[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently described two proteasome subtypes that are intermediate between the standard proteasome and the immunoproteasome. They contain only one (β5i) or two (β1i and β5i) of the three inducible catalytic subunits of the immunoproteasome. They are present in tumor cells and abundant in normal human tissues. We described two tumor antigenic peptides that are uniquely produced by these intermediate proteasomes. In this work, we studied the production by intermediate proteasomes of tumor antigenic peptides known to be produced exclusively by the immunoproteasome (MAGE-A3(114-122), MAGE-C2(42-50), MAGE-C2(336-344)) or the standard proteasome (Melan-A(26-35), tyrosinase(369-377), gp100(209-217)). We observed that intermediate proteasomes efficiently produced the former peptides, but not the latter. Two peptides from the first group were equally produced by both intermediate proteasomes, whereas MAGE-C2(336-344) was only produced by intermediate proteasome β1i-β5i. Those results explain the recognition of tumor cells devoid of immunoproteasome by CTL recognizing peptides not produced by the standard proteasome. We also describe a third antigenic peptide that is produced exclusively by an intermediate proteasome: peptide MAGE-C2(191-200) is produced only by intermediate proteasome β1i-β5i. Analyzing in vitro digests, we observed that the lack of production by a given proteasome usually results from destruction of the antigenic peptide by internal cleavage. Interestingly, we observed that the immunoproteasome and the intermediate proteasomes fail to cleave between hydrophobic residues, despite a higher chymotrypsin-like activity measured on fluorogenic substrates. Altogether, our results indicate that the repertoire of peptides produced by intermediate proteasomes largely matches the repertoire produced by the immunoproteasome, but also contains additional peptides.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of unconventional translational and posttranslational mechanisms contribute to the production of antigenic peptides, thereby increasing the diversity of the peptide repertoire presented by MHC class I molecules. Here, we describe a class I-restricted peptide that combines several posttranslational modifications. It is derived from tyrosinase and recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes isolated from a melanoma patient. This unusual antigenic peptide is made of two noncontiguous tyrosinase fragments that are spliced together in the reverse order. In addition, it contains two aspartate residues that replace the asparagines encoded in the tyrosinase sequence. We confirmed that this peptide is naturally presented at the surface of melanoma cells, and we showed that its processing sequentially requires translation of tyrosinase into the endoplasmic reticulum and its retrotranslocation into the cytosol, where deglycosylation of the two asparagines by peptide-N-glycanase turns them into aspartates by deamidation. This process is followed by cleavage and splicing of the appropriate fragments by the standard proteasome and additional transport of the resulting peptide into the endoplasmic reticulum through the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide splicing allows the production of antigenic peptides composed of two fragments initially non-contiguous in the parental protein. The proposed mechanism of splicing is a transpeptidation occurring within the proteasome. Three spliced peptides, derived from FGF-5, melanoma protein gp100 and nuclear protein SP110, have been described. Here, we compared the production of these spliced peptides by the standard proteasome and the immunoproteasome. Differential isotope labelling was used to quantify (by mass spectrometry) the fragments contained in digests obtained with precursor peptides and purified proteasomes. The results show that both the standard and the immunoproteasomes can produce spliced peptides although they differ in their efficiency of production of each peptide. The FGF-5 and gp100 peptides are more efficiently produced by the standard proteasome, whereas the SP110 peptide is more efficiently produced by the immunoproteasome. This seems to result from differences in the production of the two splicing partners, which depends on a balance between cleavages liberating or destroying those fragments. By showing that splicing depends on the efficiency of production of the splicing partners, these results also support the transpeptidation model of peptide splicing. Furthermore, given the presence of immunoproteasomes in dendritic cells and cells exposed to IFN-γ, the findings may be relevant for vaccine design.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide splicing is a newly described mode of production of antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, whereby two noncontiguous fragments of the parental protein are joined together after excision of the intervening segment. Three spliced peptides have been described. In two cases, splicing involved the excision of a short intervening segment of 4 or 6 aa and was shown to occur in the proteasome by transpeptidation resulting from the nucleophilic attack of an acyl-enzyme intermediate by the N terminus of the other peptide fragment. For the third peptide, which is derived from fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5), the splicing mechanism remains unknown. In this case, the intervening segment is 40 aa long. This much greater length made the transpeptidation model more difficult to envision. Therefore, we evaluated the role of the proteasome in the splicing of this peptide. We observed that the spliced FGF-5 peptide was produced in vitro after incubation of proteasomes with a 49-aa-long precursor peptide. We evaluated the catalytic mechanism by incubating proteasomes with various precursor peptides. The results confirmed the transpeptidation model of splicing. By transfecting a series of mutant FGF-5 constructs, we observed that reducing the length of the intervening segment increased the production of the spliced peptide, as predicted by the transpeptidation model. Finally, we observed that trans-splicing (i.e., splicing of fragments from two distinct proteins) can occur in the cell, but with a much lower efficacy than splicing of fragments from the same protein.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8-positive T lymphocytes recognize peptides that are usually derived from the degradation of cellular proteins and are presented
by class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex. Here we describe a human minor histocompatibility antigen created
by a polymorphism in the SP110 nuclear phosphoprotein gene. The antigenic peptide comprises two noncontiguous SP110 peptide segments spliced together in
reverse order to that in which they occur in the predicted SP110 protein. The antigenic peptide could be produced in vitro
by incubation of precursor peptides with highly purified 20S proteasomes. Cutting and splicing probably occur within the proteasome by transpeptidation.