[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to evaluate: 1) the effect of impaired renal function on long-term clinical outcomes in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES); and 2) the safety and efficacy of new-generation compared with early-generation DES in women with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Background The prevalence and effect of CKD in women undergoing PCI with DES is unclear. Methods We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized trials. The study population was categorized by creatinine clearance (CrCl) <45 ml/min, 45 to 59 ml/min, and ≥60 ml/min. The primary endpoint was the 3-year rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Participants for whom baseline creatinine was missing were excluded from the analysis. Results Of 4,217 women included in the pooled cohort treated with DES and for whom serum creatinine was available, 603 (14%) had a CrCl <45 ml/min, 811 (19%) had a CrCl 45 to 59 ml/min, and 2,803 (66%) had a CrCl ≥60 ml/min. A significant stepwise gradient in risk for MACE was observed with worsening renal function (26.6% vs. 15.8% vs. 12.9%; p < 0.01). Following multivariable adjustment, CrCl <45 ml/min was independently associated with a higher risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.98) and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.85 to 3.85). Compared with older-generation DES, the use of newer-generation DES was associated with a reduction in the risk of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis in women with CKD. The effect of new-generation DES on outcomes was uniform, between women with or without CKD, without evidence of interaction. Conclusions Among women undergoing PCI with DES, CKD is a common comorbidity associated with a strong and independent risk for MACE that is durable over 3 years. The benefits of newer-generation DES are uniform in women with or without CKD.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The safety and efficacy of new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in women with multiple atherothrombotic risk (ATR) factors is unclear.
Methods and results:
We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized trials. Study population was categorized based on the presence or absence of high ATR, which was defined as having history of diabetes mellitus, prior percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization, or prior myocardial infarction. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization at 3 years of follow-up. Out of 10 449 women included in the pooled database, 5333 (51%) were at high ATR. Compared with women not at high ATR, those at high ATR had significantly higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (15.8% versus 10.6%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-1.75; P=0.006) and all-cause mortality. In high-ATR risk women, the use of new-generation DES was associated with significantly lower risk of 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.92) compared with early-generation DES. The benefit of new-generation DES on major adverse cardiovascular events was uniform between high-ATR and non-high-ATR women, without evidence of interaction (Pinteraction=0.14). At landmark analysis, in high-ATR women, stent thrombosis rates were comparable between DES generations in the first year, whereas between 1 and 3 years, stent thrombosis risk was lower with new-generation devices.
Use of new-generation DES even in women at high ATR is associated with a benefit consistent over 3 years of follow-up and a substantial improvement in very-late thrombotic safety.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent degenerative valvular heart disease in Western countries and its prevalence increases in parallel with the ageing process of the population. Heart failure (HF), defined by the presence of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, may be present in up to a quarter of patients with severe AS, posing diagnostic and management challenges. The present article reviews the prevalence of HF in severe AS patients, discusses the diagnostic challenges and the advances in multimodality imaging to identify the patients that may benefit from surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and summarizes the current evidence on management for this group of patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
We sought to investigate the prognostic impact of the SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) score (SS) on 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) undergoing medical therapy only.
Methods and results:
Among the 13 819 patients enrolled in the ACUITY trial and undergoing coronary angiogram, 4491 patients were treated with medical therapy as the initial strategy. Of those, baseline SS and complete angiographic analysis were available in 1275 patients. Patients were divided in four groups based on the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and subsequently, among patients with CAD, by SS. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and its individual components (death, myocardial infarction, and unplanned revascularization) were compared between groups. Among the 1275 patients, the mean SS was 3.5 ± 7.0 (range 0-45). SYNTAX score was 0 in 842 patients, >0 and ≤5 in 170, >5 and ≤11 in 119, and >11 in 144 patients. The 1-year rates of MACE were higher in patients with CAD and higher SS. By multivariable analysis, the SS was a strong predictor of all adverse ischaemic events, including mortality. By receiver operator characteristic analysis, an SS cut-off of 8 showed the best prognostic accuracy for death and MACE.
In patients with NSTE ACS undergoing medical therapy, the SS, especially when >8, was shown to be a strong predictor of 1-year MACE, including mortality. This finding has important clinical implications for risk stratification of patients with NSTE ACS undergoing medical therapy after an initial angiogram.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of the SAPIEN XT versus SAPIEN systems (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were not candidates for surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background A finding of reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was noted on computed tomography (CT) in a patient who had a stroke after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) during an ongoing clinical trial. This finding raised a concern about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis and prompted further investigation. Methods We analyzed data obtained from 55 patients in a clinical trial of TAVR and from two single-center registries that included 132 patients who were undergoing either TAVR or surgical aortic-valve bioprosthesis implantation. We obtained four-dimensional, volume-rendered CT scans along with data on anticoagulation and clinical outcomes (including strokes and transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]). Results Reduced leaflet motion was noted on CT in 22 of 55 patients (40%) in the clinical trial and in 17 of 132 patients (13%) in the two registries. Reduced leaflet motion was detected among patients with multiple bioprosthesis types, including transcatheter and surgical bioprostheses. Therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin, as compared with dual antiplatelet therapy, was associated with a decreased incidence of reduced leaflet motion (0% and 55%, respectively, P=0.01 in the clinical trial; and 0% and 29%, respectively, P=0.04 in the pooled registries). In patients who were reevaluated with follow-up CT, restoration of leaflet motion was noted in all 11 patients who were receiving anticoagulation and in 1 of 10 patients who were not receiving anticoagulation (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke or TIA between patients with reduced leaflet motion and those with normal leaflet motion in the clinical trial (2 of 22 patients and 0 of 33 patients, respectively; P=0.16), although in the pooled registries, a significant difference was detected (3 of 17 patients and 1 of 115 patients, respectively; P=0.007). Conclusions Reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was shown in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves. The condition resolved with therapeutic anticoagulation. The effect of this finding on clinical outcomes including stroke needs further investigation. (Funded by St. Jude Medical and Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute; Portico-IDE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02000115 ; SAVORY registry, NCT02426307 ; and RESOLVE registry, NCT02318342 .).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SYMPLICITY HTN-3, the first trial of renal denervation (RDN) versus sham, enrolled 26% African Americans, a prospectively stratified cohort. Although the 6-month systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction in African Americans (AAs) was similar in the RDN group (-15.5 ± 25.4 mm Hg, n = 85 vs. -17.8 ± 29.2, n = 49, P = .641), the sham SBP response was 9.2 mm Hg greater (P = .057) in AAs than non-AAs. In multivariate analyses, sham SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA and a complex antihypertensive regimen (at least one antihypertensive medication prescribed ≥3 times daily), while in the RDN group, SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA race and baseline BP ≥ 180 mm Hg. AA race did not independently predict SBP response in either sham or RDN. There appears to be effect modification by race with individual-level patient characteristics in both treatment arms that affect the observed pattern of SBP responses.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to clarify the clinical and echocardiographic prognostic implication of myocardial injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Background The clinical significance of cardiac biomarker elevation after TAVR remains unclear. Methods Patients treated with TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) trial were divided into tertiles (T1, T2, T3) based on the difference between the values on post-procedure day 1 and the baseline values of 2 cardiac biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (ΔcTnI); and creatine kinase-myocardial band (ΔCK-MB) fraction. Patients were stratified according to their access route: transfemoral (TF) (n = 1,840) or transapical (TA) (n = 1,173). Results At 30 days after TF-TAVR, patients in the highest tertile (T3) of cardiac biomarker elevation had a higher rate of all-cause mortality (ΔcTnI: T3: 5.4% vs. T1: 0.5%, p = 0.006; ΔCK-MB: T3: 5.7% vs. T1: 0.9%, p = 0.006) and cardiovascular mortality (ΔcTnI: T3: 4.9% vs. T1: 0.5%, p = 0.01; ΔCK-MB: T3: 3.9% vs. T1: 0.5%, p = 0.02). At 1 year, only patients in the highest CK-MB tertile had higher rates of all-cause (25.4% vs. 16.8%, p = 0.02) and cardiovascular (10.3% vs. 5.0%) mortality. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that greater release of cardiac biomarkers was independently associated with increased mortality in the TF population. After TA-TAVR, being in the highest tertile of cardiac biomarker elevation had no influence on clinical and echocardiographic outcomes at 30 days and 1 year. Conclusions After TF-TAVR, a greater degree of myocardial injury was associated with higher rates of 30-day all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. At 1 year, being in the highest tertile of ΔCK-MB was correlated with a higher rate of all-cause and cardiac mortality. Finally, the level of myocardial injury after TA-TAVR had no impact on clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS), and when the pulmonary artery pressure is particularly elevated, there may be questions about the clinical benefit of TAVR. We aimed to identify clinical and haemodynamic factors associated with increased mortality after TAVR among those with moderate/severe PH. Methods Among patients with symptomatic AS at high or prohibitive surgical risk receiving TAVR in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) I randomised trial or registry, 2180 patients with an invasive measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) recorded were included, and moderate/severe PH was defined as an mPAP ≥35 mm Hg. Results Increasing severity of PH was associated with progressively worse 1-year all-cause mortality: none (n=785, 18.6%), mild (n=838, 22.7%) and moderate/severe (n=557, 25.0%) (p=0.01). The increased hazard of mortality associated with moderate/severe PH was observed in females, but not males (interaction p=0.03). In adjusted analyses, females with moderate/severe PH had an increased hazard of death at 1 year compared with females without PH (adjusted HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.18), whereas those with mild PH did not. Among males, there was no increased hazard of death associated with any severity of PH. In a multivariable Cox model of patients with moderate/severe PH, oxygen-dependent lung disease, inability to perform a 6 min walk, impaired renal function and lower aortic valve mean gradient were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality (p
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have a pre-existing, permanent pacemaker (PPM) or receive one as a consequence of the procedure. We hypothesised that chronic pacing may have adverse effects on TAVI outcomes.
Four groups of patients undergoing TAVI in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial and registries were compared: prior PPM (n=586), new PPM (n=173), no PPM (n=1612), and left bundle branch block (LBBB)/no PPM (n=160). At 1 year, prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM had higher all-cause mortality than no PPM (27.4%, 26.3%, 27.7% and 20.0%, p<0.05), and prior PPM or new PPM had higher rehospitalisation or mortality/rehospitalisation (p<0.04). By Cox regression analysis, new PPM (HR 1.38, 1.00 to 1.89, p=0.05) and prior PPM (HR 1.31, 1.08 to 1.60, p=0.006) were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Surviving prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM patients had lower LVEF at 1 year relative to no PPM (50.5%, 55.4%, 48.9% and 57.6%, p<0.01). Prior PPM had worsened recovery of LVEF after TAVI (Δ=10.0 prior vs 19.7% no PPM for baseline LVEF <35%, p<0.0001; Δ=4.1 prior vs 7.4% no PPM for baseline LVEF 35-50%, p=0.006). Paced ECGs displayed a high prevalence of RV pacing (>88%).
In the PARTNER trial, prior PPM, along with new PPM and chronic LBBB patients, had worsened clinical and echocardiographic outcomes relative to no PPM patients, and the presence of a PPM was independently associated with 1-year mortality. Ventricular dyssynchrony due to chronic RV pacing may be mechanistically responsible for these findings.
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No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)