[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence of back pain among children and adolescents is gradually increasing. Children undergo extensive diagnostic workup that ultimately results in a nonconfirmative diagnosis. A good history and clinical examination can, to a large extent help differentiate non-specific from organic causes of backache. Diagnostic workup may be initiated if symptoms are severe and/or persistant. The authors review some of the common causes of back pain in pediatric population, clinical presentations, and the relevant investigations along with their management.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report two cases of traumatic paraplegia who developed Sub-acute Post-Traumatic Ascending Myelopathy (SPAM) following surgical decompression.We hereby report two cases (both 35yr old male) with traumatic paraplegia that developed ascending weakness at 3rd and 5th Post-Op day respectively following surgical decompression. Both the patients experienced remarkable improvement in Neurology after treatment with steroids. The authors conclude by emphasizing on minimum cord handling during surgical decompression of the spinal cord to avoid this potentially life threatening complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approach for surgical treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis has been controversial. The aim of present study is to compare the clinical, radiological and functional outcome of anterior versus posterior debridement and spinal fixation for the surgical treatment of thoracic and thoracolumbar tuberculosis.
70 patients with spinal tuberculosis treated surgically between Jan 2005 and Dec 2009 were included in the study [corrected]. Thirty four patients (group I) with mean age 34.9 years underwent anterior debridement, decompression and instrumentation by anterior transthoracic, transpleural and/or retroperitoneal diaphragm cutting approach. Thirty six patients (group II) with mean age of 33.6 years were operated by posterolateral (extracavitary) decompression and posterior instrumentation. Various parameters like blood loss, surgical time, levels of instrumentation, neurological recovery, and kyphosis improvement were compared. Fusion assessment was done as per Bridwell criteria. Functional outcome was assessed using Prolo scale. Mean followup was 26 months.
Mean surgical time in group I was 5 h 10 min versus 4 h 50 min in group II (P>0.05). Average blood loss in group I was 900 ml compared to 1100 ml in group II (P>0.05). In group I, the percentage immediate correction in kyphosis was 52.27% versus 72.80% in group II. Satisfactory bony fusion (grades I and II) was seen in 100% patients in group I versus 97.22% in group II. Three patients in group I needed prolonged immediate postoperative ICU support compared to one in group II. Injury to lung parenchyma was seen in one patient in group I while the anterior procedure had to be abandoned in one case due to pleural adhesions. Functional outcome (Prolo scale) in group II was good in 94.4% patients compared to 88.23% patients in group I.
Though the anterior approach is an equally good method for debridement and stabilization, kyphus correction is better with posterior instrumentation and the posterior approach is associated with less morbidity and complications.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the advancement of instrumentation and minimally access techniques in the field of spine surgery, good surgical decompression and instrumentation can be done for tuberculous spondylitis with known advantage of MIS (minimally invasive surgery). The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of the minimally invasive techniques in the surgical treatment of patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis.
23 patients (Group A) with a mean age 38.2 years with single-level spondylodiscitis between T4-T11 treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) involving anterior debridement and fusion and 15 patients (Group B) with a mean age of 32.5 years who underwent minimally invasive posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and mini open posterolateral debridement and fusion were included in study. The study was conducted from Mar 2003 to Dec 2009 duration. The indication of surgery was progressive neurological deficit and/or instability. The patients were evaluated for blood loss, duration of surgery, VAS scores, improvement in kyphosis, and fusion status. Improvement in neurology was documented and functional outcome was judged by oswestry disability index (ODI).
The mean blood loss in Group A (VATS category) was 780 ml (330-1180 ml) and the operative time averaged was 228 min (102-330 min). The average preoperative kyphosis in Group A was 38° which was corrected to 30°. Twenty-two patients who underwent VATS had good fusion (Grade I and Grade II) with failure of fusion in one. Complications occurred in seven patients who underwent VATS. The mean blood loss was 625 ml (350-800 ml) with an average duration of surgery of 255 min (180-345 min) in the percutaneous posterior instrumentation group (Group B). The average preoperative segmental (kyphosis) Cobb's angle of three patients with thoracic TB in Group B was 41.25° (28-48°), improved to 14.5°(11°- 21°) in the immediate postoperative period (71.8% correction). The average preoperative segmental kyphosis in another 12 patients in Group B with lumbar tuberculosis of 20.25° improved to -12.08° of lordosis with 32.33° average correction of deformity. Good fusion (Grade I and Grade II) was achieved in 14 patients and Grade III fusion in 1 patient in Group B. One patient suffered with pseudoarthrosis/doubtful fusion with screw loosening in the percutaneous group.
Good fusion rate with encouraging functional results can be obtained in caries spine with minimally invasive techniques with all the major advantages of a minimally invasive procedures including reduction in approach-related morbidity.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key to the safe and effective use of thoracic pedicle screws in the deformed spine is to thoroughly understand pedicle anatomy. There are a few studies related to pedicle anatomy in the Indian population and no pedicle morphometric studies in scoliosis patients. The present study aims to highlight the differential features of pedicle morphometry, including pedicle width, transverse pedicle angle and the depth to anterior cortex on the concave and convex side, in a group of Indian patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and compare this to that of a western population.
This is a prospective study of 24 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The average age is 14.6 years (12.3-18.3 years) of which 14 were females and 10 were males. All the patients underwent CT scan using Siemens 4(th) generation scanner. The scans were analyzed by measuring the transverse pedicle width, transverse pedicle angle and the chord length; all the measurements being made both on the convex as well as the concave pedicle. Statistical analysis was performed with unpaired 't' test.
A total of 1295 measurements were performed from 24 patients and an average of 215 pedicles were assessed for each set of the measurements made. The transverse pedicle width was consistently found to be smaller on concave side in comparison with the convex side at all levels except at T1. The transverse pedicle angle was greater on the concave side at all levels as compared to the convex side, though there was wide individual variation. The depth to anterior cortex was lesser on convex side in comparison to the concave side except at T1.
The concave pedicle is much thinner and directed more medially than the convex side, especially at the apical region of the scoliotic curve. The pedicle anatomy in scoliosis patients shows very high individual variations and a careful study of pre-operative CT scans is essential for planning proper pedicle screw placement. Slightly longer screws can be accommodated on the concave side as compared to the convex side, though the difference in the chord length is not statistically significant at most levels.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Indian Journal of Orthopaedics