Michael A Nalls

National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (181)2085.4 Total impact

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    Cristian Pattaro · Alexander Teumer · Mathias Gorski · Audrey Y. Chu · Man Li · Vladan Mijatovic · Maija Garnaas · Adrienne Tin · Rossella Sorice · Yong Li · [...] · Katalin Susztak · Pavel Hamet · Johanne Tremblay · Ian H. de Boer · Carsten A. Böger · Wolfram Goessling · Daniel I. Chasman · Anna Köttgen · W. H. Linda Kao · Caroline S. Fox ·

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001) and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05). We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease which presents heterogeneously with symptoms and signs of parkinsonism, ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. Although MSA typically occurs sporadically, rare pathology-proven MSA families following either autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant patterns have been described, indicating a heritable contribution to the pathogenesis. Methods: We used Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) to estimate the heritable component of MSA due to common coding variability in imputed genotype data of 907 MSA cases and 3866 population-matched controls. GCTA only assesses the effect of putative causal variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with all common SNPs on the genotyping platform. Results: We estimate the heritability among common variants of MSA in pooled cases at 2.09-6.65%, with a wider range of values in geographic and diagnostic subgroups. Meta-analysis of our geographic cohorts reveals high between-group heterogeneity. Contributions of single chromosomes are generally negligible. We suggest that all calculated MSA heritability among common variants could be explained by the presence of misdiagnosed cases in the clinical subgroup based on a Bayesian estimate using literature-derived rates of misdiagnosis. Discussion: MSA is a challenging disease to study due to high rates of misdiagnosis and low prevalence. Given our low estimates of heritability, common genetic variation appears to play a less prominent role in risk for MSA than in other complex neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. The success of future gene discovery efforts rests on large pathologically-confirmed case series and an interrogation of both common and rare genetic variants.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The similarities between Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and both Parkinson’s (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are many and range from clinical presentation, to neuropathological characteristics, to more recently identified, genetic determinants of risk. Because of these overlapping features, diagnosing DLB is challenging and has clinical implications since some therapeutic agents that are applicable in other diseases have adverse effects in DLB. Having shown that DLB shares some genetic risk with PD and AD, we have now quantified the amount of sharing through the application of genetic correlation estimates, and show that, from a purely genetic perspective, and excluding the strong association at the APOE locus, DLB is equally correlated to AD and PD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Neurobiology of Aging
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    ABSTRACT: Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ∼70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (∼6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 × 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age < 55 years). To quantify the heritability for stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P < 0.001) and 34% (±10%, P < 0.001), respectively. Our data suggest that the genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Journal of Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: To identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium. Neuropsychological testing was available for 5429-32 070 subjects of European ancestry aged 45 years or older, free of dementia and clinical stroke at the time of cognitive testing from 20 cohorts in the discovery phase. We analyzed performance on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), semantic and phonemic fluency tests, and the Stroop Color and Word Test. Replication was sought in 1311-21860 subjects from 20 independent cohorts. A significant association was observed in the discovery cohorts for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17518584 (discovery P-value=3.12 × 10(-8)) and in the joint discovery and replication meta-analysis (P-value=3.28 × 10(-9) after adjustment for age, gender and education) in an intron of the gene cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) for performance on the LDST/DSST. Rs17518584 is located about 170 kb upstream of the transcription start site of the major transcript for the CADM2 gene, but is within an intron of a variant transcript that includes an alternative first exon. The variant is associated with expression of CADM2 in the cingulate cortex (P-value=4 × 10(-4)). The protein encoded by CADM2 is involved in glutamate signaling (P-value=7.22 × 10(-15)), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport (P-value=1.36 × 10(-11)) and neuron cell-cell adhesion (P-value=1.48 × 10(-13)). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in the CADM2 gene is associated with individual differences in information processing speed.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.37.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. © 2015 World Obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Obesity Reviews
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ɛ4- (7184 cases and 26 968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ɛ4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ɛ4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ɛ4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ɛ4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ɛ4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ɛ4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P⩽1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P⩽1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P⩽1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ɛ4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 March 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.23.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for approximately 2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 x 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: -The burden of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia, and death. WMH are highly heritable, but their genetic underpinnings are incompletely characterized. To identify novel genetic variants influencing WMH burden, we conducted a meta-analysis of multi-ethnic genome-wide association studies. -We included 21,079 middle-aged to elderly individuals from 29 population-based cohorts, who were free of dementia and stroke and were of European (N=17,936), African (N=1,943), Hispanic (N=795), and Asian (N=405) descent. WMH burden was quantified on MRI either by a validated automated segmentation method or a validated visual grading scale. Genotype data in each study were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference. Within each ethnic group, we investigated the relationship between each SNP and WMH burden using a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. A meta-analysis was conducted for each ethnicity separately and for the combined sample. In the European descent samples, we confirmed a previously known locus on chr17q25 (p=2.7×10(-19)) and identified novel loci on chr10q24 (p=1.6×10(-9)) and chr2p21 (p=4.4×10(-8)). In the multi-ethnic meta-analysis, we identified two additional loci, on chr1q22 (p=2.0×10(-8)) and chr2p16 (p=1.5×10(-8)). The novel loci contained genes that have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (chr2p21, chr10q24), intracerebral hemorrhage (chr1q22), neuro-inflammatory diseases (chr2p21), and glioma (chr10q24, chr2p16). -We identified four novel genetic loci that implicate inflammatory and glial proliferative pathways in the development of white matter hyperintensities in addition to previously-proposed ischemic mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Myasthenia gravis is a chronic, autoimmune, neuromuscular disease characterized by fluctuating weakness of voluntary muscle groups. Although genetic factors are known to play a role in this neuroimmunological condition, the genetic etiology underlying myasthenia gravis is not well understood. To identify genetic variants that alter susceptibility to myasthenia gravis, we performed a genome-wide association study. DNA was obtained from 1032 white individuals from North America diagnosed as having acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and 1998 race/ethnicity-matched control individuals from January 2010 to January 2011. These samples were genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. An independent cohort of 423 Italian cases and 467 Italian control individuals were used for replication. We calculated P values for association between 8 114 394 genotyped and imputed variants across the genome and risk for developing myasthenia gravis using logistic regression modeling. A threshold P value of 5.0 × 10-8 was set for genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the overall case-control cohort, we identified association signals at CTLA4 (rs231770; P = 3.98 × 10-8; odds ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.25-1.49), HLA-DQA1 (rs9271871; P = 1.08 × 10-8; odds ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.02 - 2.60), and TNFRSF11A (rs4263037; P = 1.60 × 10-9; odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.29-1.53). These findings replicated for CTLA4 and HLA-DQA1 in an independent cohort of Italian cases and control individuals. Further analysis revealed distinct, but overlapping, disease-associated loci for early- and late-onset forms of myasthenia gravis. In the late-onset cases, we identified 2 association peaks: one was located in TNFRSF11A (rs4263037; P = 1.32 × 10-12; odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.44-1.68) and the other was detected in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p21 (HLA-DQA1; rs9271871; P = 7.02 × 10-18; odds ratio, 4.27; 95% CI, 3.92-4.62). Association within the major histocompatibility complex region was also observed in early-onset cases (HLA-DQA1; rs601006; P = 2.52 × 10-11; odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 3.57-4.43), although the set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms was different from that implicated among late-onset cases. Our genetic data provide insights into aberrant cellular mechanisms responsible for this prototypical autoimmune disorder. They also suggest that clinical trials of immunomodulatory drugs related to CTLA4 and that are already Food and Drug Administration approved as therapies for other autoimmune diseases could be considered for patients with refractory disease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · JAMA Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: To evaluate the association between head injury and Parkinson's disease (PD), focusing on the timing of head injury, and to explore potential interactions between head injury and genetic factors in PD etiology. Methods: The analysis included 507 PD cases and 1330 controls, all non-Hispanic Whites. Head injury was retrospectively asked, and genotyping was performed mainly as part of a previous GWAS. Results: We found a positive association between head injury and PD risk. Compared with no previous head injury, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.94) for one and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.25, 4.35) for two or more head injuries (P for trend = 0.0016). We further found that the higher risk was largely attributed to head injuries before age 30. Compared with no previous head injury, the OR was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.33, 3.14) for head injury that occurred before age 18, 1.39 (95% CI: 0.81, 2.36) for head injury between ages 18-<30, and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.87) for head injury that occurred at age 30 or older (P for trend = 0.001). Exploratory interaction analyses showed a significant interaction between head injury and a SNP at the RBMS3 locus (rs10510622, uncorrected P = 0.0001). No interaction was found with GWAS tag SNPs at or near the MAPT, SNCA, LRRK2, and HLA loci. Conclusion: Our study suggests that head injury early in life may be an important risk factor for PD. The potential interaction with RBMS3 needs confirmation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: -Numerous experimental studies suggest that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is cardioprotective, yet in clinical studies, higher plasma BNP concentrations have been associated with incident cardiovascular disease and higher left ventricular mass (LVM). Genetic association studies may allow us to determine the true causal directions without confounding by compensatory mechanisms. -We performed meta-analysis of two genome-wide association (GWA) results from a total of 2,790 African Americans. We assumed an additive genetic model in association analysis of imputed 2.5 million SNP dosages with residuals generated from multivariable-adjusted logarithmically-transformed BNP controlling for relevant covariates and population stratification. Two loci were genome-wide significant, a candidate gene locus NPPB (rs198389, p-value=1.18×10(-09)) and novel missense variant in the KLKB1 locus (rs3733402, p-value=1.75×10(-11)) that explained 0.4% and 1.9% of variation in log BNP concentration, respectively. The observed increase in BNP concentration was proportional to the number of effect allele copies, an average of 8.1 pg/dl increase associated with two allele copies. SNPs in this loci were subsequently cross-checked with GWA results for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio in individuals of European ancestry, and only rs3733402 was genome-wide significant (p<5.0×10(-8)), suggesting possible shared genetic architecture for these two pathways. Other statistically significant relations for these SNPs included: rs198389 with systolic blood pressure in blacks (COGENT consortium) rs198389 and rs3733402 with LVM in whites (EchoGEN consortium). -These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of BNP variation in African Americans, demonstrate possible shared allelic architecture for BNP with ARR and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heritable with 20 genes showing genome-wide association in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). To identify the biology underlying the disease, we extended these genetic data in a pathway analysis. METHODS: The ALIGATOR and GSEA algorithms were used in the IGAP data to identify associated functional pathways and correlated gene expression networks in human brain. RESULTS: ALIGATOR identified an excess of curated biological pathways showing enrichment of association. Enriched areas of biology included the immune response (P = 3.27 × 10-12 after multiple testing correction for pathways), regulation of endocytosis (P = 1.31 × 10-11), cholesterol transport (P = 2.96 × 10-9), and proteasome-ubiquitin activity (P = 1.34 × 10-6). Correlated gene expression analysis identified four significant network modules, all related to the immune response (corrected P = .002-.05). CONCLUSIONS: The immune response, regulation of endocytosis, cholesterol transport, and protein ubiquitination represent prime targets for AD therapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Alzheimer's and Dementia

Publication Stats

10k Citations
2,085.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • National Institute on Aging
      • • Laboratory of Neurogenetics (LNG)
      • • Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography and Biometry (LEDB)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Center for Molecular Genetics
      Gif, Île-de-France, France
    • National Institute of Aerospace
      Hampton, Virginia, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States