S. Corbel

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (299)945.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High resolution X-ray spectra of black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) show blueshifted absorption lines from disk winds which seem to be equatorial. Winds occur in the Softer (disk-dominated) states of the outburst and are less prominent or absent in the Harder (power-law dominated) states. We use self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models to explain the disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter, but is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations. Thus the physical properties of the outflow are controlled by the global structure of the disk. We studied different MHD solutions characterized by different values of (a) the disk aspect ratio ($\varepsilon$) and (b) the ejection efficiency ($p$). We use two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. Such heating could be from e.g. dissipation of energy due to MHD turbulence in the disk or from illumination. We use each of these MHD solutions to predict the physical parameters of an outflow; put limits on the ionization parameter ($\xi$), column density and timescales, motivated by observational results; and thus select regions within the outflow which are consistent with the observed winds. The cold MHD solutions cannot account for winds due to their low ejection efficiency. But warm solutions can explain the observed physical quantities in the wind because they can have sufficiently high values of $p$ ($\gtrsim 0.1$, implying larger mass loading at the base of the outflow). Further from our thermodynamic equilibrium curve analysis for the outflowing gas, we found that in the Hard state a range of $\xi$ is thermodynamically unstable, and had to be excluded. This constrain made it impossible to have any wind at all, in the Hard state.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging by aperture synthesis from interferometric data is a well-known, but is a strong ill-posed inverse problem. Strong and faint radio sources can be imaged unambiguously using time and frequency integration to gather more Fourier samples of the sky. However, these imagers assumes a steady sky and the complexity of the problem increases when transients radio sources are also present in the data. Hopefully, in the context of transient imaging, the spatial and temporal information are separable which enable extension of an imager fit for a steady sky. We introduce independent spatial and temporal wavelet dictionaries to sparsely represent the transient in both spatial domain and temporal domain. These dictionaries intervenes in a new reconstruction method developed in the Compressed Sensing (CS) framework and using a primal-dual splitting algorithm. According to the preliminary tests in different noise regimes, this new "Time-agile" (or 2D-1D) method seems to be efficient in detecting and reconstructing the transients temporal dependence.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: LS I +61 303 is a gamma-ray binary that exhibits an outburst at GHz frequencies each orbital cycle of $\approx$ 26.5 d and a superorbital modulation with a period of $\approx$ 4.6 yr. We have performed a detailed study of the low-frequency radio emission of LS I +61 303 by analysing all the archival GMRT data at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, and conducting regular LOFAR observations within the Radio Sky Monitor (RSM) at 150 MHz. We have detected the source for the first time at 150 MHz, which is also the first detection of a gamma-ray binary at such a low frequency. We have obtained the light-curves of the source at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, all of them showing orbital modulation. The light-curves at 235 and 610 MHz also show the existence of superorbital variability. A comparison with contemporaneous 15-GHz data shows remarkable differences with these light-curves. At 15 GHz we see clear outbursts, whereas at low frequencies we see variability with wide maxima. The light-curve at 235 MHz seems to be anticorrelated with the one at 610 MHz, implying a shift of $\sim$ 0.5 orbital phases in the maxima. We model the shifts between the maxima at different frequencies as due to changes in the physical parameters of the emitting region assuming either free-free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption, obtaining expansion velocities for this region close to the stellar wind velocity with both mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We studied time variability and spectral evolution of the Galactic black hole transient Swift J174510.8-262411 during the first phase of its outburst. INTEGRAL and Swift observations collected from 2012 September 16 until October 30 have been used. The total squared fractional rms values did not drop below 5% and QPOs, when present, were type-C, indicating that the source never made the transition to the soft-intermediate state. Even though the source was very bright (up to 1 Crab in hard X-rays), it showed a so called failed outburst as it never reached the soft state. XRT and IBIS broad band spectra, well represented by a hybrid thermal/non-thermalComptonisationmodel, showed physical parameters characteristic of the hard and intermediate states. In particular, the derived temperature of the geometrically thin disc black body was about 0.6 keV at maximum.We found a clear decline of the optical depth of the corona electrons (close to values of 0.1), as well as of the total compactness ratio lh/ls. The hard-to-hard/intermediate state spectral transition is mainly driven by the increase in the soft photon flux in the corona, rather than small variations of the electron heating. This, associated with the increasing of the disc temperature, is consistent with a disc moving towards the compact object scenario, i.e. the truncated-disc model. Moreover, this scenario is consistent with the decreasing fractional squared rms and increasing of the noise and QPO frequency. In our final group of observations, we found that the contribution from the non-thermal Comptonisation to the total power supplied to the plasma is 0.59+0.02/-0.05 and that the thermal electrons cool to kTe<26 keV.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a four-month campaign searching for low-frequency radio transients near the North Celestial Pole with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), as part of the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). The data were recorded between 2011 December and 2012 April and comprised 2149 11-min snapshots, each covering 175 deg2. We have found one convincing candidate astrophysical transient, with a duration of a few minutes and a flux density at 60 MHz of 15–25 Jy. The transient does not repeat and has no obvious optical or high-energy counterpart, as a result of which its nature is unclear. The detection of this event implies a transient rate at 60 MHz of $3.9^{+14.7}_{-3.7}\times 10^{-4}$ d−1 deg−2, and a transient surface density of 1.5 × 10−5 deg−2, at a 7.9-Jy limiting flux density and ∼10-min time-scale. The campaign data were also searched for transients at a range of other time-scales, from 0.5 to 297 min, which allowed us to place a range of limits on transient rates at 60 MHz as a function of observation duration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Observing Jupiter's synchrotron emission from the Earth remains today the sole method to scrutinize the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic electrons magnetically trapped around the planet (because in-situ particle data are limited in the inner magnetosphere). Aims. We perform the first resolved and low-frequency imaging of the synchrotron emission with LOFAR at 127 MHz. The radiation comes from low energy electrons (~1-30 MeV) which map a broad region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Methods (see article for complete abstract) Results. The first resolved images of Jupiter's radiation belts at 127-172 MHz are obtained along with total integrated flux densities. They are compared with previous observations at higher frequencies and show a larger extent of the synchrotron emission source (>=4 $R_J$). The asymmetry and the dynamic of east-west emission peaks are measured and the presence of a hot spot at lambda_III=230 {\deg} $\pm$ 25 {\deg}. Spectral flux density measurements are on the low side of previous (unresolved) ones, suggesting a low-frequency turnover and/or time variations of the emission spectrum. Conclusions. LOFAR is a powerful and flexible planetary imager. The observations at 127 MHz depict an extended emission up to ~4-5 planetary radii. The similarities with high frequency results reinforce the conclusion that: i) the magnetic field morphology primarily shapes the brightness distribution of the emission and ii) the radiating electrons are likely radially and latitudinally distributed inside about 2 $R_J$. Nonetheless, the larger extent of the brightness combined with the overall lower flux density, yields new information on Jupiter's electron distribution, that may shed light on the origin and mode of transport of these particles.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: LOFAR offers the unique capability of observing pulsars across the 10-240 MHz frequency range with a fractional bandwidth of roughly 50%. This spectral range is well-suited for studying the frequency evolution of pulse profile morphology caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic effects: such as changing emission altitude in the pulsar magnetosphere or scatter broadening by the interstellar medium, respectively. The magnitude of most of these effects increases rapidly towards low frequencies. LOFAR can thus address a number of open questions about the nature of radio pulsar emission and its propagation through the interstellar medium. We present the average pulse profiles of 100 pulsars observed in the two LOFAR frequency bands: High Band (120-167 MHz, 100 profiles) and Low Band (15-62 MHz, 26 profiles). We compare them with Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and Lovell Telescope observations at higher frequencies (350 and1400 MHz) in order to study the profile evolution. The profiles are aligned in absolute phase by folding with a new set of timing solutions from the Lovell Telescope, which we present along with precise dispersion measures obtained with LOFAR. We find that the profile evolution with decreasing radio frequency does not follow a specific trend but, depending on the geometry of the pulsar, new components can enter into, or be hidden from, view. Nonetheless, in general our observations confirm the widening of pulsar profiles at low frequencies, as expected from radius-to-frequency mapping or birefringence theories. We offer this catalog of low-frequency pulsar profiles in a user friendly way via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles (http://www.epta.eu.org/epndb/).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: List of contributions from the CTA Consortium presented at the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOFAR in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at these low frequencies, and half of the detected MSPs were observed for the first time at frequencies below 200 MHz. We present the average pulse profiles of the detected MSPs, their effective pulse widths and flux densities, and compare these with higher observing frequencies. The LOFAR pulse profiles will be publicly available via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles. We also present average values of dispersion measures (DM) and discuss DM and profile variations. About 35% of the MSPs show strong narrow profiles, another 25% exhibit scattered profiles, and the rest are only weakly detected. A qualitative comparison of the LOFAR MSP profiles with those at higher radio frequencies shows constant separation between profile components. Similarly, the profile widths are consistent with those observed at higher frequencies, unless scattering dominates at the lowest frequencies. This is very different from what is observed for normal pulsars and suggests a compact emission region in the MSP magnetosphere. The amplitude ratio of the profile components, on the other hand, can dramatically change towards low frequencies, often with the trailing component becoming dominant. As demonstrated by Dyks et al. (2010) this can be caused by aberration and retardation. This data set enables high-precision studies of pulse profile evolution with frequency, dispersion, Faraday rotation, and scattering in the interstellar medium. Characterizing and correcting these systematic effects may improve pulsar-timing precision at higher observing frequencies, where pulsar timing array projects aim to directly detect gravitational waves.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a multiwavelength observational campaign of the black hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 that consists of an ESO/X-shooter spectrum supported by contemporaneous Swift/XRT+UVOT and ATCA data. ISM absorption lines in the X-shooter spectrum allows us to determine E(B-V)=0.45+/-0.02 along the line-of-sight to the source. We also report detection of emission signatures of He II at 4686 angstrom, H alpha, and, for the first time, H I at 10906 angstrom and Paschen Beta. The double-peaked morphology of these four lines is typical of the chromosphere of a rotating accretion disk. Nonetheless, the paucity of disk features points towards a low level of irradiation in the system. This is confirmed through spectral energy distribution modeling and we find that the UVOT+X-shooter continuum mostly stems from the thermal emission of a viscous disk. We speculate that the absence of reprocessing is due to the compactness of an illumination-induced envelope that fails to reflect enough incoming hard X-ray photons back to the outer regions. The disk also marginally contributes to the Compton-dominated X-ray emission and is strongly truncated, with an inner radius about a thousand times larger than the black hole's gravitational radius. A near-infrared excess is present, and we associate it with synchrotron radiation from a compact jet. However, the measured X-ray flux is significantly higher than what can be explained by the optically thin synchrotron jet component. We discuss these findings in the framework of the radio quiet versus X-ray bright hypothesis, favoring the presence of a residual disk, predicted by evaporation models, that contributes to the X-ray emission without enhancing the radio flux.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: After 25 years of quiescence, the microquasar V404 Cyg entered a new period of activity in June 2015. This X-ray source is known to undergo extremely bright and variable outbursts seen at all wavelengths. It is therefore an object of prime interest to understand the accretion-ejection connections. These can, however, only be probed through simultaneous observations at several wavelengths. We made use of the INTEGRAL instruments to obtain long, almost uninterrupted observations from the optical V-band, up to the soft gamma-rays. V404 Cyg was extremely variable in all bands, with the detection of 18 flares with fluxes exceeding 6 Crab (20-40 keV) within 3 days. The flare recurrence can be as short as 20~min from peak to peak. A model-independent analysis shows that the >6 Crab flares have a hard spectrum. A preliminary 10-400 keV spectral analysis of the off-flare and flare periods shows that the variation in intensity is likely to be due to variations of a cut-off power law component only. At X-ray and gamma-ray energies the flares are very well correlated. The optical activity is also correlated with the high energy one, although there is no one-to-one correlation. Instead the optical flares seem to be at least of two different types: one occurring in simultaneity with the X-ray flares, the other showing a delay greater than 10 min. The former could be associated with X-ray reprocessing by either an accretion disk or the companion star. We suggest that the latter are associated with plasma ejections that have also been seen in radio.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broad-band (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9$\times$10$^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short time scales in radio, soft X-ray and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broad-band X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having photon index {\Gamma}=2.13$\pm$0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3{\sigma} confidence level with e-folding energy of the cutoff to be 19$^{+19}_{-7}$ keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the JVLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast time-scales, switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this fast variability.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report on multi-wavelength measurements of the accreting black hole Swift J1753.5–0127 in the hard state at low luminosity (L ∼ 2.7×10^(36) erg s^(−1) assuming a distance of d = 3 kpc) in 2014 April. The radio emission is optically thick synchrotron, presumably from a compact jet. We take advantage of the low extinction (E(B−V) = 0.45 from earlier work) and model the near-IR to UV emission with a multi-temperature disk model. Assuming a black hole mass of MBH = 5M⊙ and a system inclination of i = 40^◦, the fits imply an inner radius for the disk of R_(in)/R_g > 212 d3 (MBH/5M_⊙)^−1, where R_g is the gravitational radius of the black hole, and d_3 is the distance to the source in units of 3 kpc. The outer radius is R_(out)/R_g = 90,000 d_3 (MBH/5M_⊙)^(−1), which corresponds to 6.6×10^(10) d_3 cm, consistent with the expected size of the disk given previous measurements of the size of the companion’s Roche lobe. The 0.5–240 keV energy spectrum measured by Swift/XRT, Suzaku (XIS, PIN, and GSO), and NuSTAR is relatively well characterized by an absorbed power-law with a photon index of Γ = 1.722±0.003 (90% confidence error), but a significant improvement is seen when a second continuum component is added. Reflection is a possibility, but no iron line is detected, implying a low iron abundance. We are able to fit the entire (radio to 240 keV) spectral energy distribution (SED) with a multi-temperature disk component, a Comptonization component, and a broken power-law, representing the emission from the compact jet. The broken power-law cannot significantly contribute to the soft X-ray emission, and this may be related to why Swift J1753.5–0127 is an outlier in the radio/X-ray correlation. The broken power-law (i.e., the jet) might dominate above 20 keV, which would constrain the break frequency to be between 2.4×10^(10) Hz and 3.6×10^(12) Hz. Although the fits to the full SED do not include significant thermal emission in the X-ray band, previous observations have consistently seen such a component, and we find that there is evidence at the 3.1-σ level for a disk-blackbody component with a temperature of kTin = 150 +30/−20 eV and an inner radius of 5–14R_g. If this component is real, it might imply the presence of an inner optically thick accretion disk in addition to the strongly truncated (R_(in) > 212R_g) disk. We also perform X-ray timing analysis, and the power spectrum is dominated by a Lorentzian component with νmax = 0.110±0.003Hz and νmax = 0.16±0.04 Hz as measured by XIS and XRT, respectively.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present quasi-simultaneous, multi-epoch radio and X-ray measurements of Holmberg II X-1 using the European VLBI Network (EVN), the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and the Chandra and Swift X-ray telescopes. The X-ray data show apparently hard spectra with steady X-ray luminosities four months apart from each other. In the high-resolution EVN radio observations, we have detected an extended milliarcsecond scale source with unboosted radio emission. The source emits non-thermal, likely optically thin synchrotron emission, and its morphology is consistent with a jet ejection. The 9-GHz VLA data show an arcsecond-scale triple structure of Holmberg II X-1 similar to that seen at lower frequencies. However, we find that the central ejection has faded by at least a factor of 7.3 over 1.5 yr. We estimate the dynamical age of the ejection to be higher than 2.1 yr. We show that such a rapid cooling can be explained with simple adiabatic expansion losses. These properties of Holmberg II X-1 imply that ULX radio bubbles may be inflated by ejecta instead of self-absorbed compact jets.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral analysis of five NuSTAR and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst in summer 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range ~0.9-6%. Throughout this outburst, GX 339-4 stayed in the hard state, and all five observations show similar X-ray spectra with a hard power-law with a photon index near 1.6 and significant contribution from reflection. Using simple reflection models we find unrealistically high iron abundances. Allowing for different photon indices for the continuum incident on the reflector relative to the underlying observed continuum results in a statistically better fit and reduced iron abundances. With a photon index around 1.3, the input power-law on the reflector is significantly harder than that which is directly observed. We study the influence of different emissivity profiles and geometries and consistently find an improvement when using separate photon indices. The inferred inner accretion disk radius is strongly model dependent, but we do not find evidence for a truncation radius larger than 100 r_g in any model. The data do not allow independent spin constraints but the results are consistent with the literature (i.e., a>0). Our best-fit models indicate an inclination angle in the range 40-60 degrees, consistent with limits on the orbital inclination but higher than reported in the literature using standard reflection models. The iron line around 6.4 keV is clearly broadened, and we detect a superimposed narrow core as well. This core originates from a fluorescence region outside the influence of the strong gravity of the black hole and we discuss possible geometries.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Compressed sensing theory is slowly making its way to solve more and more astronomical inverse problems. We address here the application of sparse representations, convex optimization and proximal theory to radio interferometric imaging. First, we expose the theory behind interferometric imaging, sparse representations and convex optimization, and second, we illustrate their application with numerical tests with SASIR, an implementation of the FISTA, a Forward-Backward splitting algorithm hosted in a LOFAR imager. Various tests have been conducted in Garsden et al., 2015. The main results are: i) an improved angular resolution (super resolution of a factor ~2) with point sources as compared to CLEAN on the same data, ii) correct photometry measurements on a field of point sources at high dynamic range and iii) the imaging of extended sources with improved fidelity. SASIR provides better reconstructions (five time less residuals) of the extended emissions as compared to CLEAN. With the advent of large radiotelescopes, there is scope of improving classical imaging methods with convex optimization methods combined with sparse representations.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Instrumentation
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    ABSTRACT: MAXI J1836-194 is a Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary that was discovered in 2011 when it went into outburst. In this paper, we present the full radio monitoring of this system during its `failed' outburst, in which the source did not complete a full set of state changes, only transitioning as far as the hard intermediate state. Observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) show that the jet properties changed significantly during the outburst. The VLA observations detected linearly polarised emission at a level of ~1% early in the outburst, increasing to ~3% as the outburst peaked. High-resolution images with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) show a ~15 mas jet along the position angle $-21 \pm 2^\circ$, in agreement with the electric vector position angle found from our polarisation results ($-21 \pm 4^\circ$), implying that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the jet. Astrometric observations suggest that the system required an asymmetric natal kick to explain its observed space velocity. Comparing quasi-simultaneous X-ray monitoring with the 5 GHz VLA observations from the 2011 outburst shows an unusually steep hard-state radio/X-ray correlation of $L_{\rm R} \propto L_{\rm X}^{1.8\pm0.2}$, where $L_{\rm R}$ and $L_{\rm X}$ denote the radio and X-ray luminosities, respectively. With ATCA and Swift monitoring of the source during a period of re-brightening in 2012, we show that the system lay on the same steep correlation. Due to the low inclination of this system, we then investigate the possibility that the observed correlation may have been steepened by variable Doppler boosting.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope is a giant digital phased array interferometer with multiple antennas distributed in Europe. It provides discrete sets of Fourier components of the sky brightness. Recovering the original brightness distribution with aperture synthesis forms an inverse problem that can be solved by various deconvolution and minimization methods. Aims. Recent papers have established a clear link between the discrete nature of radio interferometry measurement and the “compressed sensing” (CS) theory, which supports sparse reconstruction methods to form an image from the measured visibilities. Empowered by proximal theory, CS offers a sound framework for efficient global minimization and sparse data representation using fast algorithms. Combined with instrumental direction-dependent effects (DDE) in the scope of a real instrument, we developed and validated a new method based on this framework. Methods. We implemented a sparse reconstruction method in the standard LOFAR imaging tool and compared the photometric and resolution performance of this new imager with that of CLEAN-based methods (CLEAN and MS-CLEAN) with simulated and real LOFAR data. Results. We show that i) sparse reconstruction performs as well as CLEAN in recovering the flux of point sources, ii) performs much better on extended objects (the root mean square error is reduced by a factor of up to 10), and iii) provides a solution with an effective angular resolution 2-3 times better than the CLEAN images. Conclusions. Sparse recovery gives a correct photometry on high dynamic and wide-field images and improved realistic structures of extended sources (of simulated and real LOFAR datasets). This sparse reconstruction method is compatible with modern interferometric imagers that handle DDE corrections (A- and W-projections) required for current and future instruments such as LOFAR and SKA.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015

Publication Stats

5k Citations
945.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      • AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC) UMR 7164
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2002-2015
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2008-2014
    • Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006-2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012-2013
    • Institut Universitaire de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001-2010
    • Université Paris-Saclay
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2000-2009
    • DSM Biomedical
      Exton, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003-2008
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2005
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995-1996
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States