R S Hellman

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (103)400.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), imaging studies are obtained to facilitate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. If imaging studies are nonlocalizing, it is not known if exploration should begin on a particular side or gland location. A retrospective review of a prospective parathyroid database was performed. The cohort consists of pHPT patients who underwent initial parathyroidectomy between December 1999 and July 2010 and had all preoperative imaging studies reported as nonlocalizing (negative or indeterminate). Of 880 patients, 151 (17%) had nonlocalizing imaging studies. Reasons for starting exploration on a particular side were identified in 78 (52%) patients and included concomitant thyroid pathology (53%), suspicion on surgeon re-review of imaging (38%), or earlier thyroidectomy (9%). Exploration began on the right in 52%, the left in 42%, and was unknown in 6%. The surgeon had suspicion on imaging in 30 patients and correctly started on the side of pathology in 19 (63%). Hyperfunctioning glands were in eutopic locations in 144 patients (95%) and 3 had intrathyroidal glands. In 111 patients (74%) with single gland disease, median adenoma weight was 320 mg (range 80 to 8,210 mg). There was no difference in adenoma laterality (p = 0.7) or location (p = 0.8). Intraoperative parathyroid hormone criteria were met in 145 (96%) patients and 149 are eucalcemic at last follow-up; 2 (0.7%) patients have persistent disease. In pHPT patients with nonlocalizing imaging, hyperfunctioning glands are not more frequently located on a particular side or anatomic position. Eutopic location is common and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring should be used to guide the extent of surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • Kaushik Shahir · Lawrence Goodman · Robert Hellman

    No preview · Article · May 2011 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence of CT pulmonary angiography and perfusion scanning in terms of diagnostic quality and negative predictive value in the imaging of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnancy. Between 2000 and 2007 at a university hospital and a large private hospital, 199 pregnant patients underwent 106 CT pulmonary angiographic examinations and 99 perfusion scans. Image quality was evaluated, and the findings were reread by radiologists and compared with the original clinical readings. Three-month follow-up findings of PE and deep venous thrombosis were recorded. PE was found in four of the 106 patients (3.7%) who underwent CT pulmonary angiography. The overall image quality was poor in 5.6% of cases, acceptable in 17.9%, and good in 76.4%. Fourteen CT and nine radiographic studies showed other clinically significant abnormalities. Six patients had indeterminate CT pulmonary angiographic findings, three had normal perfusion scans, and none underwent anticoagulation. All perfusion scan findings were normal. There was one incomplete study, and follow-up CT pulmonary angiography performed the same day showed PE. Two of 99 studies (2.02%) showed intermediate probability of the presence of PE; PE was not found at CT pulmonary angiography, but pneumonia was found. PE was found in one postpartum patient 9 weeks after she had undergone CT pulmonary angiography and ultrasound with normal findings. None of the patients died. CT pulmonary angiography and perfusion scanning have equivalent clinical negative predictive value (99% for CT pulmonary angiography; 100% for perfusion scanning) and image quality in the care of pregnant patients. Therefore, the choice of study should be based on other considerations, such as radiation concern, radiographic results, alternative diagnosis, and equipment availability. Reducing the amount of radiation to the maternal breast favors use of perfusion scanning when the radiographic findings are normal and there is no clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · American Journal of Roentgenology
  • Nicholas W Choong · Robert S Hellman

    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The C2A domain of Synaptotagmin I is a molecular probe for the specific imaging of cell death. Here we test the hypothesis that the uptake of 99mTc-C2A in the acute phase of an infarction is associated with cardiac dysfunction in follow-ups. The left coronary artery was occluded in Sprague-Dawley rats for 0, 10, 20, and 30 min. 99mTc-C2A was injected intravenously at 2 h of reperfusion. Anterior planar images were acquired with one million counts on a gamma camera 3 h after injection. 99mTc-C2A uptake was calculated as the total counts in the left ventricle region minus blood pool signal. The in-vivo signal detected was correlated with wall motion score index at 1 and 3 weeks follow-ups measured by echocardiography. 99mTc-C2A uptake was higher with increased ischemic time (2244+/-852, 4054+/-1223, and 6178+/-1451 for 10, 20, and 30 min ischemia, analysis of variance P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between 99mTc-C2A uptake and wall motion score index at 1 week (R=0.800, P=0.0006) and 3 weeks (R=0.810, P=0.0008). In this ischemia/reperfusion model, 99mTc-C2A uptake in the acute phase was associated with functional abnormality at 1 and 3 weeks. This demonstrates the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of 99mTc-C2A as a novel imaging agent.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether multidetector computerized tomography urography is sensitive and specific for detecting urinary tract neoplasms when used as the primary imaging modality for evaluating patients with hematuria. A retrospective review was performed of the radiological, urological and pathological records of 468 patients without a history of urinary neoplasms who presented with hematuria. All patients underwent multidetector computerized tomography urography and complete urological evaluation, including cystoscopy. Laboratory urinalysis and cytology were done in 350 and 318 of the 468 patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using the variables multidetector computerized tomography urography diagnosis, worst urine cytology, number of red blood cells per high power field, gross hematuria, age and gender to predict urinary tract neoplasm. A total of 50 urinary neoplasms were diagnosed in 468 patients. Multidetector computerized tomography urography detected 32 of 50 neoplasms for a sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 76% and negative predictive value of 96%. There were 10 false-positive and 18 false-negative multidetector computerized tomography urography studies. Multivariate logistic regression showed that abnormal multidetector computerized tomography urography findings, ie neoplasm (p <0.0001), and suspicious or positive urine cytology (p = 0.0009) were significant. Patients with an abnormal multidetector computerized tomography urography diagnosis and suspicious or positive urine cytology had 44 and 47 times greater odds, respectively, of having urinary neoplasms compared to the odds in those with normal examinations. Multidetector computerized tomography urography is relatively sensitive and highly specific for detecting urinary neoplasms. It may serve as the primary imaging modality to evaluate patients with hematuria. Multidetector computerized tomography urography does not eliminate the role of cystoscopy in the evaluation of hematuria.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: The C2A domain of synaptotagmin I recognizes necrotic and apoptotic cells by binding to exposed anionic phospholipids. The goal is to explore the potential imaging utility of 99mTc-labeled C2A in the detection of acute cardiac cell death in a porcine model that resembles human cardiovascular physiology. Ischemia (20-25 min) was induced in pigs (M/F, 20-25 kg) using balloon angioplasty. 99mTc-C2A-GST (n=7) or 99mTc-BSA (n=2) was injected intravenously 1-2 h after reperfusion. Noninfarct animals were injected with 99mTc-C2A-GST (n=4). SPECT images were acquired at 3 and 6 h postinjection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed to confirm the presence of cell death. Focal uptake was detected in five out of seven subjects at 3 h and in all infarct subjects at 6 h postinjection but not in infarct animals injected with 99mTc-BSA or in noninfarct animals with 99mTc-C2A-GST. Gamma counting of infarct versus normal myocardium yielded a 10.2+/-5.7-fold elevation in absolute radioactivity, with histologically confirmed infarction. We present data on imaging myocardial cell death in the acute phase of infarction in pigs. C2A holds promise and warrants further development as an infarct-avid molecular probe.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Nuclear Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Autonomic dysfunction is associated with a wide variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. It is unclear how many patients with autonomic dysfunction have slow or rapid gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rapid and delayed solid phase gastric emptying in patients with autonomic dysfunction referred for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms and the association of emptying rate with clinical symptoms. Retrospective review of all patients with autonomic dysfunction who had a gastric emptying test from January, 1996 to March, 2005. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS) score, and gastric emptying parameters were analyzed. Sixty-one subjects (women 49, age 42 [16-74] yr) with autonomic dysfunction were reviewed. Patients had mild-to-moderate (mean CASS score 3) autonomic dysfunction. Twenty-seven, 17, and 17 patients had rapid, normal, and delayed gastric emptying t(1/2), respectively. In addition, 10 patients had initially rapid emptying in phase 1, with subsequent slowing in phase 2 to produce an overall normal or delayed t(1/2). There was no difference in demographic data or CASS score among the three groups. More patients with initial or overall rapid emptying had diarrhea (70%) compared to patients with normal (33%) or delayed (33%) emptying (P= 0.018). Unexpectedly, more patients with autonomic dysfunction have rapid rather than delayed gastric emptying. The presence of diarrhea in patients with autonomic symptoms should prompt consideration for the presence of rapid gastric emptying. Conversely, the finding of rapid gastric emptying in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should prompt consideration for the presence of underlying autonomic dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdS) is a common molecular marker for both apoptosis and necrosis and enables the simultaneous detection of these distinct modes of cell death. Our aim was to develop a radiotracer based on the PtdS-binding activity of the C2A domain of synaptotagmin I and assess 99mTc-C2A-GST (GST is glutathione S-transferase) using a reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rat model. The binding of C2A-GST toward apoptosis and necrosis was validated in vitro. After labeling with 99mTc via 2-iminothiolane thiolation, radiochemical purity and radiostability were tested. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were studied in healthy rats. The uptake of 99mTc-C2A-GST within the area at risk was quantified by direct gamma-counting, whereas nonspecific accumulation was estimated using inactivated 99mTc-C2A-GST. In vivo planar imaging of AMI in rats was performed on a gamma-camera using a parallel-hole collimator. Radioactivity uptake was investigated by region-of-interest analysis, and postmortem tetrazolium staining versus autoradiography. Fluorescently labeled and radiolabeled C2A-GST bound both apoptotic and necrotic cells. 99mTc-C2A-GST had a radiochemical purity of >98% and remained stable. After intravenous injection, the uptake in the liver and kidneys was significant. For 99mTc-C2A-GST, radioactivity uptake in the area at risk reached between 2.40 and 2.63 %ID/g (%ID/g is percentage injected dose per gram) within 30 min and remained plateaued for at least 3 h. In comparison, with the inactivated tracer the radioactivity reached 1.06 +/- 0.49 %ID/g at 30 min, followed by washout to 0.52 +/- 0.23 %ID/g. In 7 of 7 rats, the infarct was clearly identifiable as focal uptake in planar images. At 3 h after injection, the infarct-to-lung ratios were 2.48 +/- 0.27, 1.29 +/- 0.09, and 1.46 +/- 0.04 for acute-infarct rats with (99m)Tc-C2A-GST, sham-operated rats with (99m)Tc-C2A-GST, and acute-infarct rats with 99mTc-C2A-GST-NHS (NHS is N-hydroxy succinimide), respectively. The distribution of radioactivity was confirmed by autoradiography and histology. The C2A domain of synaptotagmin I labeled with fluorochromes or a radioisotope binds to both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Ex vivo and in vivo data indicate that, because of elevated vascular permeability, both specific binding and passive leakage contribute to the accumulation of the radiotracer in the area at risk. However, the latter component alone is insufficient to achieve detectable target-to-background ratios with in vivo planar imaging.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    Robert S Hellman · Arthur Z Krasnow · Gary S Sudakoff
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    ABSTRACT: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful functional imaging method that complements conventional anatomic imaging modalities for screening patients with colorectal hepatic metastases and hepatocellular cancer to determine their suitability for interventional procedures. FDG PET is more sensitive in detecting colorectal cancer than hepatocellular cancer (~90% versus ~50%). The likelihood of detecting hepatic malignancy with FDG PET rapidly diminishes for lesions smaller than 1 cm. The greatest value of FDG PET in these patients is in excluding extrahepatic disease that might lead to early recurrence after interventional therapy. Promising results have been reported with FDG PET that may show residual (local) or recurrent disease before conventional imaging methods in patients receiving interventional therapy. For patients with colorectal hepatic metastases, many investigators believe that patients with PET evidence of recurrent hepatic disease should receive additional treatment even when there is no confirmatory evidence present on other methodologies. For patients with hepatocellular cancer no conclusions regarding the value of FDG PET for assessment of response to interventional therapy can be reached as there is almost no published data.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Seminars in Interventional Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a saline bolus during CT urography improves urinary collecting system opacification and whether the addition of enhanced CT digital radiography (CTDR) improves urinary collecting system visualization with or without a saline bolus. One hundred eight CT urography and enhanced CTDR examinations were reviewed. Fifty-four patients were given a saline bolus during CT urography, and 54 patients underwent CT urography without a saline bolus. Urinary collecting system opacification was evaluated by group (saline vs nonsaline), imaging technique (CT urography alone vs CT urography plus enhanced CTDR), number of enhanced CTDR images, and site of nonopacified urinary segments. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, we determined significance of variables and odds of complete opacification. In the saline group, 248 nonopacified sites were identified on CT urography alone and 95 sites with CT urography plus enhanced CTDR. In the nonsaline group, 185 nonopacified sites were identified on CT urography alone and 59 sites with CT urography plus enhanced CTDR. Combining both groups, 433 nonopacified sites were identified with CT urography alone and 154 sites with CT urography plus enhanced CTDR. Multivariate logistic regression showed significance for group (p = 0.010), imaging method (p < 0.0001), number of enhanced CTDR images (p = 0.048), and site of segment opacification (p < 0.0001). The renal pelvis shows the greatest odds and the distal ureter the lowest odds for complete opacification by group or imaging method. The addition of a saline bolus offers no improvement, whereas the addition of enhanced CTDR offers significant improvement in collecting system opacification during CT urography.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: Scintigraphy is the currently accepted method for evaluation of gastric emptying. Although quantitative, this method is complicated, time-consuming, and costly. If a simple endoscopic technique was available for those instances when quantification of an emptying abnormality is not needed, the same clinical information could be obtained in less time and with resource savings. Our aims in this study were therefore to assess the technical feasibility, tolerability, and safety of unsedated transnasal esophagogastroscopy (T-EG) as a technique for qualitative assessment of gastric emptying. The study was done in two phases. In the first phase, 18 volunteers (ten men, eight women) underwent T-EG at 4 hours, 5 hours, or 6 hours after ingestion of a standard meal used for scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying without radiolabeling. In the second phase, ten volunteers underwent T-EG after scintigraphic imaging had demonstrated complete gastric emptying. Subjects in both phases tolerated the procedure well and completed the study. In the first phase, 13 of 15 volunteers exhibited complete gastric emptying at 6 hours (87%), while two (13%) revealed some particulate matter in the stomach at that time. In the second phase, one of the ten volunteers exhibited a small amount of solid food residue in the stomach despite documentation of scintigraphic complete emptying. Evaluation of gastric emptying by unsedated T-EG is both feasible and safe. In healthy, asymptomatic individuals, complete gastric emptying of solid food may take as long as 6 hours.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Endoscopy
  • John N Rydberg · Gary S Sudakoff · Robert S Hellman · William A See
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombus of the renal vein or inferior vena cava is a known complication of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accurate discrimination between bland and malignant thrombus can have significant implications toward clinical management. Distinguishing between these 2 entities is not usually possible with enhanced computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging. This case reports the role of combined positron emission tomography-CT imaging in the accurate detection of recurrent RCC after partial nephrectomy and surgically proven tumor thrombus in the renal vein and inferior vena cava.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
  • Atiye Nur Aktay · Steven L Werlin · Robert S Hellman
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    ABSTRACT: Information on the utility of solid-phase gastric emptying studies (SPGES) in the evaluation of children with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal (GI) motor dysfunction is limited. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of SPGES in the clinical management and outcome of children with upper GI symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. The records of 45 children who underwent SPGES (31F; 3-17 years) were reviewed. All patients had GI symptoms suggesting gastroparesis. Patients were fed with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid-labeled chicken liver. Adult normal half-life (T1/2) values (F 103 +/- 14 minutes; M 66 +/- 13.6 minutes) were used. The relationships among symptoms, treatment, and outcome were evaluated. Of the 45 patients 9 had delayed, 16 had rapid, and 20 had normal gastric emptying. Six of 9 patients with delayed gastric emptying responded to cisapride. Four of 16 patients with rapid emptying were diagnosed with the dumping syndrome. Of the children with rapid gastric emptying, 87% were females. Twenty patients with normal emptying were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux (8), nonulcer dyspepsia (5), irritable bowel syndrome (2), Helicobacter pylori (1), lactose intolerance (1), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (1), duodenitis (1), and constipation (1). In patients who had SPGES for possible gastroparesis, 20% had gastroparesis, 36% had rapid gastric emptying, and 44% had normal gastric emptying. The high number of females in the rapid gastric emptying group might be secondary to normal adult female T1/2 values that were used. The practice of using adult normal T1/2 values in prepubertal girls may need to be revised. Patients with delayed gastric emptying responded to cisapride.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Clinical Pediatrics
  • S Kutlan Ozker · Robert S Hellman · Arthur Z Krasnow
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    ABSTRACT: Substance P (SP) is an ll-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family. This study investigated the preparation of an SP analog labeled with 99mTc for imaging SP receptor positive tissue (inflammatory diseases and neoplasms with increased expression of SP receptors). High specific activity 99mTc-SP was prepared using the l-imino-4-mercaptobutyl (IMB) group as a bifunctional chelator. Biological distribution in mice showed increased 99mTc-SP uptake in the salivary glands (which have a high concentration of SP receptors), but this activity was displaced in animals pre-treated with excess non-radioactive SP. These data show that the uptake of 99mTc-SP is receptor specific. IMB derivatization at the N-terminal location is suitable for labeling of SP analogues with 99mTc. Synthetic analogues of SP labeled with 99mTc may be an attractive alternative to 111In labeled molecules and merit further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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    ABSTRACT: Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies were performed on 34 manifest Huntington's disease (HD) patients at various stages of clinical pathology ranging from early chorea to late dystonia with or without signs of dementia and 12 pre-symptomatic patients with abnormal terminal CAG expansions. Thirty HD patients with obvious clinical signs and seven pre-symptomatic patients without signs or symptoms of HD displayed selective caudate hypoperfusion by direct visual inspection. Such qualitative, selective striatal hypoperfusion patterns can be indicative of early and persistent metabolic changes in striatal neuropathology. SPECT studies can be useful in documenting early pre-clinical changes in patients with abnormal terminal CAG expansions and in confirming the presence of caudate pathology in patients with clinical signs of HD.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to compare dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) and dipyridamole Technetium 99-m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scintigraphy (DMIBI) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). Both DASE and DMIBI are effective for evaluating patients for CAD, but their concordance and limitations have not been directly compared. To investigate these aims, patients underwent multistage DASE, DMIBI and coronary angiography within three months. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography and stress-rest DMIBI were performed according to standard techniques and analyzed for their accuracy in predicting the extent of CAD. Segments were assigned to vascular territories according to standard models. Angiography was performed using the Judkin's technique. The 183 patients (mean age: 60 +/- 11 years, including 50 women) consisted of 64 patients with no coronary disease and 61 with single-, 40 with two- and 18 with three-vessel coronary disease. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography and DMIBI were similarly sensitive (87%, 104/119 and 80%, 95/119, respectively) for the detection of CAD, but DASE was more specific (91%, 58/64 vs. 73%, 47/64, p < 0.01). Sensitivity was similar for the detection of CAD in patients with single-vessel disease (84%, 51/61 vs. 74%, 45/61, respectively) and multivessel disease (91%, 53/58 vs. 86%, 50/58, respectively). Multiple wall motion abnormalities and perfusion defects were similarly sensitive for multivessel disease (72%, 42/58 vs. 66%, 38/53, respectively), but, again, DASE was more specific than DMIBI (95%, 119/125 vs. 76%, 95/125, respectively, p < 0.01). Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography and DMIBI were moderately concordant for the detection and extent of CAD (Kappa 0.47, p < 0.0001) but were only fairly (Kappa 0.35, p < 0.001) concordant for the type of abnormalities (normal, fixed, ischemia or mixed). Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography and DMIBI were comparable tests for the detection of CAD. Both were very sensitive for the detection of CAD and moderately sensitive for the extent of disease. The only advantage of DASE was greater specificity, especially for multivessel disease. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography may be advantageous in patients with lower probabilities of CAD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the biodistribution and tumour localization of 99Tcm-labelled-5-thio-D-glucose (99Tcm-TG). 5-Thio-D-glucose was labelled with 99Tcm by direct stannous ion reduction. The biodistribution of 99Tcm-TG was investigated in normal rabbits and in mice bearing experimental tumours. In rabbits, the plasma and clearance of 99Tcm-TG was 14.5 +/- 2.0 and 11.3 +/- 3.0 ml.min-1 respectively. Urinary excretion at 1 h was 53 +/- 5%. 99Tcm-TG was injected intravenously in mice bearing MC26 colon carcinoma and tissue samples were analysed by gamma scintillation counting at various times. Uptake of 99Tcm-TG in tumour at 1 and 3 h was 1.6 +/- 0.3% and 1.2 +/- 0.3%; the tumour to muscle ratios were 2.7:1 and 4:1 respectively. The autoradiographic biodistribution of 99Tcm-TG in MX-1 human breast xenografted nude mice showed more persistent tumour uptake of 99Tcm-TG than 14C-2-deoxyglucose (14C-DG). 99Tcm-TG accumulated in the centre of the tumours; 14C-DG was decreased in this central region probably because of zones of infarction on necrosis. The discordance between the tumour uptake of 99Tcm-TG and 14C-DG indicates that 99Tcm-TG does not act like a glucose analog, suggesting 99Tcm-TG avidity for zones of infarction or necrosis. The further study of 99Tcm-TG in tumours and ischaemic injury is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is known to reveal localized hyperperfusion during partial seizures, but is rarely performed in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We report the ictal SPECT findings in a typical absence seizure. This 35-year-old woman with childhood absence epilepsy underwent prolonged electroencephalogram (EEG)-video monitoring, during which many stereotyped typical absence seizures were recorded. These consisted of brief staring spells with arrest of activity, associated with generalized 3 Hz spike-wave complexes on EEG. Following intravenous (i.v.) injection of 17.6 millicuries of Tc-99m Bicisate, SPECT was performed. The injection was performed during hyperventilation that induced a typical absence. Compared to the baseline SPECT scan that was normal, the ictal scan showed a generalized reduction in cortical activity. These findings do not support the “cortical” theory of typical absence seizures and the genesis of the 3 Hz spike-wave complexes. They may indeed support the subcortical or “centrencephalic” hypothesis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Journal of Epilepsy
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic efficacy of (1) combined three-phase bone scintigraphy and In-111 labeled WBC scintigraphy (Bone/WBC), (2) MRI, and (3) conventional radiography in detecting osteomyelitis of the neuropathic foot was compared. Conventional radiography was comparable to MRI for detection of osteomyelitis. MRI best depicted the presence of osteomyelitis in the forefoot. Particularly in the setting of Charcot joints, Bone/WBC was more specific than conventional radiography or MRI.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · Clinical Nuclear Medicine

Publication Stats

2k Citations
400.39 Total Impact Points


  • 1985-2011
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Division of Nuclear Medicine
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2006
    • Suzhou University
      Suchow, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 1991
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1988
    • Wisconsin Lutheran College
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1987
    • Marquette University
      • Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology
      Milwaukee, WI, United States