V. Roccatagliata

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (36)101.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Lupus I cloud is found between the Upper Scorpius (USco) and the Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) subgroups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, where the expanding USco H I shell appears to interact with a bubble currently driven by the winds of the remaining B-stars of UCL. Aims. We want to study how collisions of large-scale interstellar gas flows form and influence new dense clouds in the ISM. Methods. We performed LABOCA continuum sub-mm observations of Lupus I that provide for the first time a direct view of the densest, coldest cloud clumps and cores at high angular resolution. We complemented these data with Herschel and Planck data from which we constructed column density and temperature maps. From the Herschel and LABOCA column density maps we calculated probability density functions (PDFs) to characterize the density structure of the cloud. Results. The northern part of Lupus I is found to have, on average, lower densities, higher temperatures, and no active star formation. The center-south part harbors dozens of pre-stellar cores where density and temperature reach their maximum and minimum, respectively. Our analysis of the column density PDFs from the Herschel data show double-peak profiles for all parts of the cloud, which we attribute to an external compression. In those parts with active star formation, the PDF shows a power-law tail at high densities. The PDFs we calculated from our LABOCA data trace the denser parts of the cloud showing one peak and a power-law tail. With LABOCA we find 15 cores with masses between 0.07 and 1.71 M⊙ and a total mass of ≈ 8 M⊙. The total gas and dust mass of the cloud is ≈ 164 M⊙ and hence ~5% of the mass is in cores. From the Herschel and Planck data we find a total mass of ≈ 174 M⊙ and ≈ 171 M⊙, respectively. Conclusions. The position, orientation, and elongated shape of Lupus I, the double-peak PDFs and the population of pre-stellar and protostellar cores could be explained by the large-scale compression from the advancing USco H I shell and the UCL wind bubble.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 deg^2) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M_sun. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). We find that a (J - H) versus (Ks - [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area. Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a non-clustered, dispersed population.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Lupus I cloud is found between the Upper-Scorpius (USco) and the Upper-Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) sub-groups of the Sco-Cen OB-association, where the expanding USco H I shell appears to interact with a bubble currently driven by the winds of the remaining B-stars of UCL.We want to study how collisions of large-scale interstellar gas flows form and influence new dense clouds in the ISM.We performed LABOCA continuum sub-mm observations of Lupus I that provide for the first time a direct view of the densest, coldest cloud clumps and cores at high angular resolution.We complemented those by Herschel and Planck data from which we constructed column density and temperature maps.We calculated PDFs to characterize the density structure of the cloud.The northern part of Lupus I is found to have on average lower densities and higher temperatures as well as no active star formation.The center-south part harbors dozens of pre-stellar cores where density and temperature reach their maximum and minimum, respectively.Our analysis of the column density PDFs from the Herschel data show double peak profiles for all parts of the cloud which we attribute to an external compression.In those parts with active star formation, the PDF shows a power-law tail at high densities.The PDFs we calculated from our LABOCA data trace the denser parts of the cloud showing one peak and a power-law tail.With LABOCA we find 15 cores with masses between 0.07 and 1.71 Msun and a total mass of ~8 Msun.The total gas and dust mass of the cloud is ~164 Msun and hence 5% of the mass is in cores.From the Herschel and Planck data we find a total mass of ~174 Msun and ~171 Msun, respectively.The position, orientation and elongated shape of Lupus I, the double peak PDFs and the population of pre-stellar and protostellar cores could be explained by the large-scale compression from the advancing USco H I shell and the UCL wind bubble.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Filaments represent a key structure during the early stages of the star formation process. Simulations show filamentary structure commonly formed before and during the formation of cores. Aims. The Serpens Core represents an ideal laboratory to test the state-of-the-art of simulations of turbulent Giant Molecular Clouds. We use Herschel observations of the Serpens Core to compute temperature and column density maps of the region. Among the simulations of Dale et al. (2012), we select the early stages of their Run I, before stellar feedback is initiated, with similar total mass and physical size as the Serpens Core. We derive temperature and column density maps also from the simulations. The observed distribution of column densities of the filaments has been analysed first including and then masking the cores. The same analysis has been performed on the simulations as well. A radial network of filaments has been detected in the Serpens Core. The analysed simulation shows a striking morphological resemblance to the observed structures. The column density distribution of simulated filaments without cores shows only a log-normal distribution, while the observed filaments show a power-law tail. The power-law tail becomes evident in the simulation if one focuses just on the column density distribution of the cores. In contrast, the observed cores show a flat distribution. Even though the simulated and observed filaments are subjectively similar-looking, we find that they behave in very different ways. The simulated filaments are turbulence-dominated regions, the observed filaments are instead self-gravitating structures that will probably fragment into cores.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: EX Lupi is a young star, prototype of EXor variables. Its spectrum is very rich in emission lines, including many metallic lines. It has been also proposed to have a close companion. We use the metallic emission lines to study the accretion structures and to test the companion hypothesis. We analyse 54 spectra taken in 5 years of quiescence time. We study the line profile variability and the radial velocity of the metallic emission lines. We use the velocity signatures of different species with various excitation conditions and their time dependency to track the dynamics associated to accretion. We observe periodic velocity variations in the line components consistent with rotational modulation. The modulation is stronger for lines with higher excitation potentials. We propose that the narrow line components are produced in the post-shock region, while the broad components originate in the more extended, pre-shock material. All the emission lines suffer velocity modulation due to the rotation of the star. The broad components are responsible for the line-dependent veiling observed in EX Lupi. Rotationally-modulated line-dependent veiling can explain the radial velocity signatures, making the close-in companion hypothesis unnecessary. The accretion structure is locked to the star and very stable during the 5 years of observations. Not all stars with similar spectral types and accretion rates show the same metallic emission lines, maybe related to differences in temperature and density in their accretion structure(s). The contamination of photospheric lines by accretion processes can be turned into a very useful tool to determine the innermost details of the accretion channels in the proximities of the star. Emission lines from very stable accretion columns will nevertheless be a very strong limitation for the detection of companions by radial velocity in young stars. (Abridged)
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    T. Preibisch · P. Zeidler · T. Ratzka · V. Roccatagliata · M. G. Petr-Gotzens
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The Carina Nebula is one of the most massive and active star-forming regions in our Galaxy and has been studied with numerous multiwavelength observations in the past five years. However, most of these studies were restricted to the inner parts (<= 1 square-degree) of the nebula, and thus covered only a small fraction of the whole cloud complex. Aims. Our aim was to conduct a near-infrared survey that covers the full spatial extent (=5 square-degrees) of the Carina Nebula complex and is sensitive enough to detect all associated young stars through extinctions of up to A(V) approximate to 6 mag. Methods. We used the 4m Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) of ESO to map an area of 6.7 squaredegrees around the Carina Nebula in the near-infrared J-, H-, K-s-bands. Results. The analysis of our VISTA data revealed 4 840 807 individual near-infrared sources, 3 951 580 of which are detected in at least two bands. The faintest S/N >= 3 detections have magnitudes of J approximate to 21.2, H approximate to 19.9, and K-s approximate to 19.3. For objects at the distance of the Carina Nebula (2.3 kpc), our catalog is estimated to be complete down to stellar masses of = 0.1 M-circle dot for young stars with extinctions of A(V) approximate to 5 mag; for regions in the brightest parts of the central nebula with particularly strong diffuse emission, the completeness limit is at slightly higher stellar masses. We describe the photometric calibration, the characteristics, and the quality of these data. VISTA images of several newly detected or yet rarely studied clusters in the outer parts of the Carina Nebula complex are presented. Finally, a list of stars with high proper motions that were discovered in our analysis is provided in an appendix. Conclusions. Our catalog represents by far the most comprehensive deep near-infrared catalog of the Carina Nebula complex. It provides a new basis for spatially complete investigations of the young stellar population in this important star-forming complex.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We use Herschel PACS observations at 70 and 160$\mu$m to probe the protoplanetary disks around young stars in the CepOB2 clusters Tr37 and NGC7160 and to trace the small-scale cloud structure. We detect 95 protoplanetary disks at 70$\mu$m, 41 at 160$\mu$m, and obtain upper limits for over 130 objects. The detection fraction at 70$\mu$m depends on the spectral type (88% for K4 or earlier, 17% for M3 or later stars) and on the disk type ($\sim$50% for full and pre-transitional disks, $\sim$35% for transitional disks, no low-excess/depleted disks detected). Non-accreting disks are consistent with significantly lower masses. Accreting transition and pre-transition disks have higher 70$\mu$m excesses than full disks, suggestive of more massive, flared and/or thicker disks. Herschel data also reveal several mini-clusters in Tr37, small, compact structures containing a few young stars surrounded by nebulosity. Far-IR data are an excellent probe of the evolution of disks that are too faint for submillimetre observations. We find a strong link between far-IR emission and accretion, and between the inner and outer disk structure. Herschel confirms the dichotomy between accreting and non-accreting transition disks. Substantial mass depletion and global evolution need to occur to shut down accretion in a protoplanetary disk, even if the disk has inner holes. Disks likely follow different evolutionary paths: Low disk masses do not imply opening inner holes, and having inner holes does not require low disk masses. The mini-clusters reveal multi-episodic star formation in Tr37. The long survival of mini-clusters suggest that they formed from the fragmentation of the same core. Their various morphologies favour different formation/triggering mechanisms acting within the same cluster. Herschel also unveils what could be the first heavy mass loss episode of the O6.5 star HD206267.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    M. Fang · A. Sicilia-Aguilar · V. Roccatagliata · D. Fedele · Th. Henning · C. Eiroa · A. Müller
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We study the young stellar system GW Ori, concentrating on its accretion/wind activity by using our high-resolution optical spectra and $U$-band photometry. We also characterize the disk properties of GW Ori by modeling its spectral energy distribution (SED). By comparing our data to the synthetical spectra, we classify GW Ori as a G8 star. Based on the RVs derived from the spectra, we confirm the previous result as a close companion in GW Ori with a period of ~242 days and an orbital semi-major axis of ~1 AU. The RV residuals after the subtraction of the orbital solution with the equivalent widths of accretion-related emission lines vary with periods of 5-6.7 days during short time intervals, which are caused by the rotational modulation. The H$\alpha$ and H$\beta$ line profiles of GW Ori can be decomposed in two central-peaked emission components and one blue-shifted absorption component. The absorption components are due to a disk wind modulated by the orbital motion of the close companion. Therefore, the systems like GW Ori can be used to study the extent of disk winds. We find that the accretion rates of GW Ori are rather constant but can occasionally be enhanced by a factor of 2-3. We reproduce the SED of GW Ori by using disk models with gaps ~25-55 AU in size. A small population of tiny dust particles within the gap produces the excess emission at near-infrared bands and the strong and sharp silicate feature at 10 $\mu$m. The SED of GW Ori exhibits dramatic changes on timescales of ~20 yr in the near-infrared bands, which can be explained as the change in the amount and distribution of small dust grains in the gap. We collect a sample of binary/multiple systems with disks in the literature and find a strong positive correlation between their gap sizes and separations from the primaries to companions, which is generally consistent with the prediction from the theory.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The IC1396A globule in the young cluster Tr37, hosting many young stars and protostars, is assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. We mapped IC1396A with Herschel/PACS at 70 and 160 micron. The Herschel maps trace in great detail the very embedded protostellar objects and the structure of the cloud. PACS data reveal a previously unknown Class 0 object (IC1396A-PACS-1) located behind the ionization front. IC1396A-PACS-1 is not detectable with Spitzer, but shows marginal X-ray emission. The data also allowed to study three of the Class I intermediate-mass objects within the cloud. We derived approximate cloud temperatures to study the effect and potential interactions between the protostars and the cloud. The Class 0 object is associated with the densest and colder part of IC1396A. Heating in the cloud is dominated by the winds and radiation of the O6.5 star HD 206267 and, to a lesser extent, by the effects of the Herbig Ae star V 390 Cep. The surroundings of the Class I and Class II objects embedded in the cloud also appear warmer than the sourceless areas, although most of the low-mass objects cannot be individually extracted due to distance and beam dilution. The observations suggest that at least two episodes of star formation have occurred in IC1396A. One would have originated the known, ~1 Myr-old Class I and II objects in the cloud, and a new wave of star formation would have produced the Class 0 source at the tip of the brigth-rimmed cloud. From its location and properties, IC1396A-PACS-1 is consistent with triggering via radiative driven implosion (RDI) induced by HD 206267. The mechanisms behind the formation of the more evolved population of Class I/II/III objects in the cloud are uncertain. Heating of most of the remaining cloud by Class I/Class II objects and by HD 206267 itself may preclude further star formation in the region.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Carina Nebula (NGC 3372) represents one of the most massive star forming regions in our Galaxy. With a distance of 2.3 kpc, it has the most extreme stellar population within a few kpc of the sun (at least 65 O-type stars). It is our best connection between the nearby star forming regions like the Orion Nebula and the even larger and extremer, but more distant regions like 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Therefore it is a unique target and our richest nearby laboratory for detailed studies of violent massive star formation and its resulting feedback effects of cloud dispersal and triggered star formation. Our recent Herschel far-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula showed that the cloud complex extends over some 2 × 2.5 deg on the sky. Most of the recent investigations of the Carina Nebula had, however, been focused on the central, ≤ 1 square-degree area of the region, leaving the periphery of the cloud complex poorly studied. In order to solve this problem and to allow a characterization of the young stars throughout the entire extent of the complex, we have used the ESO Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to map a ˜2 × 3 deg area around the Carina Nebula in the near-infrared J-, H-, Ks bands. Our NIR survey is large enough to cover the full spatial extent of the Carina Nebula complex and is deep enough to detect all young stars down to masses of 0.1 Msun through extinctions of at least Av = 10 mag. We detected in more than ˜ 4 million individual point sources. The data has a typical completeness limit of J ≃ 18, H ≃ 18, and Ks ≃ 17. In combination with a recent Chandra X-ray survey, Spitzer-IRAC, and Herschel observations we have now a sample of data, which reaches from X-ray to the FIR. It will allow us to distinguish between young stars and background contaminating objects and it will allow the identification and characterization of all X-ray selected young stars and the embedded young stellar objects revealed by Herschel.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We reanalyze FEROS observations of the star HIP 11952 to reassess the existence of the proposed planetary system. Methods. The radial velocity of the spectra were measured by cross-correlating the observed spectrum with a synthetic template. We also analyzed a large dataset of FEROS and HARPS archival data of the calibrator HD 10700 spanning over more than five years. We compared the barycentric velocities computed by the FEROS and HARPS pipelines. Results. The barycentric correction of the FEROS-DRS pipeline was found to be inaccurate and to introduce an artificial one-year period with a semi-amplitude of 62 m/s. Thus the reanalysis of the FEROS data does not support the existence of planets around HIP 11952.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Veronica Roccatagliata · Thomas Preibisch · Thorsten Ratzka · Benjamin Gaczkowski
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    ABSTRACT: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy and shows strong feedback from the high massive stars. We use our Herschel FIR observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC. The good angular resolution of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1 - 0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale structures of the clouds. The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE from 70 to 500 micron. We determine temperatures and column densities at each point in this maps by modeling the observed FIR SEDs. We also derive a map showing the strength of the UV field. We investigate the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars, and compute total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Our Herschel maps resolve, for the first time, the small-scale structure of the dense clouds. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of eta Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data to previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar "wave"-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. We find that the density and temperature structure of the clouds in most parts of the CNC is dominated by the strong feedback from the numerous massive stars, rather than random turbulence. Comparing the cloud mass and the star formation rate derived for the CNC to other Galactic star forming regions suggests that the CNC is forming stars in an particularly efficient way. We suggest this to be a consequence of triggered star formation by radiative cloud compression.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The Gum 31 bubble containing the stellar cluster NGC 3324 is a poorly-studied young region close to the Carina Nebula. Aims. We are aiming to characterise the young stellar and protostellar population in and around Gum 31 and to investigate the star-formation process in this region. Methods. We identify candidate young stellar objects from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel data. Combining these, we analyse the spectral energy distributions of the candidate young stellar objects. With density and temperature maps obtained from Herschel data and comparisons to a 'collect and collapse' scenario for the region we are able to further constrain the characteristics of the region as a whole. Results. 661 candidate young stellar objects are found from WISE data, 91 protostar candidates are detected through Herschel observations in a 1.0 deg x 1.1 deg area. Most of these objects are found in small clusters or are well aligned with the H II bubble. We also identify the sources of Herbig-Haro jets. The infrared morphology of the region suggests that it is part of the larger Carina Nebula complex. Conclusions. The location of the candidate young stellar objects in the rim of the H II bubble is suggestive of their being triggered by a 'collect and collapse' scenario, which agrees well with the observed parameters of the region. Some candidate young stellar objects are found in the heads of pillars, which points towards radiative triggering of star formation. Thus, we find evidence that in the region different mechanisms of triggered star formation are at work. Correcting the number of candidate young stellar objects for contamination we find ~ 600 young stellar objects in Gum 31 above our completeness limit of about 1 M_sol. Extrapolating the intital mass function down to 0.1 M_sol, we estimate a total population of ~ 5000 young stars for the region.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Carina Nebula represents one of the largest and most active star forming regions known in our Galaxy with numerous very massive stars.Our recently obtained Herschel PACS & SPIRE far-infrared maps cover the full area (about 8.7 deg^2) of the Carina Nebula complex and reveal the population of deeply embedded young stellar objects, most of which are not yet visible in the mid- or near-infrared.We study the properties of the 642 objects that are independently detected as point-like sources in at least two of the five Herschel bands.For those objects that can be identified with apparently single Spitzer counterparts, we use radiative transfer models to derive information about the basic stellar and circumstellar parameters.We find that about 75% of the Herschel-detected YSOs are Class 0 protostars.The luminosities of the Herschel-detected YSOs with SED fits are restricted to values of <=5400 Lsun, their masses (estimated from the radiative transfer modeling) range from about 1 Msun to 10 Msun.Taking the observational limits into account and extrapolating the observed number of Herschel-detected protostars over the IMF suggest that the star formation rate of the CNC is about 0.017 Msun/yr.The spatial distribution of the Herschel YSO candidates is highly inhomogeneous and does not follow the distribution of cloud mass.Most Herschel YSO candidates are found at the irradiated edges of clouds and pillars.This provides support to the picture that the formation of this latest stellar generation is triggered by the advancing ionization fronts.The currently ongoing star formation process forms only low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, but no massive stars.The far-infrared fluxes of the famous object EtaCar are about a factor of two lower than expected from observations with the ISO obtained 15 years ago; this may be due to dynamical changes in the circumstellar dust in the Homunculus Nebula.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Carina Nebula complex was observed by the Herschel satellite on December 26th, 2010. (4 data files).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012
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    Thomas Preibisch · Veronica Roccatagliata · Benjamin Gaczkowski · Thorsten Ratzka
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    ABSTRACT: The Carina Nebula represents one of the most massive galactic star forming regions and displays a high level of massive star feedback. We used SPIRE and PACS onboard of Herschel to map the full spatial extent of the clouds in the Carina Nebula complex at wavelengths between 70 and 500 micrometer. We determine color temperatures and column densities of the clouds in the complex. Our Herschel maps show that the clouds have a very complex and filamentary structure that is dominated by the radiation and wind feedback from the massive stars. In most locations, the column density of the clouds is N_H < 2x10^22 cm^-2; denser cloud structures are restricted to just a few locations. We find a clear large scale temperature gradient from 35-40 K in the central region to <20 K at the periphery and in the densest parts of individual pillars. The total mass of the clouds seen by Herschel in the central (1 deg radius) region is ~656000 M_sun. A simple radiative transfer model for the global spectral energy distribution suggests that the total mass of all the gas (including a warmer component that is not well traced by Herschel) is <=890000 M_sun. Despite the strong feedback from numerous massive stars that is going on since several million years, there are still several 10000 M_sun of cool cloud material present at column-densities sufficient for further star formation. Comparison of our total gas mass estimates to molecular cloud masses derived from CO line mapping suggests that as much as about 75% of all the gas is in atomic rather than molecular form.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use infrared data from the 2MASS and Spitzer GLIMPSE surveys, complemented with our own deep Spitzer imaging of the central regions of Pismis 24, in combination with X-ray data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in NGC 6357 complex. The infrared data constrain the disk presence and are complemented by optical photometric and spectroscopic observations, obtained with VLT/VIMOS, that constrain the properties of the central stars. The R-band observations were performed on 2008 April 1 and 6, and the I-band observations were done on 2008 May 1. (2 data files).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We investigate the properties of young stars and their disks in the NGC 6357 complex, concentrating on the most massive star cluster within the complex: Pismis 24. We discover two new young clusters in the NGC 6357 complex. We give a revised distance estimate for Pismis 24 of 1.7+-0.2 kpc. We find that the massive star Pis 24-18 is a binary system, with the secondary being the main X-ray source of the pair. We derive the cluster mass function and find that up to the completeness limit at low masses it agrees well with the IMF of the Trapezium cluster. We derive a median age of 1 Myr for the Pismis 24 cluster members. We find five proplyds in HST archival imaging of the cluster, four of which are newly found. In all cases the proplyd tails are pointing directly away from the massive star system Pis 24-1. One proplyd shows a second tail, pointing away from Pis 24-2, suggesting this object is being photoevaporated from two directions simultaneously. We find that the global disk frequency (~30%) in Pismis 24 is much lower than some other clusters of similar age, such as the Orion Nebula Cluster. When comparing the disk frequencies in 19 clusters/star-forming regions of various ages and different (massive) star content, we find that the disks in clusters harboring extremely massive stars (typically earlier than O5), like Pismis 24, are dissipated roughly twice as quickly as in clusters/star-forming regions without extremely massive stars. Within Pismis 24, we find that the disk frequency within a projected distance of 0.6 pc from Pis 24-1 is substantially lower than at larger radii (~19% vs. ~37%). We argue for a combination of photoevaporation and irradiation with ionizing UV photons from nearby massive stars, causing increased MRI-induced turbulence and associated accretion activity, to play an important role in the dissipation of low-mass star disks in Pismis 24.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    C. Gräfe · S. Wolf · V. Roccatagliata · J. Sauter · S. Ertel
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We present mid-infrared observations and photometry of the transitional disks around the young stellar objects DH Tau, DM Tau, and GM Aur, obtained with VISIR/VLT in N band. Our aim is to resolve the inner region and the large-scale structures of these transitional disks, carrying potential signatures of intermediate or later stages of disk evolution and ongoing planet formation. Methods: We use the simultaneously observed standard-stars as PSF reference to constrain the radial flux profiles of our target objects. Subtracting the obtained standard-star profile from the corresponding science object profile yields the flux residuals produced by the star-disk system. A detection threshold takes into account the background standard deviation and also the seeing variations during the observations to evaluate the significance of these flux residuals. On the basis of a simple model for the dust re-emission, we derive constraints on the inner radius of the dust disk. Results: We spatially resolve the transitional disk around GM Aur and determine an inner-disk hole radius of 20.5+1.0-0.5 AU. The circumstellar disks around DH Tau and DM Tau are not spatially resolved but we are able to constrain the inner-disk hole radius to
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Christian Gräfe · Sebastian Wolf · Veronica Roccatagliata · Jürgen Sauter · Steve Ertel
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We present mid-infrared observations and photometry of the transitional disks around the young stellar objects DH Tau, DM Tau, and GM Aur, obtained with VISIR/VLT in N band. Our aim is to resolve the inner region and the large-scale structures of these transitional disks, carrying potential signatures of intermediate or later stages of disk evolution and ongoing planet formation. Methods: We use the simultaneously observed standard-stars as PSF reference to constrain the radial flux profiles of our target objects. Subtracting the obtained standard-star profile from the corresponding science object profile yields the flux residuals produced by the star-disk system. A detection threshold takes into account the background standard deviation and also the seeing variations during the observations to evaluate the significance of these flux residuals. On the basis of a simple model for the dust re-emission, we derive constraints on the inner radius of the dust disk. Results: We spatially resolve the transitional disk around GM Aur and determine an inner-disk hole radius of 20.5(+1.0,-0.5) AU. The circumstellar disks around DH Tau and DM Tau are not spatially resolved but we are able to constrain the inner-disk hole radius to <15.5(+9.0,-2.0) AU and <15.5(+0.5,-0.5) AU, respectively. The performed photometry yields fluxes of 178+-31 mJy for DH Tau, 56+-6 mJy for DM Tau, and 229+-14 mJy for GM Aur.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011

Publication Stats

263 Citations
101.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011-2012
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006-2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy