Publications (24)29.58 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A leaf spot disease caused by Phoma herbarum was observed in a plantation of cherry palm (Pseudophoenix sargentii) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The fungus was isolated from lesions on leaves and pathogenicity tests showed that Ph. herbarum could infect P. sargentii, producing the same symptoms after inoculation as those observed naturally in the field. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and confirmed using comparisons of DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1, 2 and 5.8S rDNA. This is the first report of this disease on cherry palm.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new species of endophytic fungi, described herein as Pseudoplagiostoma dipterocarpi, was isolated from leaves of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Morphological characteristics indicated that its conidial length was longer than in previously described Pseudoplagiostoma species. Phylogenetic analysis also supports the morphological results. A description, illustration and a key to species are provided.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phlebopus portentosus is one of the most popular wild edible mushrooms in Thailand and can produce sporocarps in the culture without a host plant. However, it is still unclear whether Phlebopus portentosus is a saprotrophic, parasitic, or ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus. In this study, Phlebopus portentosus sporocarps were collected from northern Thailand and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We combined mycorrhizal synthesis and stable isotopic analysis to investigate the trophic status of this fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, ECM-like structures were observed in Pinus kesiya at 1 year after inoculation with fungal mycelium, and the association of Phlebopus portentosus and other plant species showed superficial growth over the root surface. Fungus-colonized root tips were described morphologically and colonization confirmed by molecular methods. In stable isotope measurements, the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of natural samples of Phlebopus portentosus differed from saprotrophic fungi. Based on the isotopic patterns of Phlebopus portentosus and its ability to form ECM-like structures in greenhouse experiments, we conclude that Phlebopus portentosus could be an ECM fungus.
Dataset: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new species of whitish truffle, Tuber thailandicum, is described based on collections from northern Thailand. This species is characterized by whitish ascomata with dark brown gleba and subglobose spores with an alveolate reticulum. Tuber thailandicum is similar to T. castilloi, but differs in the thicker peridium and wider spores in one-spored asci. Molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and large subunit of ribosomal DNA also supports that T. thailandicum is clearly different from previously described whitish truffle species. It grows in mycorrhizal association with Betula alnoides, and the morphology and anatomy of mycorrhizae are described. Moreover, the identification of mycorrhizal status was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated volatile metabolite-producing endophytic fungi from the leaves of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Mull.Arg.) and studied their antimicrobial competence. A total of three isolates was obtained, and their phenotypic and phylogenetic relationship with the genus Muscodor in the family Xylariaceae was studied. All isolates could produce volatile metabolites with apparent antimicrobial activity against diverse test microbes (bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi). An isolate, RTM5IV3, with < 86 % similarity with the partial ITS-5.8S rDNA gene as compared to other species of the genus Muscodor, was proposed as a novel species with the name Muscodor heveae sp. nov. Its bioactive volatile metabolites included 3-methylbutan-1-ol as a major component, followed by 3-methylbutyl acetate and azulene derivatives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the Muscodor isolates have the potential for biological control of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Furthermore, the VOCs of M. heveae were active against the pathogenic fungi Phellinus noxius and Rigidoporus microporus that cause root disease in the rubber tree. We concluded that rubber trees could be an alternative source for discovery of fungi that produce volatile metabolites, and the genus Muscodor could be found abundantly in this habitat.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscodor cinnamomi was selected and investigated for its in vitro ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to solubilize different toxic metal (Ca, Co, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn)-containing insoluble minerals and tolerance to metals, herbicides and an insecticide. The results indicated that this fungus is able to produce IAA (45.36±2.40 μg ml-1) in liquid media. This phytohormone stimulated coleoptile elongation, and increased seed germination and root elongation of tested plants. The metal tolerance and solubilizing ability depended on the type of insoluble minerals. Muscodor cinnamomi showed the highest growth tolerance on Ca-containing media at 150 mM, followed by Zn-containing media at 100 mM and Cd-containing media at 10 mM. This fungus tolerated the three herbicides (2,4-d-dimethylammonium, glyphosate and paraquat dichoride) and an insecticide (methomyl) at the recommended dosages for field application. Moreover, M. cinnamomi completely controlled Rhizoctonia solani AG-2 root rot in tomato plants, and increased root length, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. This is the first report of in vitro IAA production, solubilization of insoluble metal minerals, and tolerance to herbicides, an insecticide and metals as well as the plant growth promoting ability of M. cinnamomi.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dicitrinin E (1), a new citrinin dimer, together with the known metabolites, dicitrinin A (2), citrinin (3), and fumitremorgin C (4), were isolated from the broth culture of Aspergillus terreus strain ZDF21. The structure of dicitrinin E (1) was elucidated through detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, CD and mass spectra The cytotoxicity of 1 was tested against larvae of Artemia salina.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A leaf blight on oil palm, caused by Alternaria longipes, was found in an Elaeis guineensis plantation for the first time in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The fungus was isolated from the lesions and its pathogenicity was confirmed. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and confirmed using comparisons of DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 plus 5.8S rDNA. This report is the first on oil palm leaf blight disease caused by A. longipes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated both in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus, Muscodor suthepensis CMU-Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. Volatile compounds from Muscodor suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2-Methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-Methylbutan-1-ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50 ) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91±0.73 and 250.29±0.29 μL L(-1) of airspace, respectively. Rye grain was a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inocula production. The result indicated that mycofumigation with 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percent weight loss and soluble solids concentrations in fumigated tangerines were similar to the non-infected and non-fumigated treatment. Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scleroderma are ectomycorrhizal fungi which have a worldwide distribution. In 2010, basidiomes of Scleroderma sp. CMUS01 were collected from northern Thailand and pure cultures were obtained. Samples were identified based on morphology and molecular characteristics as Scleroderma sinnamariense. In this paper we report the optimum in vitro culture conditions of S. sinnamariense. Among ten culture media tested, fungal-host agar was the best medium for the mycelial growth and biomass yield. The fungus was able to grow at temperatures ranging from 20-35°C, with an optimal growth temperature of 30°C. The optimal pH for mycelial growth was 5. 0. In addition, this strain produced indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore in pure culture. This report provides valuable information for S. sinnamariense mycelial cultivation in Thailand.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morganella purpurascens previously known from Asia, Australia and Pacific Islands, is reported here for the first time from Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. This species has tuberculated exoperidium, pitted endoperidium, paracapillitium abundant and minutely spiny basidiospores. A molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed that this species is most closely related to known Morganella species and is positioned within Lycoperdon sensu lato. A description and illustration are provided.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Muscodor comprises fungal endophytes which produce mixtures of volatile compounds (VOCs) with antimicrobial activities. In the present study, four novel species, Muscodor musae, M. oryzae, M. suthepensis and M. equiseti were isolated from Musa acuminata, Oryza rufipogon, Cinnamomum bejolghota and Equisetum debile, respectively; these are medicinal plants of northern Thailand. The new Muscodor species are distinguished based on morphological and physiological characteristics and on molecular analysis of ITS-rDNA. Volatile compound analysis showed that 2-methylpropanoic acid was the main VOCs produced by M. musae, M. suthepensis and M. equiseti. The mixed volatiles from each fungus showed in vitro antimicrobial activity. Muscodor suthepensis had the highest antifungal activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A leaf spot on oil palm, caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, was found in a plantation of Elaeis guineensis for the first time in the world in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The fungus was isolated from lesions on leaves, and its pathogenicity was confirmed. Pathogenicity tests showed that P. theae could infect E. guineensis, which developed the same symptoms after inoculation as those observed naturally in the field. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and confirmed using comparisons of DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1, ITS2 and 5.8S rDNA. This report is the first on oil palm leaf spot disease caused by P. theae.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sclerodermatoid fungi basidiomes were collected from northern Thailand and pure cultures were isolated. The morphology and molecular characteristics identified them as Astraeus odoratus, Phlebopus portentosus, Pisolithus albus and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study investigated the in vitro ability of selected fungi to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to solubilize different toxic metal (Co, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn)-containing minerals, and metal tolerance. The results indicated that all fungi are able to produce IAA in liquid medium. The optimum temperature for IAA production of all fungi was 30 °C, and the optimum concentration of L-tryptophan of Astraeus odoratus, Pisolithus albus and Scleroderma sinnamariense was 2 mg ml−1. The highest IAA yield (65.29 ± 1.17 μg ml−1) was obtained from Phlebopus portentosus after 40 days of cultivation in culture medium supplemented with 4 mg ml−1 of L-tryptophan. The biological activity tests of fungal IAA showed that it can simulate coleoptile elongation, and increase seed germination and root length of tested plants. In addition, the metal tolerance and solubilizing activities varied for different minerals and fungal species. The presence of metal minerals affected fungal growth, and cobalt carbonate showed the highest toxicity. The solubilization index decreased when the concentration of metal minerals increased. Astraeus odoratus showed the lowest tolerance to metals. This is the first report of in vitro IAA production, solubilization of insoluble metal minerals and metal tolerance abilities of the tested fungi.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The edible oyster mushroom genus Pleurotus are collected and cultivated in many countries. In 2011, fruiting body of Pleurotus giganteus was collected from northern Thailand and pure culture was isolated. The fungal identification based on morphology and molecular characteristics. In this paper we report the optimum in vitro culture conditions and the fruiting bodies production. Among ten culture media tested, potato dextrose agar was the best for the mycelia growth. The fungus was able to grow at temperatures ranging from 15-35°C, with an optimal growth temperature of 25°C. The optimum pH for mycelia growth was 7.0. In addition, the fruiting bodies induction conditions of this fungus were examined in pure culture. The primordia were formed under lowered temperature, high humidity and a 12 h light photoperiod conditions and developed to mature fruit-body. For the spawn production, sorghum grain was the suitable solid substrates for spawn production of P. giganteus. Pleurotus giganteus could grow on sawdust and produced the mature fruiting bodies as well as casing with soil layer induced the primordial production. This report provides valuable information for the first time concerning the possibility to cultivation P. giganteus in Thailand.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-six fungal endophytes were isolated from Lagerstroemia loudoni. Only one fungus, identified as Nodulisporium spp. CMU-UPE34, produced antifungal volatile compounds. It produced 31 volatile compounds, primarily composed of alcohols, acids, esters and monoterpene. The most abundant volatile compound was eucalyptol. In vitro tests showed that volatile compounds produced by Nodulisporium spp. CMU-UPE34 inhibited or killed 12 different plant pathogens. In vivo mycofumigation with jasmine rice grain cultures of Nodulisporium spp. CMU-UPE34 controlled green mold decay on Citrus limon caused by Penicillium digitatum, blue mold decay of Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus reticulata caused by Penicillium expansum. Nodulisporium spp. CMU-UPE34 has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new species of earthball, described herein as Scleroderma suthepense, was found under Prunus cerasoides in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Thailand. Morphological characteristics indicate it belongs to section Scleroderma. Molecular analysis showed differences from previously described Scleroderma species. A description, illustration, and comparisons with related taxa are provided.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spore productivity in six entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from insect cadavers at four locations in Chiang Mai province was evaluated in five cereal grains: white-rice, wheat, rye, corn and sorghum. According to sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these isolates, they were closely related to Beauveria bassiana (2 isolates), Metarhizium flavoviride (1 isolate), Metarhizium anisopliae (1 isolate), Paecilomyces lilacinus (1 isolate) and Isaria tenuipes (1 isolate). Among all fungal isolates, the maximum amount of spores (530.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) was yielded P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 on sorghum grain followed by white-rice (399.3 × 10(9) conidia/g). Moreover, the highest number of spore in M. flavoviride was 102.8 × 10(9) conidia/g sorghum whereas white-rice yielded the greatest amount of spore for B. bassiana CMUCDMF03 (141.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) after 60 days incubation. The fungal growth rate was found highest in corn for all strains and rye showed the lowest with the exception of P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 among the tested grains. Spore viability was over 80 % for all isolates that had been inoculated for 60 days. Fungal conidia suspension of P. lilacinus obtained highest virulence against Bactrocera spp. at a concentration of 1 × 10(6) spore/ml. The strains isolated, exhibited good production of conidia suggesting a promising strategy for the mass production of inoculum as biocontrol agents with low production cost.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia solani is a damping-off pathogen that causes significant crop loss worldwide. In this study, the potential of Muscodor cinnamomi, a new species of endophytic fungus for controlling R. solani AG-2 damping-off disease of plant seedlings by biological fumigation was investigated. In vitro tests showed that M. cinnamomi volatile compounds inhibited mycelial growth of pathogens. Among nine solid media tested, rye grain was the best grain for inoculum production. An in vivo experiment of four seedlings, bird pepper, bush bean, garden pea and tomato were conducted. The results indicated that treatment with 30 g of M. cinnamomi inoculum was the minimum dose that caused complete control of damping-off symptoms of all seedlings after one month of planting. The R. solani-infested soil showed the lowest percentage of seed germination. In addition, M. cinnamomi did not cause any disease symptoms. From the results it is clear that M. cinnamomi is effective in controlling R. solani AG-2 both in vitro and in vivo.
Chiang Mai University
Amphoe Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand
- Department of Biology