[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear). The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Chemistry & Biodiversity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. commonly known as "copaíba", produce a commercially valuable oil-resin that is extensively used in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiseptic purposes. We have found the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant leaf has the potential to treat urolithiasis, a problem affecting ~7% of the population. To isolate the functional compounds C. langsdorffii leaves were dried, ground, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution 7:3 to produce a 16.8% crude extract after solvent elimination. Urolithiasis was induced by introduction of a calcium oxalate pellet (CaOx) into the bladders of adult male Wistar rats. The treated groups received the crude extract by oral gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight daily for 18 days. Extract treatment started 30 days after CaOx seed implantation. To monitor renal function sodium, potassium and creatinine concentrations were analyzed in urine and plasma, and were found to be in the normal range. Analyses of pH, magnesium, phosphate, calcium, uric acid, oxalate and citrate levels were evaluated to determine whether the C. langsdorffii extract may function as a stone formation prevention agent. The HPLC analysis of the extract identified flavonoids quercitrin and afzelin as the major components. Animals treated with C. langsdorffii have increased levels of magnesium and decreased levels of uric acid in urinary excretions. Treated animals have a significant decrease in the mean number of calculi and a reduction in calculi mass. Calculi taken from extract treated animals were more brittle and fragile than calculi from untreated animals. Moreover, breaking calculi from untreated animals required twice the amount of pressure as calculi from treated animals (6.90 ± 3.45 vs. 3.00 ± 1.51). The extract is rich in flavonoid heterosides and other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we hypothesize this class of compounds might contribute significantly to the observed activity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Urological Research