[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and debilitating mental disorder, and the specific genetic factors that underlie the risk for SCZ remain elusive. The autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene has been reported to be associated with autism, suicide, alcohol consumption, and heroin dependence. We hypothesized that AUTS2 might be associated with SCZ. In the present study, three polymorphisms (rs6943555, rs7459368, and rs9886351) in the AUTS2 gene were genotyped in 410 patients with SCZ and 435 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and forced PCR-RFLP methods. We detected an association between SCZ and the rs6943555 genotype distribution (odds ratio (OR) = 1.363, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.848-2.191, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after adjusting for gender, and a significant effect (p = 0.001) was observed among the females. In the present study, rs6943555 was determined to be associated with female SCZ. Our results confirm previous reports which have suggested that rs6943555 might elucidate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and play an important role in its etiology.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the criminal cases of driving under the influence (DUI), DNA evidence can be collected from the deployed airbag of the motor vehicle and submitted to the crime lab for touch DNA analysis. The evidence can be acquired when the skin cells are observed on the surface of the airbag in a traffic accident. However, the low quantity or quality of the evidence collected from a crime scene prevents further identification analysis in many cases. In the current study, we reported a case of identifying touch DNA extraction from the shed skin cells from the deployed airbag of a motor vehicle. We managed to collect DNA evidence from the shed skin cells in an airbag using a proper approach of collection and extraction. The 5.87 ng of extracted DNA was sufficient for genotyping and forensic identification, which helped to identify the driver of the car in collision with a pier in the street. In DUI cases and other traffic accidents, therefore, the amount of touch DNA extracted from the deployed airbag can be sufficient for DNA marker genotyping and further analysis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Fa yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) modulates opioid reinforcement, reward, and opioid-induced neuroadaptation. We propose that DRD1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to opioid dependence (OD), the efficiency of transition to OD, and opioid-induced pleasure response. We analyzed potential association between seven DRD1 polymorphisms with the following traits: duration of transition from the first use to dependence (DTFUD), subjective pleasure responses to opioid on first use and post-dependence use, and OD risk in 425 Chinese with OD and 514 healthy controls. DTFUD and level of pleasure responses were examined using a semi-structured interview. The DTFUD of opioid addicts ranged from 5 days to 11 years. Most addicts (64.0%) reported non-comfortable response upon first opioid use, while after dependence, most addicts (53.0%) felt strong opioid-induced pleasure. Survival analysis revealed a correlation of prolonged DTFUD with the minor allele-carrying genotypes of DRD1 rs4532 (hazard ratios (HR) = 0.694; p = 0.001) and rs686 (HR = 0.681, p = 0.0003). Binary logistic regression indicated that rs10063995 GT genotype (vs. GG+TT, OR = 0.261) could predict decreased pleasure response to first-time use and the minor alleles of rs686 (OR = 0.535) and rs4532 (OR = 0.537) could predict decreased post-dependence pleasure. Moreover, rs686 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk for rapid transition from initial use to dependence (DTFUD≤30 days; OR = 0.603) or post-dependence euphoria (OR = 0.603) relative to major allele. In conclusion, DRD1 rs686 minor allele decreases the OD risk by prolonging the transition to dependence and attenuating opioid-induced pleasure in Chinese.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crested ibis is among the rarest and most endangered species worldwide. To preserve its genetic resources and conveniently provide materials for biological research, we successfully established two cell lines from biopsies of a male and female adult crested ibis. The cultured cells from both specimens had typical fibroblast morphology. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cultured cells strongly expressed the marker of smooth muscle specific α-actin, clearly indicating the cells were from the smooth muscle tissue. Growth property analysis showed that the cells grew well past the first 10 passages and continued growing with reduced proliferation after 15 passages, but ceased by passage 25 as the cells could not grow to form a confluent monolayer. From these two cell lines, we harvested mitotic metaphase chromosomes and conducted different staining, banding, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Throughout the process, cells maintained normal diploidy, with the karyotypes of these two cell lines being 2n=68, ZZ in the male and 2n=68, ZW in the female. Patterns of Ag staining, C- and G-bands of the crested ibis chromosomes were also studied. Banding analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization also allowed identification of the sex chromosomes. We suggest that the external implants method for establishing primary cell lines used in this study may also be applicable to other birds, especially similarly endangered avian species.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Zoological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although dopamine within the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in working memory, how different dopamine receptor subtypes contribute to this process need to be further characterized. Previous studies have suggest the importance of dopamine receptors signaling in regulating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function that is associated with synaptic plasticity underlying normal memory formation. Changes in BDNF expression through the dopamine receptors within the prefrontal cortex may accompany and mediate the spatial working memory. To test the possibility, dopamine D1 and D3 receptor mutant mice were tested in Morris water maze for spatial working memory. We found that trial-dependent, matching-to-sample, learning of the platform location, an index of short-term spatial working memory in mice, was significantly impaired in D1 receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice, and regular performance of D3 receptor mutants was observed in the similar working memory task. BDNF protein was significantly decreased in prefrontal cortex, though not in hippocampus, of the D1 receptor knockout mice, whereas no changes were found in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of D3 receptor knockout mice. These data suggest that dopamine D1 but not D3 receptors are critical for prefrontal cortex BDNF expression which may be related to spatial working memory processes.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-Protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor with high binding affinity to medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). Acute activation of GPR40 on pancreatic β-cells causes insulin secretion, whereas prolonged activation may contribute to a deterioration of the effect of saturated FFAs on β-cells. It has been documented that different types of FFAs produce various effects on insulin secretion; however, little information is available regarding the expression of GPR40 and its function after long-term exposure of β-cells to unsaturated FFAs. In the present study, GPR40 expression and function were assessed in INS-1 β-cells after 48 h exposure to different types of unsaturated FFAs. The mRNA and protein expression of GPR40 was increased significantly by long-term exposure of cells to polyunsaturated α-linolenic acid, but not to either oleic acid or linoleic acid. Immunocytochemistry revealed a reduction in the number of insulin-containing granules in cells treated with α-linolenic acid, which was correlated with an increase in cellular expression of GPR40. Basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were markedly suppressed by 48 h treatment of cells with saturated palmitic acid, but not unsaturated α-linolenic acid. By testing various FFAs, it was found that FFA-induced suppression of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was attenuated by an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the FFAs and GPR40 expression in response to FFA treatment in INS-1 cells. The results of the present study indicate that long-term in vitro treatment of INS-1 rat pancreatic β-cells by unsaturated FFAs protects the cells against from gluco- and lipotoxicities and that this coincides with an increase in GPR40 expression.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) catalyze the metabolism of dopaminergic neurotransmitters. Polymorphisms of isoforms MAOA and MAOB have been implicated in the etiology of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Association studies detected these polymorphisms in several populations, however the data have not been conclusive to date. Here, we investigated the association of MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population.
Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs6323 of MAOA and rs1799836 of MAOB, were selected for association analysis in 537 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 536 healthy controls. Single-locus and Haplotype associations were calculated.
No differences were found in the allelic distribution of rs6323. The G allele of rs1799836 was identified as a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia (P = 0.00001). The risk haplotype rs6323T-rs1799836G was associated with schizophrenia in female patients (P = 0.0002), but the frequency difference was not significant among male groups.
Our results suggest that MAOB is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. In contrast, no significant associations were observed for the MAOA functional polymorphism with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. These data support further investigation of the role of MAO genes in schizophrenia.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Behavioral and Brain Functions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in dopamine transmission at D1 receptors in the PFC are implicated in schizophrenia. Genetic polymorphisms in functional regions of DRD1 have a plausible role in modulating the risk of schizophrenia. In order to evaluate the role of DRD1 polymorphisms as a risk factor for schizophrenia, we performed a detailed analysis of possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regulatory and coding regions of DRD1. Nine SNPs were identified by DNA sequencing in 20 patients with schizophrenia. Then 385 cases and 350 healthy control subjects were genotyped using the nine SNPs (rs4867798, rs686, rs1799914, rs4532 rs5326, rs265981, rs10078714, rs10063995, rs10078866). Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic or genotypic frequencies of the rs686 and rs10063995 polymorphism in the DRD1 gene. A significantly lower risk of schizophrenia was associated with the G allele and AG+GG genotype of rs686 (OR (G allele)=0.632, 95%CI (G allele): 0.470-0.849; OR (AG+GG genotype)=0.578, 95%CI (AG+GG genotype): 0.416-0.803) compared with the A allele and AA genotype, respectively. And a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia was associated with the T allele of rs10063995 (OR=1.446, 95%CI: 1.125-1.859) compared with the G allele. The haplotype analysis indicated the G-T variant containing the T allele of rs10063995 is a risk for schizophrenia (P=0.005, OR=1.467, 95%CI: 1.123-1.917). These data suggest that DRD1 gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to schizophrenia, and also support the notion that dysfunction of DRD1 is involved in the pathophysiological process of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The opioid system plays an important role in memory processess. Morphine mimics endogenous opioids by acting on opioid receptor in brain to regulate memory. However, the effects of morphine on spatial memory acquisition are controversial. Also, little evidence has suggested that morphine could affect the retrieval of spatial memory. In the current study, effects of pre-training morphine and naloxone on the acquisition vs. retrieval of spatial reference vs. working memory were examined using discrete water maze tasks in C57BL/6 mice. Pre-training morphine administration (7.5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired the acquisition of both spatial reference memory and working memory. Motivation to escape from the water maze was not affected by morphine. Pre-test morphine also inhibited the retrieval of spatial working memory but not reference memory. The effects of morphine on the acquisition and retrieval of spatial working memory were eliminated by naloxone pretreatment (1mg/kg). These results indicate that morphine could differentially modulate a variety of aspects of spatial memory and these effects are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Physiology & Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the features of genetic differentiation and gene flow of ten minorities in Yunnan province according to nine CODIS short tandem repeat(STR) loci (CSF1PO, FGA, THO1, TPOX, v WA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820 and D13S317).
Heterozygosity and parameters of population differentiation such as F, theta, f and Gst at each locus were calculated. DA genetic distance and fixation index Fst were calculated by Phylip 3.6 and Arlequin 3.0 software, respectively. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Mega 3.0, and the patterns of gene flow were analyzed by R-matrix model.
It showed that average genetic heterogeneity in ten minorities was above 0.7. Significant difference was found for most of the loci in genetic differentiation. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the ten minorities were divided into two clusters. The results of the R-matrix analysis showed that the gene flow of Yi and Dai minorities were higher than that of other minorities, while the pattern of gene flow of Dulong minority demonstrated some of the isolation.
Nine STR loci commonly used in forensic identification show a high polymorphism. Heterozygosity can be used for investigating genetic differentiation and gene flow of minority. The ten minorities in Yunnan are independent populations, while the level of differentiation is not high. The relationship in evolution is not far from each other and shows a widely gene flow among the minorities.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Fa yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the potential association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) TaqI RFLP A (rs1800497) and dopamine transporter gene (DAT) 3'untranslated region VNTR genetic variations with heroin addiction. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based techniques in 530 heroin abusers and 500 controls. Our results showed that DRD2 TaqI A1 allele carriers (genotypes A1A1 and A1A2) were prone to heroin abuse in models of dominance or co-dominance. We detected a 12 repeat allele and 6/6, 7/9, 9/11, 10/12 genotype in a Chinese/eastern Asian population for the first time. However, no significant differences in the DAT1 VNTR were found between the two groups in either genotypic or allelic distributions and there was no gene interaction between the two genetic loci.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic polymorphism of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, i.e. D5S818, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX and D18S51, in Tibetan population of Changdu area, and to analyze the genetic relationship between this population and other Asian populations.
The 15 loci were amplified simultaneously using a multiplex PCR typing system. Amplified STR fragments were analyzed with an ABI PRISM 3100 Avant DNA Analyzer. Arlequin software version 3.1 was used to obtain allele frequencies and polymorphism parameters.
There were 135 STR alleles in the 15 STRs of Changdu Tibetan, with allele frequencies ranging from 0.0065 to 0.5455. The average heterozygosity was 0.7340, the discrimination power was higher than 0.8 except for TPOX and TH01. The accumulative discrimination power was more than 0.9999998, and the accumulative non-parental exclusion probability was 0.99999997.
The 15 STR loci of Changdu Tibetan possess characteristics of high genetic diversity. They can be employed in minority genetics investigation, and individual and paternity test in forensic medicine.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (DXS7130, DXS7132, DXS6804, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS8378, and HPRTB) on X chromosome in Chinese Yugur ethnic group. The allele and genotype frequency of nine X-STR loci among 120 unrelated individuals (55 female, 65 male) from Yugur ethnic group were analyzed using PCR and followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The numbers of alleles in the nine X-STR loci were 8, 6, 6, 5, 6, 7, 6, 4, and 6, respectively; the numbers of genotypes in the nine loci were 16, 14, 13, 6, 13, 20, 11, 6, and 12, respectively. The genotype frequencies in females were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The nine X-STR loci were relatively abundant in polymorphic information for individual identification, paternity testing and population genetics. A total of 15 haplotypes were detected in DXS7130 and DXS8378 loci, and 55 haplotypes were detected in DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, and DXS6804 loci. The haplotype diversity reached 0.8212 and 0.9947, respectively. Phylogeny tree and cluster analysis based on X-STR allele frequencies in genesis showed that Yugur ethnic group share a close relationship with Mongolian ethnic group and Chinese Han, Tibetan population and far from Hui and Uygur ethnic group, who dwell in the northwest of China.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetics refers to the heritable, but reversible, regulation of various biological functions mediated principally through changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure derived from histone modification. Recent research indicated that epigenetic mechanisms may play vital role in etiology of major psychosis, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and drug addiction. With brief introduction of epigenetic molecular mechanisms and relevance of epigenetics to human common diseases, this review focuses on epigenetic hypothesis and some supporting evidence which are recently emerged in major depressive disorder (MDD).
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of 198 unrelated health individuals of Tujia ethnic group from south China's Hunan Province. Genotyping and detection of PCR products were carried out on denaturing polycrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies were computed. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and differences of gene distribution were examined by SPSS 13.0. Fixation index, genetic polymorphism and indices of forensic application were calculated using Fstat and Powerstats, respectively. The results revealed that the frequencies of 65 alleles were distributed from 0.0048 to 0.6170. Among the ten X-STR loci, DXS6789, DXS6799 and HPRTB presented lower diversity and differentiation, while DXS7133 and DXS7423 showed lower value in forensic application. Results of multiple comparisons by loci showed that difference between German, Italian and Tujia population were the most dominant, and it suggested that great genetic differences did exist between Caucasian and Mongo-lian. In conclusion, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7130, DXS8378, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424 and HPRTB had a good value in forensic identification, paternity testing of female and disease related study for Tujia population.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Venous blood samples from 50 unrelated Oroqen individuals living in Inner Mongolia were collected and their mtDNA HVR I and HVR II sequences were detected by using ABI PRISM377 sequencers. The number of polymorphic loci, haplotype, haplotype frequence, average nucleotide variability and other polymorphic parameters were calculated. Based on Oroqen mtDNA sequence data obtained in our experiments and published data, genetic distance between Oroqen ethnic group and other populations were computered by Nei's measure. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Neighbor Joining method. Comparing with Anderson sequence, 52 polymorphic loci in HVR I and 24 loci in HVR II were found in Oroqen mtDNA sequence, 38 and 27 haplotypes were defined herewith. Haplotype diversity and average nucleotide variability were 0.964+/-0.018 and 7.379 in HVR I, 0.929+/-0.019 and 2.408 in HVR II respectively. Fst and dA genetic distance between 12 populations were calculated based on HVR I sequence, and their relative coefficients were 0.993(P < 0.01). A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on genetic distances and included Oroqen, Taiwan and South Han population in a clade, which indicated near genetic relation between them, and far relation with northern Han, Mongolian and other foreign populations. The genetic polymorphism of mtDNA HVR I and HVR II in Oroqen ethnic group has some specificities compared with that of other populations. These data provide a useful tool in forensic identification, population genetic study and other research fields.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the genetic study, the samples can greatly influence the analysis and interpretation of the genetic data obtained. Here we examined the effects of sample size on the observed number of allele of 9 STR loci (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D13S317, D5S818, D7S820) with 30 various population genetic data. The results show: the quantity of alleles and the quantity of samples was not obviously corresponding, while the populations with few samples had more allele observed. And there was no significant influence on the quantity of the allele observed when the quantity of the samples reached to a certain amount. H (heterozygosity) was up to a stable level when the quantity of sample was 50. Those who had low heterozygosity (such as TPOX) changed obviously with the quantity of samples, while those had high heterozygosity (such as FGA) changed a little with the quantity of samples.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic structure of X chromosome in Mongolia, Ewenki, Elunchun and Dawoer in Inner Mongolia.
Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome (DXS6789, DXS101, DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS6804, DXS6799 and HPRTB) were analyzed in the four populations from Inner Mongolian (Mongol, Ewenki,Oroqen and Daur) for their genetic diversity, forensic suitability and possible genetic affinities of the populations. Frequencies and other parameters of forensic interest were computed.
The results revealed that the nine markers described here have a moderate degree of variability in the population groups. And there are significant differences in the genetic variability among the populations. Genetic distance and cluster analyses show very low genetic distance between Mongol and Han (Xi'an) communities. The results based on genetic distance analyses are consistent with earlier studies based on linguistic as well as immigration history and origin of these populations.
The nine STR loci studied here were found not only useful in studying genetic variations between populations but also suitable for human identity testing.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the genetic polymorphisms of HLA-A, B, DRB1 alleles and haplotype frequencies in Mongols from Inner Mongolia, China. A PCR-based reverse line-strip sequence specific oligonucleotide hybridization method was used to determine the alleles of HLA-A, B, DRB1 in 106 unrelated, healthy Mongol individuals of Inner Mongolia. Allelic and haplotype frequencies of these loci were calculated by the maximum likelihood estimator method. Altogether, 13 HLA-A alleles, 29 HLA-B alleles and 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed in the population. The most frequent HLA A-B, B-DRB1, and A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were HLA-A*02-B*46 (0.0510), HLA-A*02-B*13 (0.0495), HLA-A*02-B*51 (0.0442); HLA-B*13-DRB1*07(0.0555), HLA B*46-DRB1*09 (0.0378), HLA-B*35-DRB1*13(0.033); and HLA-A*02-B*13- DRB1*07(0.033019), HLA-A*02-B*46-DRB1*09 (0.031985), respectively. These results indicated that the HLA loci are highly polymorphic in Mongols of Inner Mongolia, and haplotypes HLA-A*24-B*14, HLA-A*32-B*63 have significant linkage disequilibrium.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As high polymorphism markers, STR loci have been widely used in studying population genetics. This review summarizes various genetic diversity parameters and analysis methods regarding to genotype frequency and allele frequency, including heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), linkage disequilibrium coefficients, inbreeding coefficients, genetic distance and fixation indices. The methods of statistical analysis included principal component analysis, phylogenetic trees, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), R matrix, GIS and spatial autocorrelation. By means of various parameters and methods, graphically and scientifically, we can describe and interpret several key issues in the study of population genetics, such as population genetic structure, population differentiation and human evolution.
Preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Hereditas (Beijing)