[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene mutations. The 24 SC-IMPs were subdivided into low-grade and high-grade tumors based primarily on the nuclear atypia, with the mitotic rate used as a secondary feature: low grade (n=5) and high grade (n=19). Low-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by low-mitotic activity, absence of abnormal mitosis, presence of serous borderline tumor, occasional BRAF mutation, and infrequent TP53 mutation. High-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by high-mitotic activity, presence of abnormal mitosis, conventional high-grade serous carcinoma, frequent TP53 mutation, and lack of KRAS/BRAF mutation. We demonstrated that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by aberrant p53 immunostaining and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern, validating Singer and colleague's report. Serous carcinoma with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern should not be readily regarded as low-grade serous carcinoma. Nuclear grade is the most important diagnostic feature in the SC-IMPs.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Müllerian mucinous borderline tumors (MMBTs) usually arise from the ovary. The present report is the first case of primary uterine MMBTs associated with adenomyosis. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a complex cystic and solid 4×3 cm right adnexal mass. She had a history of a left ovarian endometriotic cyst and had undergone a left oophorectomy 2 yr prior. A laparotomy was performed, and the tumor was found to be originating in the posterior wall of the uterus. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy, and left salpingectomy. Microscopically, the solid portion of the tumor contained papillary proliferations of glands, which were covered by a mucinous epithelium with mild to moderate nuclear atypia, accompanied by stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Islands of adenomyosis were also observed around the cyst. These pathologic findings were similar to the features of ovarian MMBT. We diagnosed this tumor as a uterine MMBT, probably arising from adenomyosis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian transitional cell tumors include Brenner tumors (BTs) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; non-BTs) according to the most recent World Health Organization classification. However, it remains a matter of debate whether TCC represents a distinct entity or a morphologic variant of high-grade serous adenocarcinoma (HG-SC). The purpose of this study was to resolve the above question by clarifying the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of TCC. We reviewed 488 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and reclassified them on the basis of the most recent World Health Organization classification with the modifications proposed by Köbel and colleagues, and 35 cases of TCC were identified; 25 and 6 TCCs were admixed with HG-SC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EC), respectively, and the remaining 4 cases were pure TCC. TCC components were not observed in any clear cell carcinomas or mucinous adenocarcinomas. Only 2 cases of malignant BT were identified. In addition to TCCs, malignant BTs, and related adenocarcinomas, benign and borderline BTs were included in the following immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. Immunohistochemically, pure TCCs, TCCs admixed with HG-SC, and pure HG-SCs were characterized by frequent aberrant p53 expression (diffuse or null pattern) and WT1/ER/PR/IMP2 immunophenotype, whereas BTs, including benign, borderline, and malignant BTs, were characterized by lack of aberrant p53 expression and WT1/ER/PR/IMP2 immunophenotype. In contrast to the BTs, pure ECs and TCCs admixed with EC showed an ER/PR immunophenotype. Nearly all the tumors with a TP53 gene mutation by molecular analysis showed aberrant p53 staining patterns. In conclusion, TCC is not a distinct entity but a poorly differentiated form of serous or EC, as (1) most TCCs coexist with HG-SC (mostly) or EC (occasionally), and (2) the immunophenotype and molecular features are similar to those of HG-SC or EC but different from those of BTs.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nature of "piling up" proliferation of clear cells in müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether or not such clear cells represent concomitant clear cell neoplasms. First, we carefully reviewed hematoxylin and eosin slides taken from 139 ovarian tumors diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma (112 cases) and müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor (27 cases) to clarify (1) the frequency of piling-up clear cells in müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor and (2) the frequency of the coexistence of typical clear cell carcinoma and müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor. Second, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β, and glypican-3 in proliferating clear cells in both tumors. We identified piling-up clear cells in 56% of müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumors. Such clear cells lacked the severe nuclear atypia, complex branching, and dense hyalinized cores of typical clear cell carcinoma. We did not find coexistence of typical clear cell carcinoma and müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor in any tumors. Piling-up clear cells and endocervical-like mucinous cells were positive for estrogen receptor but negative for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β and glypican-3. Most clear cell carcinomas showed a hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β-positive/estrogen receptor-negative immunophenotype, and about half of them were glypican-3 positive. In conclusion, piling-up clear cells in müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor do not represent concomitant clear cell neoplasms because clear cell carcinoma and müllerian mucinous/mixed borderline tumor hardly ever coexist and because such clear cells in both tumors are immunophenotypically distinct.