the liquid phase method has the advantage over the gel method in that the analysis times are 50 times shorter, the mass accuracy is 70 times better and the resolution is 130 times higher. The liquid phase method is shown to be more effective for detection of proteins below 40 kDa, while the gel phase separation can access many more proteins, including more hydrophobic proteins, at increasing MW.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications
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    ABSTRACT: A liquid-phase three-dimensional protein separation method has been developed that is used to separate the cytosolic fraction of a HEL cell lysate via isoelectric focusing (IEF), nonporous silica (NPS) reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOFMS), respectively. Several hundred unique protein molecular weights were observed in a pI range from 4.8 to 8.5 and a mass range from 5 to 85 kDa. Proteins were positively identified by analysis of the pI (±0.5 pI units), an intact protein molecular weight (±150 ppm), and peptide mass mapping results. Using the molecular weight (MW) and peptide mapping results of identified proteins it was possible to characterize their posttranslational (PTMs) and/or sequence modifications. PTMs were detected on both forms of cytosolic actin, heat shock 90 β, HINT and α-enolase. Sequence modifications or conflicts were observed for β-and γ-actin, ATP β-synthase and heat shock 90 β. IEF-NPS-RP-HPLC/ESI-TOFMS was used to determine experimental pI, MW and relative hydrophobicity values for each protein detected. This data was used to generate a 2-D pI-MS protein map, where proteins are displayed according to their pI and molecular weight. Protein molecular weight peaks are represented as bands in the 2-D pI-MS image where the gray scale of each band is proportional to the intensity of the protein molecular weight peak. In addition, a third hydrophobicity dimension (%B) was added as the % acetonitrile elution to generate a 3-D pI-MS-%B plot where each protein can be tagged according to three parameters. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this investigation was to determine whether nonmammalian myelin basic protein contained charge isomers resulting from extensive posttranslational modifications as seen in mammalian MBP. Four charge isomer components from dogfish MBP have been isolated. These forms arise by phosphorylation and deamidation modifications. Components C1, C2 and C3 have been characterized. We are currently characterizing component C8. Dogfish MBP is less cationic than mammalian MBP and has about 50% lower mobility on a basic pH gel electrophoresis relative to human and to bovine MBP. The mammalian component C1, which is unmodified, is modified in the dogfish by phosphorylation. The reduced electrophoretic mobility is largely attributable to the charge reduction resulting from phosphorylation in serine 72, 83, and 120 or 121 in C1, and C3. In component C2, two or three phosphate groups were distributed among residues 134, 138 and 139. It was found that dogfish amino acid residue 30 was a lysine residue and not a glutamate residue as reported in the literature.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2001 · Neurochemical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have shown that the abundance of numerous mouse liver proteins is altered in response to treatment with chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation. The peptide masses from tryptic digests of two liver proteins showing dramatic decreases in abundance in response to numerous peroxisome proliferators were used to search sequence databases. The selenium-binding protein 2 (SBP2 formerly 56 kDa acetaminophen-binding protein, AP 56) and selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1 formerly 56 kDa selenium-binding protein, SP 56) in mouse liver, proteins with a high degree of sequence similarity, were the highest ranked identities obtained. Identity with SBP2 was subsequently confirmed by immunodetection with specific antiserum. Treatment of mice with 0.025% ciprofibrate resulted in the more basic of this pair of proteins being decreased to 30% of control abundance while the acidic protein was decreased to 7% of the control amount. Dexamethasone treatment, in contrast, caused increases of 80% and 20% in the abundance of the acidic and basic forms, respectively. Administration of dexamethasone to mice in combination with ciprofibrate produced expression of the acidic SBP2 at 23% of the control level and the basic SBP2 at 36%, a slightly moderated reduction compared with the decrease that occurred with ciprofibrate alone. These data suggest that peroxisome proliferators such as ciprofibrate cause a decrease in the abundance of the SBP2, which leads to increased cell proliferation, even in the presence of an inhibitor such as dexamethasone. Such a decrease in SBP, thought to serve as cell growth regulation factors, could be central to the nongenotoxic carcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferators observed in rodents.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have shown that the abundance of numerous mouse liver proteins is altered in response to treatment with chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation. The peptide masses from tryptic digests of two liver proteins showing dramatic decreases in abundance in response to numerous peroxisome proliferators were used to search sequence databases. The selenium-binding protein 2 (SBP2 formerly 56 kDa acetaminophen-binding protein, AP 56) and selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1 formerly 56 kDa selenium-binding protein, SP 56) in mouse liver, proteins with a high degree of sequence similarity, were the highest ranked identities obtained. Identity with SBP2 was subsequently confirmed by immunodetection with specific antiserum. Treatment of mice with 0.025% ciprofibrate resulted in the more basic of this pair of proteins being decreased to 30% of control abundance while the acidic protein was decreased to 7% of the control amount. Dexamethasone treatment, in contrast, caused increases of 80% and 20% in the abundance of the acidic and basic forms, respectively. Administration of dexamethasone to mice in combination with ciprofibrate produced expression of the acidic SBP2 at 23% of the control level and the basic SBP2 at 36%, a slightly moderated reduction compared with the decrease that occurred with ciprofibrate alone. These data suggest that peroxisome proliferators such as ciprofibrate cause a decrease in the abundance of the SBP2, which leads to increased cell proliferation, even in the presence of an inhibitor such as dexamethasone. Such a decrease in SBP, thought to serve as cell growth regulation factors, could be central to the nongenotoxic carcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferators observed in rodents.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: A novel two-dimensional liquid-phase separation method was developed that is capable of resolving large numbers of cellular proteins. The proteins are separated by pI using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and by hydrophobicity using nonporous reversed-phase HPLC in the second dimension (IEF-NP RP HPLC). Proteins were mapped using original software in order to create a protein pattern analogous to that of the 2-D PAGE image. RP HPLC peaks are represented by bands of different intensity in the 2-D image, according to the intensity of the peaks eluting from the HPLC. Each peak was collected as the eluent of the HPLC separation in the liquid phase. The proteins collected were identified using proteolytic enzymes, MALDI-TOF MS and MSFit database searching. Using IEF-NP RP HPLC, approximately 700 bands were resolved in a pI range from 3.2 to 9.5 and 38 different proteins with molecular weights ranging from 12,000 to 75,000 were identified. In comparison to a 2-D gel separation of the same human erythroleukemia cell line lysate, the IEF-NP RP HPLC produced improved resolution of low mass and basic proteins. In addition, the proteins remained in the liquid phase throughout the separation, thus making the entire procedure highly amenable to automation and high throughput. It is demonstrated that IEF-NP RP HPLC provides a viable alternative to the 2-D gel separation method for the screening of protein profiles.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Analytical Chemistry
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    Peiqing Huang · Daniel B. Wall · Stephen Parus · David M. Lubman
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary high-performance liquid chromatography has been coupled on-line with an ion trap storage/reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer to perform tandem mass spectrometry for tryptic peptides. Selection and fragmentation of the precursor ions were performed in a three-dimensional ion trap, and the resulting fragment ions were pulsed out of the trap into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. The stored waveform inverse Fourier transform waveform was applied to perform ion selection and an improved tickle voltage optimization scheme was used to generate collision-induced dissociation. Tandem mass spectra of various doubly charged tryptic peptides were investigated where a conspicuous y ion series over a certain mass range defined a partial amino acid sequence. The partial sequence was used to determine the identity of the peptide or even the protein by database search using the sequence tag approach. Several peptides from tryptic digests of horse heart myoglobin and bovine cytochrome c were selected for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) where it was demonstrated that the proteins could be identified based on sequence tags derived from MS/MS spectra. This approach was also utilized to identify protein spots from a two-dimensional gel separation of a human esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
  • Daniel B. Wall · David M. Lubman · Shannon J. Flynn
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    ABSTRACT: A method for rapid profiling of water-soluble proteins from whole cell lysates has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) following separation by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC). Rapid separation of proteins from cell lysates was achieved using columns packed with C18 nonporous (NP) silica beads. Using this method, the whole cell lysate water-soluble proteins of E. coli were separated in under 15 min. A method using two columns in series at different temperatures was used in order to provide high loadability without loss of separation efficiency. The nonporous packing in the columns provided for high recovery. Eluting fractions were collected and analyzed by MALDI-TOFMS to determine the molecular weights and peptide maps of the proteins. These methods provided for the rapid screening and identification of proteins from E. coli where the response of E. coli to L-arabinose induction was studied. In this work, it is demonstrated that NP RP HPLC with MALDI-TOFMS detection may serve as a rapid means of detecting and identifying changes in bacterial protein expression due to external stimuli.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to rapidly detect and profile large proteins from Escherichia coli whole cell lysates in the mass range 25-500 kDa. The bacterial samples were treated with guanidine hydrochloride and Triton X-100 to disrupt and solubilize the large inner membrane proteins. A sample preparation involving a nitrocellulose polymer film, and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapinic acid or caffeic acid as matrix was utilized to rapidly monitor the presence of induced and repressed protein synthesis in response to L-arabinose catabolism in E. coli cells. The results were compared to those of 1-D or 2-D gel electrophoresis.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

Publication Stats

738 Citations
44.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002-2004
    • Waters Corporation
      Милфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997-2002
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Chemistry
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States