Publications (5)6.64 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BrdU (5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) is usually used to label the mitotic cells as well as to trace reagent in cell transplation. However, BrdU could also exert some side effect on cellular biological characteristics upon inappropriate use. To explore the appropriate concentration of BrdU for labelling retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), we co-cultured Embryonic day (E) 17. 5 RPCs with different concentrations of BrdU, which were 0.2, 1, 5 and 10 micromol/L, respectively. After 48 hours, the RPCs were proliferation- or differentiation-cultured. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the BrdU-positive ratio and differentiation potential. Cell count was used to evaluate proliferation ability, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was used to monitor cytotoxicity. The results showed that 0.2 micromol/ L BrdU could not label RPCs clearly, while BrdU of 1, 5 or 10 micromol/L could label the RPCs with similar ratios. 1 micromol/L BrdU displayed no obvious cytotoxicity and showed no obvious effect on the proliferation and differentiation ability. However, 5 micromol/L or 10 micromol/L BrdU could evidently inhibit RPCs proliferation, partly due to the cytotoxicity effect. Furthermore, 10 micromol/L BrdU could inhibit the differentiation of RPCs towards MAP2-positive nerve cells, but showed no influence on the differentiation of RPCs towards GFAP- and glutamine synthetase positive glial cells. This study suggested that 1 micromol/L BrdU could be an appropriate concentration for RPCs labelling and could efficiently label RPCs without obvious side effect.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop a feasible and efficient method for generating embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) through the expression of a defined set of transcription factors, which will have significant application value for ophthalmic personalized regenerative medicine. HTFs were harvested from fresh samples, and reprogramming was induced by the exogenous expression of the four classic transcription factors, OCT-3/4, SOX-2, KLF-4, and C-MYC. The HTF-derived iPS (TiPS) cells were analyzed with phase contrast microscopy, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, FACS analysis, alkaline phosphatase activity analysis, and a teratoma formation assay. Human ESC colonies were used as the positive control. The resulting HTF-derived iPS cell colonies were indistinguishable from human ESC colonies regarding morphology, gene expression levels, pluripotent gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and the ability to generate all three embryonic germ layers. This study presents a simple, efficient, practical procedure for generating patient-tailored iPS cells from HTFs. These cells will serve as a valuable and preferred candidate donor cell population for ophthalmological regenerative medicine.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evidence is increasing that cancer stem cells (CSCs) expressing embryonic and neuronal stem cell markers are present in human retinoblastoma (Rb). This study was conducted to determine whether stem-like cancer cells (SLCCs) in Rb express retinal stem cell-related genes and whether SLCCs can directly differentiate into retinal neurons. The cancer stem cell characteristics in WERI-Rb1 cells were determined with Hoechst 33,342 staining, clone formation assay, and CD133 flow cytometry. The expression of embryonic stem cell and retinal stem cell-related genes was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. The SLCCs were induced to differentiate into retinal neurons by the addition of Dickkopf-related protein 1 and Lefty-A. A small but persistent population of cells excluding Hoechst dye in a verapamil-sensitive manner exhibited a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. The SLCCs displayed highly clonogenic abilities and increased CD133 expression with isolation and expansion in culture in serum-free medium. By comparing the expression of stem cell markers, we found Oct3/4 was more highly expressed in the SLCCs than in human embryonic stem cells. Together with the properties of intrinsic retinal stem cell-related gene expression, we found SLCCs can be induced into neuron-like cells that express glial fibrillary acidic protein and rhodopsin (a photoreceptor cell marker). These findings provide new insight into cancer stem cells and used a strategy of an artificial change of cancer stem cell fate with transcription factors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive light exposure and beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates have been known as a risk factor for macular degeneration and an important component in the pathologic drusen structure involved in this disorder, respectively. However, it is unknown whether Aβ deposition mediates or exacerbates light exposure-induced pathogenesis of macular degeneration. Several studies including the one from us already showed accumulation of Aβ deposits in the retina in Alzheimer's transgenic mice. Using histopathological analysis combined with electroretinographic functional assessment, we investigated the effects of cyclic intensive light exposure (CILE) on the architecture of retina and related function in the APPswe/PS1bigenic mouse. Histopathological analysis has found significant loss of outer nuclear layer/photoreceptor outer segment and outer plexiform layer along with abnormal hypo- and hyper-pigmentation in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), remarkable choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and exaggerated neuroinflammatory responses in the outer retina of APPswe/PS1 bigenic mice following cyclic intensive light exposure (CILE), whereas controls remained little change contrasted with age-matched non-transgenic littermates. CILE-induced degenerative changes in RPE are further confirmed by transmission electron microcopy and manifest as formation of basal laminar deposits, irregular thickening of Bruch's membrane (BrM), deposition of outer collagenous layer (OCL) in the subretinal space, and vacuolation in the RPE. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals drusenoid Aβ deposits in RPE as well as neovessels attached which are associated with disruption of RPE integrity and provoked neuroinflammatory response as indicated by markedly increased retinal infiltration of microglia. Moreover, both immunohistochemistry and Western blots detect an induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RPE, which corroborates increased CNV in the outer retina in the bigenic mice challenged by CILE. Our findings demonstrate that degenerative changes in the outer retina in the APPswe/PS1 bigenic mouse induced by CILE are consistent with these in AMD. These results suggest that an Alzheimer's transgenic animal model with accumulation of Aβ deposits might be an alternative animal model for AMD, if combined with other confounding factors such as intensive light exposure for AMD.
Dataset: Additional file 1