Chad A Brautigam

University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States

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Publications (84)493.79 Total impact

  • Chad A. Brautigam
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) data has been greatly facilitated by the advances accumulated in recent years. These improvements include refinements in AUC-based binding isotherms, advances in the fitting of both sedimentation velocity (SV) and sedimentation equilibrium (SE) data, and innovations in calculations related to posttranslationally modified proteins and to proteins with a large amount of associated cosolute, e.g., detergents. To capitalize on these advances, the experimenter often must prepare and collate multiple data sets and parameters for subsequent analyses; these tasks can be cumbersome and unclear, especially for new users. Examples are the sorting of concentration-profile scans for SE data, the integration of sedimentation velocity distributions (c(s)) to arrive at weighted-average binding isotherms, and the calculations to determine the oligomeric state of glycoproteins and membrane proteins. The significant organizational and logistical hurdles presented by these approaches are streamlined by the software described herein, called GUSSI. GUSSI also creates publication-quality graphics for documenting and illustrating AUC and other biophysical experiments with minimal effort on the user's part. The program contains three main modules, allowing for plotting and calculations on c(s) distributions, SV signal versus radius data, and general data/fit/residual plots.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp) in the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum (Ftp_Tp) as the first bacterial metal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and FMN in the periplasm. Orthologs of Ftp_Tp in other bacteria (formerly ApbE) appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they flavinylate the redox subunit, NqrC, via their metal-dependent FMN transferase activity. However, nothing has been known about the nature or mechanism of metal-dependent Ftp catalysis in either Nqr- or Rnf-redox-containing bacteria. In the current study, we identified a bimetal center in the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Ftp (Ftp_Ec) and show via mutagenesis that a single amino acid substitution converts it from an FAD-binding protein to a Mg(2+) -dependent FAD pyrophosphatase (Ftp_Tp-like). Furthermore, in the presence of protein substrates, both types of Ftps are capable of flavinylating periplasmic redox-carrying proteins (e.g., RnfG_Ec) via the metal-dependent covalent attachment of FMN. A high-resolution structure of the Ftp-mediated flavinylated protein of Shewanella oneidensis NqrC identified an essential lysine in phosphoester-threonyl-FMN bond formation in the posttranslationally modified flavoproteins. Together, these discoveries broaden our understanding of the physiological capabilities of the bacterial periplasm, and they also clarify a possible mechanism by which flavoproteins are generated.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · MicrobiologyOpen
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning cellular functions is dependent on a detailed characterization of the energetics macromolecular binding, often quantified by the equilibrium dissociation constant, KD. While many biophysical methods may be used to obtain KD, the focus of this report is a relatively new method called "microscale thermophoresis" (MST). In an MST experiment, a capillary tube filled with a solution containing a dye-labeled solute is illuminated with an infrared laser, rapidly creating a temperature gradient. Molecules will migrate along this gradient, causing changes in the observed fluorescence. Because the net migration of the labeled molecules will depend on their liganded state, a binding curve can be constructed as a function of ligand concentration from MST data and analyzed to determine KD. Herein, simulations demonstrate the limits of KD that can be measured in current instrumentation. They also show that binding kinetics are a major concern when planning and executing MST experiments. Additionally, studies of two protein-protein interactions illustrate challenges encountered in acquiring and analyzing MST data. Combined, these approaches indicate a set of best practices for performing and analyzing MST experiments. Software for rigorous data analysis is also introduced.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ-RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ-RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ-RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    Ho Yee Joyce Fung · Szu-Chin Fu · Chad A Brautigam · Yuh Min Chook
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    ABSTRACT: The Chromosome Region of Maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein mediates nuclear export of hundreds of proteins through recognition of their nuclear export signals (NESs), which are highly variable in sequence and structure. The plasticity of the CRM1-NES interaction is not well understood, as there are many NES sequences that seem incompatible with structures of the NES-bound CRM1 groove. Crystal structures of CRM1 bound to two different NESs with unusual sequences showed the NES peptides binding the CRM1 groove in the opposite orientation (minus) to that of previously studied NESs (plus). Comparison of minus and plus NESs identified structural and sequence determinants for NES orientation. The binding of NESs to CRM1 in both orientations results in a large expansion in NES consensus patterns and therefore a corresponding expansion of potential NESs in the proteome.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · eLife Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete’s periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redox system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg2+-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg2+-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp’s dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg2+ in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Methods
  • Chad A. Brautigam · Ranjit K. Deka · Wei Z. Liu · Michael V. Norgard
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    ABSTRACT: The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is caused by the bacterial spirochete Treponema pallidum. This microorganism is genetically intractable, accounting for the large number of putative and under-characterized members of the pathogen's proteome. In an effort to ascribe a function(s) to the TP0435 (Tp17) lipoprotein, we engineered a soluble variant of the protein (rTP0435) and determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.42 Å. The structure is characterized by an eight-stranded β-barrel protein with a shallow “basin” at one end of the barrel and an α-helix stacked on the opposite end. Furthermore, there is a disulfide-linked dimer of the protein in the asymmetric unit of the crystals. Solution hydrodynamic experiments established that purified rTP0435 is monomeric, but specifically forms the disulfide-stabilized dimer observed in the crystal structure. The data herein, when considered with previous work on TP0435, imply plausible roles for the protein in either ligand binding, treponemal membrane architecture, and/or pathogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS. However, some species lack RpoS; thus, it is unclear how stationary-phase adaptation is regulated in these organisms. Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of hfq. Insertional inactivation of hfq altered the expression of ~16% of the H. ducreyi genes. Importantly, there were a significant overlap and an inverse correlation in the transcript levels of genes differentially expressed in the hfq inactivation mutant relative to its parent and the genes differentially expressed in stationary phase relative to mid-log phase in the parent. Inactivation of hfq downregulated genes in the flp-tad and lspB-lspA2 operons, which encode several virulence determinants. To comply with FDA guidelines for human inoculation experiments, an unmarked hfq deletion mutant was constructed and was fully attenuated for virulence in humans. Inactivation or deletion of hfq downregulated Flp1 and impaired the ability of H. ducreyi to form microcolonies, downregulated DsrA and rendered H. ducreyi serum susceptible, and downregulated LspB and LspA2, which allow H. ducreyi to resist phagocytosis. We propose that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of H. ducreyi stationary-phase and virulence gene regulation. The contribution of Hfq to stationary-phase gene regulation may have broad implications for other organisms that lack an RpoS homolog. Importance: Pathogenic bacteria encounter a wide range of stresses in their hosts, including nutrient limitation; the ability to sense and respond to such stresses is crucial for bacterial pathogens to successfully establish an infection. Gram-negative bacteria frequently utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS to adapt to stresses and stationary phase. However, homologs of RpoS are absent in some bacterial pathogens, including Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes chancroid and facilitates the acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. Here, we provide evidence that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of stationary-phase gene regulation and that Hfq is required for H. ducreyi to infect humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing Hfq as a major contributor of stationary-phase gene regulation in bacteria and the requirement of Hfq for the virulence of a bacterial pathogen in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · mBio
  • Thomas H. Scheuermann · Chad A. Brautigam
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    ABSTRACT: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has become a standard and widely available tool to measure the thermodynamic parameters of macromolecular associations. Modern applications of the method, including global analysis and drug screening, require the acquisition of multiple sets of data; sometimes these data sets number in the hundreds. Therefore, there is a need for quick, precise, and automated means to process the data, particularly at the first step of data analysis, which is commonly the integration of the raw data to yield an interpretable isotherm. Herein, we describe enhancements to an algorithm that previously has been shown to provide an automated, unbiased, and high-precision means to integrate ITC data. These improvements allow for the speedy and precise serial integration of an unlimited number of ITC data sets, and they have been implemented in the freeware program NITPIC, version 1.1.0. We present a comprehensive comparison of the performance of this software against an older version of NITPIC and a current version of Origin, which is commonly used for integration. The new methods recapitulate the excellent performance of the previous versions of NITPIC while speeding it up substantially, and their precision is significantly better than that of Origin. This new version of NITPIC is therefore well suited to the serial integration of many ITC data sets.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Methods
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    ABSTRACT: The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome segregation by monitoring kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Unattached or tensionless kinetochores activate the checkpoint and enhance the production of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) consisting of BubR1, Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20. MCC is a critical checkpoint inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase required for anaphase onset. The N-terminal region of BubR1 binds to both Cdc20 and Mad2, thus nucleating MCC formation. The middle region of human BubR1 (BubR1M) also interacts with Cdc20, but the nature and function of this interaction are not understood. Here we identify two critical motifs within BubR1M that contribute to Cdc20 binding and APC/C inhibition: a destruction box (D box) and a phenylalanine-containing motif termed the Phe box. A BubR1 mutant lacking these motifs is defective in MCC maintenance in mitotic human cells, but is capable of supporting spindle-checkpoint function. Thus, the BubR1M-Cdc20 interaction indirectly contributes to MCC homeostasis. Its apparent dispensability in the spindle checkpoint might be due to functional duality or redundant, competing mechanisms. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Chad A Brautigam
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    ABSTRACT: As isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) gains popularity for the characterization of enthalpies and equilibrium association constants of simple 1:1 biomolecular interactions, its use for more complex systems is growing. The method is increasingly used to study interactions in which a single binding partner (molecule "A") interacts with multiple copies of a second partner ("B"); thus examinations of ABB and ABBB interactions are not uncommon. The structure of ITC data (commonly formatted as isotherms) has a strong bearing on the ability of the researcher to extract the necessary parameters from them. Usually, only 10-30 injections are recorded in a single ITC experiment. Even if replicates are performed, the data must support the extraction of up to twelve parameters from an ABBB system conducted in triplicate. Further, the refinement of some of the parameters is largely driven by only a subset of the data. The ability of ITC data to guide the deterministic estimation of these parameters may therefore be questioned. This work assesses the ability of both empirical and simulated ITC data of ABB and ABBB systems to support the simultaneous estimation of the desired thermodynamic parameters. The results demonstrate that multiphasic isotherms tend to (but do not always) support the estimation of multiple parameters. On the other hand, uniphasic data obtained from multi-site binding systems are more problematic. In all cases, a thorough exploration of how precisely the estimated parameters are specified by the data is justified. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Methods
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    ABSTRACT: There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Infection and Immunity
  • Diana Tomchick · Ranjit Deka · Chad Brautigam · Wei Liu · Michael Norgard
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    ABSTRACT: Treponema pallidum, an obligate parasite of humans and the causative agent of syphilis, has evolved the capacity to exploit host-derived metabolites for its survival. Flavin-containing compounds are essential cofactors that are required for metabolic processes in all living organisms, and riboflavin is a direct precursor of the cofactors FMN and FAD. Unlike many pathogenic bacteria, Treponema pallidum cannot synthesize riboflavin; we recently described a flavin-uptake mechanism composed of an ABC-type transporter [1]. However, there is a paucity of information about flavin utilization in bacterial periplasms. We have identified the TP0796 lipoprotein as a previously uncharacterized Mg2+-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase/FMN transferase within the ApbE superfamily [2,3]. Biochemical and structural investigations revealed that the enzyme has a unique bimetal Mg2+ catalytic center. Furthermore, the pyrophosphatase activity is product-inhibited by AMP, indicating a possible role for this molecule in modulating FMN and FAD levels in the treponemal periplasm. The ApbE superfamily was previously thought to be involved in thiamine biosynthesis, but our characterization of TP0796 prompts a renaming of this superfamily as a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp). Treponemal Ftp (Ftp_Tp) is the first structurally and biochemically characterized metal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase/FMN transferase in bacteria. We have shown in vitro and in vivo that Ftps from several types of pathogenic bacteria are capable of flavinylating proteins through covalent attachment of FMN via a phosphoester bond to threonine residues of an appropriate sequence signature. Progress on the structural characterization of a product of this post-translational modification will be presented. This new paradigm for a bacterial flavin utilization pathway may prove to be useful for future inhibitor design.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances
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    ABSTRACT: eLife digest Dynamic filaments of proteins, called microtubules, have several important roles inside cells. Microtubules provide structural support for the cell; they help to pull chromosomes apart during cell division; and they guide the trafficking of proteins and molecules across the cell. The building blocks of microtubules are proteins called αβ-tubulin, which are continually added to and removed from the ends of a microtubule, causing it to grow and shrink. Other proteins that interact with the microtubules can help to speed up these construction and deconstruction processes. Ayaz et al. took a closer look at the structure of one particular family of proteins that make it easier for the microtubules to grow, using a technique called X-ray crystallography. The resulting images show two sites—called TOG1 and TOG2—on the enzymes that attach to the αβ-tubulin proteins. Ayaz et al. found that this binding can only occur when αβ-tubulin has a curved shape, which only happens when the tubulins are not included in, or are only bound weakly to the end of, a microtubule. Previous research suggested that the two binding sites might work together to provide ‘scaffolding’ that stabilizes the microtubule. However, genetic experiments by Ayaz et al. show that microtubules will grow even if one of the binding sites is missing. Both TOG1 and TOG2 bind to αβ-tubulin in the same way, and by using computer simulations Ayaz et al. found that this helps to speed up the growth of microtubules. This is because the enzyme's two sites concentrate the individual tubulin building blocks at the ends of the filament. For example, TOG2 could bind to the end of the microtubule, while TOG1 holds an αβ-tubulin protein nearby and ready to bind to the filament's end. This tethering allows the microtubules to be assembled more efficiently. DOI:
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · eLife Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurements of rotor temperature are critical for the interpretation of hydrodynamic parameters in analytical ultracentrifugation. We have recently developed methods for a more accurate determination of the temperature of a spinning rotor utilizing iButton® temperature loggers. Here we report that the temperature measured with the iButton on the counterbalance of a resting rotor, following thermal equilibration under high vacuum, closely corresponded to the temperature of the spinning rotor with a precision better than 0.2 °C. This strategy offers an inexpensive and straightforward approach to monitor the accuracy of the temperature calibration and determine corrective temperature offsets.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Colonization of the human nasopharynx by Moraxella catarrhalis is presumed to involve attachment of this bacterium to the mucosa. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine whether attachment of M. catarrhalis to human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro affected gene expression in this bacterium. Attachment affected expression of at least 454 different genes, with 163 being upregulated and 291 being downregulated. Among the upregulated genes was one (ORF113) previously annotated as encoding a protein with some similarity to outer membrane protein A (OmpA). The protein encoded by ORF113 was predicted to have a signal peptidase II cleavage site, and globomycin inhibition experiments confirmed that this protein was indeed a lipoprotein. The ORF113 protein also contained a predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain in its C-terminal half. The use of mutant and recombinant M. catarrhalis strains confirmed that the ORF113 protein was present in outer membrane preparations, and this protein was also shown to be at least partially exposed on the bacterial cell surface. A mutant unable to produce the ORF113 protein showed little or no change in its growth rate in vitro, in its ability to attach to HBE cells in vitro, or in its autoagglutination characteristics, but it did exhibit a reduced ability to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx. This is the first report of a lipoprotein essential to the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in an animal model.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The alternative sigma factor RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi plays a central role in modulating host adaptive responses when spirochetes cycle between ticks and mammals. The transcriptional activation of σ54-dependent rpoS requires a Fur homologue designated as BosR. Previously, we found that BosR directly activates rpoS transcription by binding to the rpoS promoter. However, many other DNA-binding features of BosR have remained obscure. In particular, the precise DNA sequence targeted by BosR has not yet been completely elucidated. The prediction of a putative Per box within the rpoS promoter region has further confounded the identification of the BosR binding sequence. Herein, by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that the putative Per box predicted in the rpoS promoter region is not involved in the binding of BosR. Rather, a 13-bp palindromic sequence (ATTTAANTTAAAT) with dyad symmetry, which we herein denote as the "BosR box", functions as the core sequence recognized by BosR in the rpoS promoter region of B. burgdorferi. Similar to a Fur box and a Per box, the BosR box likely comprises a 6-1-6 inverted repeat composed of two hexamers (ATTTAA) in a head-to-tail orientation. Selected mutations in the BosR box prevented recombinant BosR from binding to rpoS. In addition, we found that sequences neighboring the BosR box also are required for the formation of BosR-DNA complexes. Identification of the BosR box advances our understanding of how BosR recognizes its DNA target(s), and provides new insight into the mechanistic details behind the unique regulatory function of BosR.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Microbiology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014

Publication Stats

2k Citations
493.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2015
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      • Biochemistry
      Richardson, Texas, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Department of Biophysics
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Microbiology
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1998-2000
    • Yale University
      • Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Chemistry
      Chicago, Illinois, United States