[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are highly expressed in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Utilizing the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) models of asthma in C57BL/6 mice, we demonstrate that systemic administration of the BK channel agonist rottlerin (5 μg/g) during the challenge period reduced methacholine-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in OVA- and HDM-sensitized mice (47% decrease in peak airway resistance in OVA-asthma animals, P<0.01; 54% decrease in HDM-asthma animals, P<0.01) with a 35-40% reduction in inflammatory cells and 20-35% reduction in Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Intravenous rottlerin (5 μg/g) reduced AHR within 5 min in the OVA-asthma mice by 45% (P<0.01). With the use of an ex vivo lung slice technique, rottlerin relaxed acetylcholine-stimulated murine airway lumen area to 87 ± 4% of the precontracted area (P<0.01 vs. DMSO control). Rottlerin increased BK channel activity in human ASM cells (V50 shifted by 73.5±13.5 and 71.8±14.6 mV in control and asthmatic cells, respectively, both P<0.05 as compared with pretreatment) and reduced the frequency of acetylcholine-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in murine ex vivo lung slices. These findings suggest that rottlerin, with both anti-inflammatory and ASM relaxation properties, may have benefit in treating asthma.-Goldklang, M. P., Perez-Zoghbi, J. F., Trischler, J., Nkyimbeng, T., Zakharov, S. I., Shiomi, T., Zelonina, T., Marks, A. R., D'Armiento, J. M., Marx, S. O. Treatment of experimental asthma using a single small molecule with anti-inflammatory and BK channel-activating properties.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smokers with airflow obstruction have an increased risk of atherosclerosis, but the relationship between the pathogenesis of these diseases is not well understood. To determine whether hypercholesterolemia alters lung inflammation and emphysema formation, we examined the lung phenotype of two hypercholesterolemic murine models of atherosclerosis at baseline and on a high-fat diet. Airspace enlargement developed in the lungs of apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice exposed to a Western-type diet for 10 wk. An elevated number of macrophages and lymphocytes accompanied by an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and MMP-12 expression was observed in the lungs of Apoe(-/-) mice on a Western-type diet. In contrast, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice did not exhibit lung destruction or inflammatory changes. Most importantly, we revealed augmented expression of the downstream targets of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in the lungs of Apoe(-/-) mice fed with a Western-type diet. In addition, we demonstrated overexpression of MMP-9 in Apoe(-/-) macrophages treated with TLR4 ligand, augmented with the addition of oxidized LDL, suggesting that emphysema in these mice results from the activation of the TLR pathway secondary to known abnormal cholesterol efflux. Our findings indicate that, in Apoe(-/-) mice fed with an atherogenic diet, abnormal cholesterol efflux leads to increased systemic inflammation with subsequent lung damage and emphysema formation.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology