[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Estrogen plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, while stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) can contribute to the formation of dentin/bone-like tissues. To date, the effects of estrogen on the differentiation of SCAP remain unclear.
SCAP was isolated and treated with 10-7 M 17beta-estradiol (E2). The odonto/osteogenic potency and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were subsequently investigated by using methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, etc.
MTT and flow cytometry results demonstrated that E2 treatment had no effect on the proliferation of SCAP in vitro, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and alizarin red staining showed that E2 can significantly promote ALP activity and mineralization ability in SCAP. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay revealed that the odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, DMP1/DMP1, DSPP/DSP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX and OCN/OCN) were significantly upregulated in E2-treated SCAP. In addition, the expression of phosphor-p38 and phosphor-JNK in these stem cells was enhanced by E2 treatment, so to was the expression of the nuclear downstream transcription factors including phosphor-Sp1, phosphor-Elk-1, phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-c-Fos, indicating the activation of MAPK signaling pathway during the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of E2-treated SCAP. Conversely, the differentiation of E2-treated SCAP was inhibited in the presence of MAPK specific inhibitors.
10-7 M 17beta-estradiol enhanced the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of SCAP via the activation of MAPK signaling pathway.
Full-text Article · Nov 2014 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Traumatic pulp exposure can bring about some permanent damages to tooth tissues including dental pulps. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of traumatic pulp exposure on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).
Rat incisors were artificially fractured and dental pulps were exposed to the oral environment for 48h. Then, multi-colony-derived DPSCs from the injured pulps (iDPSCs) were isolated. Their osteo/odontogenic differentiation and the involvement of NF-κB pathway were subsequently investigated.
iDPSCs presented a lower proliferative capacity than normal DPSCs (nDPSCs), as indicated by MTT and FCM assay. ALP levels in iDPSCs were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in nDPSCs. Alizarin red staining revealed that iDPSCs exhibited an increased capacity of calcium deposition. Moreover, iDPSCs expressed stronger osteogenic markers (Runx2/RUNX2 and Ocn/OCN) and less odontogenic gene/protein (Dspp/DSP) than nDPSCs in vitro. In vivo transplantation showed that nDPSCs implants generated the typical dentine-pulp complex while all iDPSCs pellets formed the osteodentin-like tissues which were immunopositive for OCN. Mechanistically, iDPSCs expressed the higher levels of cytoplasmic phosphorylated IκBα/P65 and nuclear P65 than nDPSCs, indicating an active cellular NF-κB pathway in iDPSCs. After the inhibition of NF-κB pathway, the osteogenic potential in iDPSCs was significantly down-regulated while odontogenic differentiation was up-regulated, as indicated by the decreased Alp/Runx2/Ocn and uprised Dspp expression.
Pulp exposure for 48h decreased the odontogenic capacity and enhanced the osteogenic potential of DPSCs via the NF-κB signalling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in the regulation of tooth root development, and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) are responsible for the formation of root pulp and dentin. To date, it remains unclear whether IGF-1 can regulate the function of SCAPs. In this study, SCAPs were isolated and purified from human immature root apex, and stimulated by 100 ng/mL exogenous IGF-1. The effects of IGF-1 on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were subsequently investigated. IGF-1 treated SCAPs presented the morphological and ultrastructural changes. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization capacity of SCAPs were increased by IGF-1. Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further demonstrated that the expression of osteogenic-related proteins and genes (e.g., alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, and osteocalcin) was significantly up-regulated in IGF-1 treated SCAPs, whereas the expression of odontoblast-specific markers (e.g., dentin sialoprotein and dentin sialophosphoprotein) was down-regulated by IGF-1. In vivo results revealed that IGF-1 treated SCAPs mostly gave birth to bone-like tissues while untreated SCAPs mainly generated dentin-pulp complex-like structures after transplantation. The present study revealed that IGF-1 can promote the osteogenic differentiation and osteogenesis capacity of SCAPs, but weaken their odontogenic differentiation and dentinogenesis capability, indicating that IGF-1 treated SCAPs can be used as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.