[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) and febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) are the two major types of transfusion-related adverse reactions (TRARs). Although prestorage leucocyte reduction and diversion of the first aliquot of blood (LR/D) could reduce FNHTRs and bacterial contamination in adult transfusion, ATRs are still problematic. In addition, there is little information about TRARs in paediatric population.
Materials and methods:
We conducted a single-centre retrospective analysis of all transfusions, except washing products, and TRARs for 153 months to evaluate related factors such as delivery of treatment and the characteristics of recipients.
Most TRARs were FNHTRs and/or ATRs in children. In delivering blood products with LR/D, the frequencies of not only FNHTRs but also ATRs were significantly reduced with both platelet concentrates (PCs) and red cell concentrates (RCCs). TRARs of fresh-frozen plasma were infrequent in children. In addition, even after the introduction of LR/D, ATRs were significantly more frequent in patients with primary haematological and malignant diseases who received PCs and RCCs, older patients who received PCs and patients who received frequent RCCs.
These results suggest that leucocytes or mediators from leucocytes are underlying cause of ATRs in addition to FNHTRs in children. Furthermore, particular characteristics of patients would be other risk factors for ATRs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8-year-old boy with a bone marrow relapse of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent stem-cell transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical mother. Five months later, he relapsed with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Systemic chemotherapy and repeated intrathecal chemotherapy induced consciousness disturbances and frequent arrhythmia, prompting us to discontinue the chemotherapy. He had already received an 18-Gy prophylactic cranial irradiation, an 8-Gy total body irradiation, and a 15-Gy local irradiation for pituitary gland involvement. We therefore performed five intrathecal donor lymphocyte infusions (IDLIs) in escalating doses from 1 × 10(4) up to 1 × 10(6) cells/kg. All IDLIs were safe without infusion reactions or graft-versus-host disease. After the second and later IDLIs, donor mononuclear cells were continuously detected in cerebrospinal fluid; however, he did not achieve donor-dominant chimerism. Based on our case and four cases reported in the literature, the efficacy of IDLI therapy is limited for CNS relapse of hematological malignancies. However, we suggest that IDLI remains a feasible and safe option, as no GVHD or other adverse effects occurred, even in the HLA-haploidentical setting. We will make further efforts to increase the efficacy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and transforms T cells in vitro. To our knowledge, the functional role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) in HTLV-1 transformation remains undefined. Here, we found that Nox5α expression was upregulated in 88% of 17 ATL patient samples but not in normal peripheral blood T cells. Upregulation of the Nox5α variant was transcriptionally sustained by the constitutive Janus family tyrosine kinase (Jak)-STAT5 signaling pathway in interleukin-2 (IL-2)-independent HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including MT1 and MT2, whereas it was transiently induced by the IL-2-triggered Jak-STAT5 axis in uninfected T cells. A Nox inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, and antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine blocked proliferation of MT1 and MT2 cells. Ablation of Nox5α by small interfering RNAs abrogated ROS production, inhibited cellular activities, including proliferation, migration, and survival, and suppressed tumorigenicity in immunodeficient NOG mice. The findings suggest that Nox5α is a key molecule for redox-signal-mediated maintenance of the HTLV-1 transformation phenotype and could be a potential molecular target for therapeutic intervention in cancer development.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericardial effusion is a potentially fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, the identification of risk factors could improve the outcome. Prolonged QT dispersion (QTD) and corrected QTD (QTcD) are associated with serious arrhythmias and sudden death in many forms of heart disease. However, no study has evaluated the efficacy of QTD and QTcD to predict pericardial effusion post-HSCT.We studied 89 pediatric HSCT patients to identify pre-operative risk factors for pericardial effusion with particular focus on QTD and QTcD.Pericardial effusion occurred in 15 patients (cumulative onset rate: 17.4%) within one year post-HSCT, of which 8 (9.2%) were symptomatic. Patients with pericardial effusion following allogeneic HSCT showed significantly lower overall survival; however, pericardial effusion was not the direct cause of death in any patient. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) was an independent risk factor for post-HSCT pericardial effusion. In addition, pretransplant QTcD was significantly prolonged in the pericardial effusion group.These results suggest that pediatric patients with abnormally prolonged QTcD before the preparative regimen for HSCT should be regularly followed-up by echocardiography to detect pericardial effusion, particularly when accompanied by complications including TA-TMA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Transplant International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare, congenital disorder characterized by atypical neutrophil structure and function that results in frequent and severe bacterial infections. However, the clinical course of patients with SGD have not been described in detail because of the scarcity of the disease. We present the clinical course of an adult patient with SGD and propose a method for making an early diagnosis of SGD.
Patient and methods:
A32-year-old Japanese woman with SGD had a small impetigo lesion on her face and experienced the rapid spread of a facial abscess to a pulmonary abscess via the blood stream. We also analyzed the expression of neutrophil granule proteins in our patient compared with a healthy control by flow cytometry.
We confirmed defects of several neutrophil granule proteins in our patient by flow cytometry.
Severe bacterial infections sometimes occur and spread rapidly in SGD. Detection of neutrophil granules by flow cytometry is useful for a rapid diagnosis and a screening of SGD.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is not much information on established standard therapy for patients with severe methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency. Case presentation We report a boy with MAT I/III deficiency, in whom plasma methionine and total homocysteine, and urinary homocystine were elevated. Molecular genetic studies showed him to have novel compound heterozygous mutations of the MAT1A gene: c.191T>A (p.M64K) and c.589delC (p.P197LfsX26). A low methionine milk diet was started at 31days of age, and during continuing dietary methionine restriction plasma methionine levels have been maintained at less than 750μmol/L. He is now 5years old, and has had entirely normal physical growth and psychomotor development.
Although some severely MAT I/III deficient patients have developed neurologic abnormalities, we report here the case of a boy who has remained neurologically and otherwise normal for 5years during methionine restriction, suggesting that perhaps such management, started in early infancy, may help prevent neurological complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency that affects phagocytic cells. CGD patients are susceptible to fungal infections, especially Aspergillus infections. The management of life-threatening Aspergillus infections in CGD is particularly difficult because some infections cannot be eradicated with standard antifungal treatments and, hence, result in death.
A 2-week-old girl developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which rapidly progressed to respiratory failure. Liposomal amphotericin B, micafungin, and voriconazole were not effective. At the age of 2 months, she was diagnosed with p67phox-deficient CGD. In addition to antifungal treatment, the patient received 21 granulocyte transfusions (GTX), which were obtained from 300- or 400-mL whole blood samples from healthy random donors who were not treated with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or dexamethasone. The median neutrophil count of the GTX was 1.88 × 10(8) /kg body weight. Rituximab was administered to reduce alloimmunization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) after the eighth GTX, resulting in their absence of anti-HLA before and after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A marked improvement in her invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was achieved, although the first CBT was rejected. Complete hematopoietic recovery was obtained after the second CBT.
Repeated GTX containing relatively low doses of neutrophils might be able to control severe Aspergillus infections in infants with CGD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs), particularly those caused by plasma-rich platelet concentrates (P-PCs), are an important concern in transfusion medicine. Replacing P-PCs with PCs containing M-sol (M-sol-R-PCs) is expected to prevent ATRs. However, this has not yet been verified by sufficient clinical evidence.
A retrospective cohort study was performed between 2008 and 2011. Pediatric patients with hematologic disorders, solid tumors, primary immunodeficiency disorders, or inherited metabolic disorders were transfused with M-sol-R-PCs between 2010 and 2011; the transfusions of P-PCs administered between 2008 and 2011 were compared in terms of frequency and severity of ATRs, corrected count increment (CCI), and occurrence of bleeding. Data were collected for 6 consecutive months on a per-patient basis.
Data obtained during 2008 to 2011 showed that of the 78 patients receiving 515 P-PC transfusions, 14 (17.9%) had 17 ATRs (3.3%); 14 and three ATRs were of Grades 1 and 2, respectively. In 2010 to 2011, 49 patients received 620 transfusions of M-sol-R-PCs, and two patients (4.1%) had Grade 1 ATRs (0.3%). Thus, the frequency of ATRs per bag and per patient differed significantly between the two transfusions. No steroid agents were used for the prevention or treatment of ATRs in the M-sol-R-PC group. The CCI (24 hr) for M-sol-R-PCs did not differ from that for P-PCs.
M-sol-R-PCs were found to be effective in preventing ATRs without loss of transfusion efficiency in children; however, its efficacy should be further evaluated in prospective clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 15q24 deletion syndrome is a recently-described chromosomal disorder, characterized by developmental delay, growth deficiency, distinct facial features, digital abnormalities, loose connective tissue, and genital malformations in males. To date, 19 patients have been reported. We report on a 13-year-old boy with this syndrome manifesting childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He had characteristic facial features, hypospadias, and mild developmental delay. He showed neutropenia and thrombocytopenia for several years. At age 13 years, bone marrow examination was performed, which showed a sign suggestive of childhood MDS: mild dysplasia in the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic cell lineages. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) revealed a de novo 3.4 Mb 15q24.1q24.3 deletion. Although MDS has not been described in patients with the syndrome, a boy was reported to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The development of MDS and hematological malignancy in the syndrome might be caused by the haploinsufficiency of deleted 15q24 segment either alone or in combination with other genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic cells. Further hematological investigation is recommended to be beneficial if physical and hematological examination results are suggestive of hematopoietic disturbance in patients with the syndrome.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is defined as GVHD occurring within 14 days after haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT).
To evaluate the usefulness of skin biopsy in assessing hyperacute GVHD.
We examined 19 cases of hyperacute GVHD from a total of 134 consecutive HSCT cases at Shinshu University Hospital between 1999 and 2008.
Exanthemas were seen in all patients, which were mainly disseminated maculopapular erythemas, commonly present in acute GVHD as well. Most patients presented with a high fever, and a few had mild hepatic dysfunction and/or diarrhoea. The clinical grade of GVHD was 1-2 in all patients; there were no cases of clinical grades 3-4. The histological findings of skin biopsy were divided into three groups: (i) eight had grade 2 changes, characterized by diffuse vacuolization of basal cells, with dyskeratotic bodies; (ii) five had grade 1 changes, characterized by vacuolization of epidermal basal cells (all these cases were diagnosed as acute GVHD with grade 2 histological changes at subsequent biopsy); (iii) and six had no significant changes (these cases were also diagnosed as acute GVHD with grade 2 (four cases) or grade 1 (one case) histological changes on the second biopsy). Many of the patients developed acute and later chronic GVHD.
Skin biopsy should be considered when eruption develops after HSCT even before engraftment, especially when other organ involvement is minimal. If the first skin biopsy is inconclusive, follow-up biopsy within a short time is helpful in the diagnosis of hyperacute GVHD.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a pediatric case of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy caused by Bacillus cereus sepsis during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. A 15-year-old boy developed B. cereus sepsis and multiple organ failure on the 19th day after initiation of chemotherapy, and multidisciplinary treatment was started. Treatment was effective and septic shock with multiple organ failure remitted. He was weaned from a respirator on day 23 after the onset of sepsis, but complete flaccid paralysis of the 4 extremities occurred. His compound muscle action potential and F-wave occurrence were reduced on a nerve conduction test. The number of motor units was markedly decreased, and the amplitude and duration of individual motor units were low and short, respectively, on electromyography. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. On the basis of these findings, he was diagnosed with critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. He underwent intensive rehabilitation and recovered the ability to walk 3 months after onset. He was discharged 1 year after the initiation of chemotherapy, and remission has been maintained without inconvenience to daily living activities for 3 years since disease onset.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among 9 children with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 18 children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, one MDS patient with der(5;17)(p10;q10) exhibited deletion of the TP53 gene in one allele and mutation (410 T>A) in the other allele in myeloid and erythroid cells. Since the mutation was not detected in peripheral blood leukocytes 9 months before the diagnosis, biallelic somatic inactivation of the TP53 gene might play an important role in the occurrence of MDS. His poor outcome might be associated with resistance to chemotherapy/radiation of a minor clone with both TP53 gene alteration and MLL duplication that already existed at onset.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Leukemia research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 20% of patients with transient leukemia (TL), which is a disease noted in Down syndrome, are reported to develop hepatic fibrosis, which has a poor prognosis. The clinical factors related to the poor prognosis of TL were retrospectively analyzed in 25 patients, and criteria for starting chemotherapy were established. The initiation of chemotherapy was recommended when two or more of the following categories were fulfilled in the process of the disease: (1) a reduced hepatic functional reserve estimated by direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, and the presence of ascites, (2) an elevated level of hyaluronic acid (>500 U/mL), (3) respiratory failure or poor sucking associated with hepatosplenomegaly, and (4) demonstration of fibrosis by liver biopsy. When these criteria were applied to our cases, all patients who received chemotherapy remained alive. Our criteria are useful for selecting patients with TL at high risk of developing hepatic fibrosis and for starting chemotherapy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Leukemia & lymphoma