[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the third most prevalent urological cancer, claims more than 100,000 lives/year worldwide. The clear cell (ccRCC) is the most common and aggressive subtype of renal cancer. Commonly asymptomatic, more than 30% of ccRCCs are diagnosed when they are already metastatic resulting in a 95% mortality rate and one-third of organ-confined cancers treated by nephrectomy develop metastasis during follow-up. At present, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to screen, diagnose and monitor renal cancers are clearly needed. Hepatitis A virus receptor/kidney injury molecule 1(HAVCR1/KIM-1) gene has been claimed to be a susceptibility gene for ccRCC and HAVCR1/KIM-1 ectodomain shedding a predictive biomarker of tumor progression. Microarray assays on 769-PccRCC-derived cells, with up-regulated or silenced HAVCR/KIM-1 levels, revealed relevant HAVCR/KIM-1-related targets some of which were further analyzed in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients with 100 month follow-up. We found that HAVCR/KIM-1 activates the IL-6/STAT-3/HIF-1A axis in ccRCC-derived cell lines which depends on HAVCR/KIM-1 shedding. Moreover, we found that pSTAT-3 S727 levels represent an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. We conclude that HAVCR/KIM-1 up-regulation in tumors might represent a novel mechanism to activate tumor growth and angiogenesis and that pSTAT-3 S727 is an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the study:
To correlate hepatitis A virus cellular receptor (HAVCR)/kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumours with patient outcome and study the consequences of HAVCR/KIM-1 ectodomain shedding.
HAVCR/KIM-1 expression in ccRCC, oncocytomes, papillary carcinomas and unaffected tissue counterparts was evaluated. Minimal change disease and pre-clamping normal and ccRCC tissue biopsies were included. Tissue microarrays from 98 ccRCC tumours were analysed. Tumour registry data and patient outcome were retrospectivelly collected. Deletions in HAVCR/KIM-1 ectodomain and lentiviral infection of 786-O cells with HAVCR/KIM-1 mutated constructs to determine their subcellular distribution and invasive capacity were performed.
HAVCR/KIM-1 was expressed in ccRCC, papillary tumours and in tubule cells of adjacent and distal unaffected counterparts of ccRCC tumours. The latest was not related to ischemic or tumour-related paracrine effects since pre-clamping normal biopsies were positive for HAVCR/KIM-1 and unaffected counterparts of papillary tumours were negative. HAVCR/KIM-1 analyses in patients and the invasive capacity of HAVCR/KIM-1 shedding mutants in cell lines demonstrated that: (i) relative low HAVCR/KIM-1 membrane levels correlate with activated shedding in ccRCC patients and mutant cell lines; (ii) augmented shedding directly correlates with higher invasiveness and tumour malignancy. CONCLUDING STATEMENTS: Constitutive expression of HAVCR/KIM-1 in kidney might constitute a susceptibility trait for ccRCC tumour development. Enhanced HAVCR/KIM-1 ectodomain shedding promotes invasive phenotype in vitro and more aggressive tumours in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) following kidney transplantation occurs in a large percentage of patients. Accurate prediction of recurrence and elucidation of its pathogenesis are major therapeutic goals. To detect differential proteins related to FSGS recurrence, proteomic analysis was performed on plasma and urine samples from 35 transplanted idiopathic FSGS patients, divided into relapsing and nonrelapsing. Several proteins were detected increased in urine of relapsing FSGS patients, including a high molecular weight form of apolipoprotein A-I, named ApoA-Ib, found exclusively in relapsing patients. This finding was verified by Western blot individually in the 35 patients and validated in an independent group of 40 patients with relapsing or nonrelapsing FSGS, plus two additional groups: FSGS-unrelated patients showing different proteinuria levels (n = 30), and familial FSGS transplanted patients (n = 14). In the total of 119 patients studied, the ApoA-Ib form was detected in 13 of the 14 relapsing FSGS patients, and in one of the 61 nonrelapsing patients. Only one of the 30 patients with FSGS-unrelated proteinuria tested positive for ApoA-Ib, and was not detected in familial patients. Urinary ApoA-Ib is associated with relapses in idiopathic FSGS and warrants additional investigation to determine its usefulness as biomarker of relapse following transplantation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) is limited by its severe nephrotoxicity that includes reversible vasoconstrictor effects and proximal tubule cell injury, the latter associated whith chronic kidney disease progression. The mechanisms of CsA-induced tubular injury, mainly on the S3 segment, have not been completely elucidated. Kidney androgen-regulated protein (KAP) is exclusively expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells, interacts with the CsA-binding protein cyclophilin B and its expression diminishes in kidneys of CsA-treated mice. Since we reported that KAP protects against CsA toxicity in cultured proximal tubule cells, we hypothesized that low KAP levels found in kidneys of CsA-treated mice might correlate with proximal tubule cell injury. To test this hypothesis, we used KAP Tg mice developed in our laboratory and showed that these mice are more resistant to CsA-induced tubular injury than control littermates. Furthermore, we found that calpain, which was activated by CsA in cell cultures and kidney, is involved in KAP degradation and observed that phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues found in KAP PEST sequences by protein kinase CK2 enhances KAP degradation by calpain. Moreover, we also observed that CK2 inhibition protected against CsA-induced cytotoxicity. These findings point to a novel mechanism for CsA-induced kidney toxicity that might be useful in developing therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing tubular cell damage while maintaining the immunosuppressive effects of CsA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA), are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1) that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims: Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) and citrulline are non-invasive biomarkers that can be used to monitor nutritional and intestinal changes in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Yet, while the role of citrulline has been well established, further research is needed to understand apo A-IV's utility. Methods: Twenty-eight patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery by laparotomy, either a subtotal gastrectomy or a hemicolectomy, and were placed on short-term PN, were selected and assigned on a Parenteral-Oral (4-day PN and 4-day oral, 8 patients) or a Parenteral-Only (7-day PN, 20 patients) nutritional regime. They were delivered PN solutions (PN1 to PN4) containing varying amounts of amino acids, fat and carbohydrates. Results: Pre-operative apo A-IV and citrulline values were within those of a western population. On day 4 in the Parenteral-Oral regime, apo A-IV and citrulline levels were 70% and 60% lower than pre-operative levels, respectively. When enteral feeding was resumed, citrulline rose faster than apo A-IV and was close to pre-operative values on day 8. In the Parenteral-Only regime the PN solution composition had no influence on the parameters. While Apo A-IV levels decreased with time, citrulline started increasing on day 2. Conclusions: Both biomarkers can be used complementarily to monitor intestinal function. While apo A-IV may be more sensitive than citrulline in measuring the impact of a lack of oral intake, citrulline reacts faster to the onset of enteral nutrition.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · e-SPEN the European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the TRPC6 gene have been reported in six families with adult-onset (17-57 years) autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Electrophysiology studies confirmed augmented calcium influx only in three of these six TRPC6 mutations. To date, the role of TRPC6 in childhood and adulthood non-familial forms is unknown.
TRPC6 mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing in 130 Spanish patients from 115 unrelated families with FSGS. An in silico scoring matrix was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity of amino acid substitutions, by using the bio-physical and bio-chemical differences between wild-type and mutant amino acid, the evolutionary conservation of the amino acid residue in orthologues, homologues and defined domains, with the addition of contextual information.
Three new missense substitutions were identified in two clinically non-familial cases and in one familial case. The analysis by means of this scoring system allowed us to classify these variants as likely pathogenic mutations. One of them was detected in a female patient with unusual clinical features: mesangial proliferative FSGS in childhood (7 years) and partial response to immunosupressive therapy (CsA + MMF). Asymptomatic carriers of this likely mutation were found within her family.
We describe for the first time TRPC6 mutations in children and adults with non-familial FSGS. It seems that TRPC6 is a gene with a very variable penetrance that may contribute to glomerular diseases in a multi-hit setting.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) as a potent immunosuppressant has been limited by its severe nephrotoxic effects. The mechanisms involved are haemodynamic but also related to direct toxic effects of CsA on proximal tubule epithelial cells. We focused on defining a proteomic profile in CsA-treated proximal tubule cells to distinguish the direct impact of CsA on these cells from overlapping haemodynamically mediated phenomena that occur in an in vivo system.
By means of high-throughput differential proteomic analyses and mass spectrometry techniques in CsA and vehicle-treated proximal tubule-derived cell lines of human and mouse origin, we determined proteins that change their expression in the presence of CsA.
CsA-induced toxicity analyses revealed that 10 mM CsA for 24 h was the threshold condition to induce significant changes in cell viability and proteomic profile. We identified 38 differentially expressed proteins on CsA-treated mouse PCT3 and human HK-2 cells, related to protein metabolism, response to damage, cell organization and cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, cell cycle and nucleobase/nucleoside/nucleotidic metabolism. 1D and 2D western blot assays in crude extracts from CsA-treated cells or kidneys with impaired function upon CsA treatment revealed a correlation with proteomic changes or differential isoform expression, in randomly selected proteins.
Proteins identified in this work might be useful markers to eventually distinguish CsA toxicity from chronic allograft nephropathy in protocol biopsies of transplanted patients, facilitating the adjustment of CsA doses to non-toxic ranges, as well as to study the impact of potential therapeutic interventions in an animal model.
Preview · Article · May 2009 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic response to injury includes major alterations in protein metabolism; however, little is known about alterations in the synthesis of individual proteins and their role in the stress response. Our aim was to study how individual proteins in liver and muscle are altered by abdominal surgery. Changes produced in mRNA and proteins by abdominal surgery were studied in rats using RAP (random arbitrary priming)-PCR, to investigate mRNA alterations, and standard or isotopic (with in vivo radioactive labelling of proteins) two-dimensional electrophoresis/MS proteomic analyses, to study differential expression of proteins. Many of the differentially expressed proteins identified in blood were specifically synthesized by the liver to participate in the stress response. The hepatic proteins (antioxidant proteins, serine protease inhibitors, acute-phase proteins and transport proteins) were secreted into the bloodstream to produce a systemic action, indicating the central role of the liver in the stress response. Overexpressed proteins identified in liver were associated with the glycolytic processes and the folding of nascent proteins, confirming the high metabolic activity of the liver after surgery. The role of skeletal muscle protein as an amino acid donor to fuel the processes involved in the stress response was shown by the decrease in high-molecular-mass myofibrillar proteins. Combined use of the three techniques studied, differential RAP-PCR and standard and isotopic proteome analysis, provided complementary information on the differentially expressed proteins in a rat model of surgical stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic response to surgery includes a net loss of proteins that influences negatively the clinical evolution of the patients. We investigated the effect of perioperative nutrition on protein metabolism alterations immediately after surgery.
A control group of 21 surgery patients were submitted to conventional perioperative nutritional protocol (18 h of fasting plus low-dose glucose after surgery). An experimental group of eight similar patients was given complete parenteral nutrition during 24 h before and 24 h after surgery. Nitrogen balance, whole body protein synthesis, breakdown, and 3-methylhistidine were determined before surgery and 24 h after surgery.
The immediate response to surgery with conventional nutritional management was a net protein loss (-1.023 g prot. kg(-1) day(-1)), caused by an increase in the protein breakdown (137.9% of preoperative values), while the protein synthesis remained unchanged (98.4%). The 3-methylhistidine excretion was not increased in respect to perioperative values, suggesting that the degraded protein was not from muscular origin. The experimental group with perioperative nutrition showed neither protein loss (+0.075 g prot. kg(-1) day(-1)) nor changes in protein synthesis or breakdown vs. preoperative values (96.3% and 88.0%, respectively).
Perioperative nutrition prevents the early protein losses after gastrointestinal surgery.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biochemical indicators are used to assess the adequacy of nutritional support given to postoperative patients. However, the metabolic alterations present in these patients diminish the efficiency of these indicators. The objective of this work is to determine the usefulness of short-lived proteins as indicators to assess the nutritional support administered to patients during the metabolic stress phase produced by surgery.
The nitrogen balance and plasma concentrations of transthyretin, retinol binding protein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 were determined in 24 patients who received 4 different nutritional regimens during 7 days after surgery.
Transthyretin and retinol binding protein, although sensitive to nutritional intake (P<0.0005 and P<0.04 respectively), were strongly affected by the stress response (P<0.008 and P<0.0003 respectively), thus limiting their usefulness for nutrition assessment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 was not influenced by the stress response and was sensitive to the nutritional supply (P<0.0001). Insulin-like growth factor-1 was the only component that showed similar efficiency than nitrogen balance as nutritional indicator.
Transthyretin and retinol binding protein are not adequate to assess the nutritional supply during the stress phase after surgery, while insulin-like growth factor-1 is a suitable indicator of the adequacy of recent intake in this situation, similar in performance to nitrogen balance.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the amino acid requirements of the senescent rat, as part of a study directed toward nutritional support in the aged, it was necessary to determine amino acid levels in plasma and tissue, but also regional blood flow of the animals subjected to fast. Only this latter allows the determination of the amounts of each amino acid present in the tissue before starvation by extrapolation of values measured during starvation. As plasma and tissue amino acid had been previously determined, the aim of this study had been to measure regional blood flow in the liver, kidney, testis, spleen, stomach, small intestine and large intestine in senescent rats submitted to 1, 5, 9 and 15 days of starvation. Twenty-four-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 16) were divided into four groups (n = 4), and submitted to starvation for 1, 5, 9 and 15 days. Blood flow in the liver, kidney, testis, spleen, stomach, and small and large intestine was measured by injecting 0.5 ml of a microsphere solution (15 microns diameter) labelled with 57Co, 0.25 microCi/ml. Over the 15-day period studied, the response to starvation showed two distinct phases: an early effect (from day 1 to day 9) in which there were decreases in the weight of the organs and in organ blood flow, and a second phase (from day 9 to day 15) in which blood flow and organ weight were maintained. However, organ blood flow related to mass was not substantially affected by starvation. This implies that measurement of substrate plasma concentration alone can reliably reflect organ substrate flow.
No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Oxidative damage has been associated with ageing, but there is no agreement as to whether or not it is produced by a decrease in antioxidant defences with the ageing process. In purified lymphocytes from 47 healthy elderly (75.27 +/- 0.91 years) and 47 healthy young (29.87 +/- 0.53 years) volunteers, we studied the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), protein oxidative damage (as protein carbonyl content) and lysosomal proteolytic activity (cathepsins B, H and L), with and without exposure to oxidative stress produced by 25 mumol/l H2O2. 2. There were no differences in antioxidant enzyme activities in the stressed and non-stressed samples between the young and elderly subjects, indicating that there was no relationship between age and antioxidant enzyme activity even in oxidative stress. However, a dissimilar response to oxidative stress was observed in protein oxidative damage and cathepsin B and L activities, depending on the age of the donor. 3. With these results we conclude that oxidative stress produces greater protein oxidative damage and increased protein degradation in elderly subjects than in young ones; this effect cannot be attributed to dissimilar antioxidant enzyme responses to oxidative stress, since these did not differ between the two age groups.
No preview · Article · May 1998 · Clinical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work attempts to determine if there are differences in protein metabolism in post-surgical patients who receive parenteral nutrition with amino acids plus glucose (G+AA) or conventional gluco-salinal solution (GS). Eighteen patients submitted to gastrointestinal surgery were randomized and double-blindly administered either G+AA (1 g AA/kg x d and 28 kJ/kg x d), or GS (28 kJ/kg x d). Protein metabolism was determined 12 h after surgery (day 0) and after 5 days of nutritional support. On day 0, protein breakdown was similarly elevated, with respect to reference values, in both groups (GS: 4.62 +/- 0.25; G+AA: 5.25 +/- 0.50 g prot/kg x d) as a result of surgical stress. These values increased significantly at day 5 (P < 0.03) with the administration of GS to 6.93 +/- 1.00 g prot/kg x d, while they decreased (P < 0.002, 3.30 +/- 0.42 g prot/kg x d) with G+AA. Protein synthesis was increased (5.69 +/- 0.86 g prot/kg x d) with GS (P < 0.02), and was decreased (2.79 +/- 0.44 g prot/kg x d) with G+AA (P < 0.0002). Both synthesis and breakdown were inside normal reference values after 5 days for group G+AA. In both groups, nitrogen balance did not change significantly at day 5 compared to day 0. G+AA is effective in curbing the hypermetabolism produced by postoperative stress, achieving normal protein metabolism in 5 days, while GS increases the protein breakdown and synthesis. Nitrogen balance does not detect these modifications of the protein metabolism. Undernutrition on prognosis is not yet fully recognized.
No preview · Article · Apr 1997 · Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the effects of hypocaloric diets with different supplements on liver and jejunal mucosa protein synthesis. The supplements assayed were medium chain triglycerides (diet MCT, with 50% carbohydrates: 25% long chain triglycerides (LCT): 25% medium chain triglycerides (MCT), standard amino acids), branched-chain amino acids (diet BCA, identical to control diet L50, with 15.3% of nitrogen replaced by branched-chain amino acids) and glutamine (diet GLN, identical to diet L50, with 15.3% of nitrogen replaced by glutamine). The control diet (L50) had 50% carbohydrates: 50% LCT and standard amino acids. The diets were assayed on 86 rats with femoral fracture immobilized by Kirschner pin insertion. Nutrition was administered for 4 days. On the fifth day, liver and jejunal mucosa protein synthesis was determined. A branched-chain amino acid supply in a proportion higher than 21.2% of amino acid nitrogen significantly decreased liver and jejunal mucosa protein synthesis, while the same amount of glutamine did not modify it. MCT had no effect on jejunal mucosa protein synthesis, while it was decreased significantly in the liver.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the effects of low energy parenteral diets with different lipid/glucose ratios on rat liver and jejunal mucosa protein synthesis. The studied diets were: L0 (100% glucose, control diet), L25 (25% lipids: 75% glucose), L50 (50% lipids: 50% glucose) and L75 (75% lipids: 25 % glucose). All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenated, with a standard amino acid content. The diets were assayed in 93 rats with open femoral fracture immobilized by Kirschner pin insertion. The diets were administered for 4 days. On the fifth day, liver and jejunal mucosa protein synthesis were determined. Highest liver protein synthesis rates were obtained with the diet compositions: lipid/carbohydrate ratio: 25% lipids and 75% carbohydrates (expressed as energy ratio). A higher proportion of lipids significantly decreases liver protein synthesis (p <0.05). Jejunal mucosa protein synthesis followed the same pattern, with the same statistical differences.
No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the protein synthesis and morphology of jejunal mucosa in non-hypercatabolic stress, sixty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to surgical stress by femoral fracture. The rats were divided into 3 groups and received TPN for 8 days. One group received a standard amino acid solution without glutamine, the second group a standard solution enriched with glycine and glutamic acid, and the third group a standard solution enriched with glycyl-glutamine. All regimens were isocaloric and isonitrogenous-nitrogen (2.2 g/kg.day), glucose (150 Kcal/kg.day), and lipids (150 Kcal/kg.day). There were no statistically significant differences in jejunal mucosal thickness, DNA content, protein content, fractional synthesis rate or absolute protein synthesis among the groups after eight days of parenteral nutrition. In conclusion, the addition of glutamine to TPN did not influence either protein metabolism or morphology of the jejunal mucosa in non-hypercatabolic surgical stress.
No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca