[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 30 insertion–deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) were investigated in a sample of 251 unrelated Japanese individuals using the Investigator DIPplex® kit (QIAGEN). The frequency distributions showed no deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium expectations. The combined powers of discrimination and match probability for the 30 INDELs were 0.9999999998 and 2.67 × 10−11, respectively. To assess the effectiveness of the kit in typing degraded DNA, an ancient bone sample of a Jomon skeleton was analyzed; most of 30 INDELs and amelogenin were typed successfully. We concluded that the kit offers considerable potential for personal identification from degraded DNA samples due to the small amplicon length and high degree of polymorphisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six multiplex PCR systems using single-base extension reactions to analyze 46 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that define 42 haplogroups, that is, 24 major mtDNA haplogroups and 18 subclades, were devised. To improve the usefulness of the established systems for the analysis of degraded DNA samples, novel primers to render amplicons with sizes <150 bp were designed. By applying these systems to 214 Japanese individuals, 24 different haplogroups (power of discrimination = 93.4%) were found. To assess the effectiveness of our systems in grouping degraded DNA, an ancient bone sample of a Jomon skeleton was analyzed and then classified as haplogroup N9b. We conclude that the present systems are powerful screening tools for major haplogroups of mtDNA in addition to the prevalent subhaplogroups in the Japanese population and that these systems are capable of analyzing highly degraded DNA samples in forensic studies.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychotropic drugs can pose the risk of acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Unexpected autopsy-negative sudden death in patients taking psychotropic drugs may be associated with prolonged QT intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias. We analyzed genes that encode for cardiac ion channels and potentially associated with LQTS, examining specifically the potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and KCNH2 in 10 cases of sudden death involving patients administered psychotropic medication in which autopsy findings identified no clear cause of death. We amplified and sequenced all exons of KCNQ1 and KCNH2, identifying G643S, missense polymorphism in KCNQ1, in 6 of the 10 cases. A study analysis indicated that only 11% of 381 healthy Japanese individuals carry this polymorphism. Reports of previous functional analyses indicate that the G643S polymorphism in the KCNQ1 potassium channel protein causes mild IKs channel dysfunction. Our present study suggests that administering psychotropic drug therapy to individuals carrying the G643S polymorphism may heighten the risk of prolonged QT intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias. Thus, screening for the G643S polymorphism before prescribing psychotropic drugs may help reduce the risk of unexpected sudden death.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.125.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed three mini multiplex PCR systems using single-base extension reactions to identify Japanese Y chromosome haplogroups. We selected a group of 22 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the haplogroups most commonly reported in East Asia. To make the systems more useful in analyzing degraded DNA samples, we designed primers to render amplicons of ⩽150bp. Applying these systems, we classified the Japanese population into major haplogroups and confirmed the applicability of these systems in forensic DNA analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a trial investigation of transnasal endoscopy for post-mortem examinations to assess its efficacy in superficial post-mortem examinations. Transnasal endoscopy proved capable of permitting detailed visual inspections of the respiratory and the upper gastrointestinal tract, equal to direct viewing, on an LCD digital display. In 18 (40.9%) of 44 cases, findings obtained by post-mortem transnasal endoscopy (PMTNE) provided valuable clues regarding cause of death. The cases examined included seven deaths by fire, four by hypothermia, four by asphyxia (three involving death by mechanical asphyxia, the other by choking), two by drowning and one case of lung cancer. In two cases, PMTNE also led to informative findings not directly related to the cause of death. Under Japan's current systems, we are required to diagnose the cause of death for over 80% of all the unnatural death cases based solely on superficial post-mortem examinations, in the absence of an autopsy. Introducing PMTNE to superficial post-mortem examinations will undoubtedly provide much more information on the cause of death than relying solely on superficial post-mortem examinations.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Forensic science international