[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
As socioeconomic factors may impact the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we evaluated the incidence and risk factors of incident CKD among an HIV-infected cohort with universal access to health care and minimal injecting drug use (IDU).
Incident CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filteration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) for ≥ 90 days. eGFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Rates were calculated per 1000 person-years (PY). Associations with outcomes were assessed using two separate Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for baseline and time-updated covariates.
Among 3360 participants [median age 29 years; 92% male; 44% African American (AA)] contributing 23,091 PY of follow-up, 116 developed incident CKD [5.0/1000 PY; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-6.0/1000 PY]. The median first eGFR value was 97.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [interquartile range (IQR) 85.3-110.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]. Baseline factors associated with CKD included older age, lower CD4 count at HIV diagnosis [compared with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/μL, hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.8) for CD4 count 350-499 cells/μL; HR 3.6 (95% CI 2.0-6.3) for CD4 count 201-349 cells/μL; HR 4.3 (95% CI 2.0-9.4) for CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/μL], and HIV diagnosis in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. In the time-updated model, low nadir CD4 counts, diabetes, hepatitis B, hypertension and less HAART use were also associated with CKD. AA ethnicity was not associated with incident CKD in either model.
The low incidence of CKD and the lack of association with ethnicity observed in this study may in part be attributable to unique features of our cohort such as younger age, early HIV diagnosis, minimal IDU, and unrestricted access to care. Lower baseline CD4 counts were significantly associated with incident CKD, suggesting early HIV diagnosis and timely introduction of HAART may reduce the burden of CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known.
We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either 50 to 299 per cubic millimeter (SILCAAT) or 300 or more per cubic millimeter (ESPRIT) were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy alone. The interleukin-2 regimen consisted of cycles of 5 consecutive days each, administered at 8-week intervals. The SILCAAT study involved six cycles and a dose of 4.5 million IU of interleukin-2 twice daily; ESPRIT involved three cycles and a dose of 7.5 million IU twice daily. Additional cycles were recommended to maintain the CD4+ cell count above predefined target levels. The primary end point of both studies was opportunistic disease or death from any cause.
In the SILCAAT study, 1695 patients (849 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 846 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 202 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled; in ESPRIT, 4111 patients (2071 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 2040 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 457 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled. Over a median follow-up period of 7 to 8 years, the CD4+ cell count was higher in the interleukin-2 group than in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy alone--by 53 and 159 cells per cubic millimeter, on average, in the SILCAAT study and ESPRIT, respectively. Hazard ratios for opportunistic disease or death from any cause with interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy (vs. antiretroviral therapy alone) were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.18; P=0.47) in the SILCAAT study and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.16; P=0.55) in ESPRIT. The hazard ratios for death from any cause and for grade 4 clinical events were 1.06 (P=0.73) and 1.10 (P=0.35), respectively, in the SILCAAT study and 0.90 (P=0.42) and 1.23 (P=0.003), respectively, in ESPRIT.
Despite a substantial and sustained increase in the CD4+ cell count, as compared with antiretroviral therapy alone, interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy yielded no clinical benefit in either study. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00004978 [ESPRIT] and NCT00013611 [SILCAAT study].)
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · New England Journal of Medicine