Theresa Dulski

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (5)8.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The epidemiology of varicella is believed to differ between temperate and tropical countries. We conducted a varicella seroprevalence study in elementary and college students in the US territory of American Samoa before introduction of a routine varicella vaccination programme. Sera from 515 elementary and 208 college students were tested for the presence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies. VZV seroprevalence increased with age from 76·0% in the 4-6 years group to 97·7% in those aged ⩾23 years. Reported history of varicella disease for elementary students was significantly associated with VZV seropositivity. The positive and negative predictive values of varicella disease history were 93·4% and 36·4%, respectively, in elementary students and 97·6% and 3·0%, respectively, in college students. VZV seroprevalence in this Pacific island appears to be similar to that in temperate countries and suggests endemic VZV circulation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Epidemiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In line with the global goals for measles elimination, countries in the West Pacific Region (WPR) have set a goal to eliminate measles by 2012. Due to its contagiousness, high population immunity is needed for achieving and documenting measles elimination. We assessed population immunity to measles, mumps and rubella among first grade children in American Samoa (AS) through a seroprevalance study. Methods: Using commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant IgG assays (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) we determined IgG antibodies against the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) viruses in sera collected from first grade students in AS in April-May 2011. Vaccination status was retrieved from the immunization cards. Factors associated with seropositivity of measles, mumps, and rubella were analyzed separately. Result: Among 509 first grade students, measles, mumps, and rubella seroprevalence were 92%, 90%, and 93%, respectively. The proportions of first grade students with documented one or two doses of MMR vaccine were 93% and 84%, respectively. The vaccination status of 6% of the first graders was unknown and 1% was unvaccinated. Receiving two-doses of MMR vaccines was associated with high measles and mumps seropositivity (p<0.01). Conclusion: The high measles seroprevalence among children shows the progress by American Samoa towards measles elimination. Achieving and maintaining high two-dose MMR vaccine coverage in all age groups will aid in attaining the measles elimination status and prevent transmission of measles from potential imported measles cases from other countries.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Most persons who receive hepatitis B vaccine during infancy will have a level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) <10 IU/L if measured 10-15 years later; however, most will demonstrate immune memory by an anamnestic response to a vaccine challenge dose. To determine whether there was a difference in anamnestic response among college students vaccinated during infancy, we compared anti-HBs levels after a dose of Engerix-B 20 μg between those with a residual anti-HBs level of 0 IU/L versus those with a level of 1-9 IU/L. Anti-HBs was measured before (baseline) and two weeks after a challenge dose; response was defined as a level ≥10 IU/L after the dose among those <10 IU/L at baseline. Among 153 students who completed the study, 130 (85%) had an anti-HBs level <10 IU/L at baseline; 72 had a level of 0 IU/L and 58 had a level ranging from 1 to 9 IU/L. Students with a level from 1-9 IU/L were more likely to respond to the challenge dose compared to those with a baseline anti-HBs level of 0 IU/L (83% versus 50%; p<0.001). The presence of any detectable anti-HBs among persons vaccinated in the remote past may indicate the persistence of immune memory.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years. In 2008, approximately 30 million injuries were serious enough to require the injured person to visit a hospital emergency department (ED); 5.4 million (18%) of these injured patients were transported by Emergency Medical Services (EMS). On arrival at the scene of an injury, the EMS provider must determine the severity of injury, initiate management of the patient's injuries, and decide the most appropriate destination hospital for the individual patient. These destination decisions are made through a process known as "field triage," which involves an assessment not only of the physiology and anatomy of injury but also of the mechanism of the injury and special patient and system considerations. Since 1986, the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) has provided guidance for the field triage process through its "Field Triage Decision Scheme." This guidance was updated with each version of the decision scheme (published in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 1999). In 2005, CDC, with financial support from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, collaborated with ACS-COT to convene the initial meetings of the National Expert Panel on Field Triage (the Panel) to revise the decision scheme; the revised version was published in 2006 by ACS-COT (American College of Surgeons. Resources for the optimal care of the injured patient: 2006. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons; 2006). In 2009, CDC published a detailed description of the scientific rationale for revising the field triage criteria (CDC. Guidelines for field triage of injured patients: recommendations of the National Expert Panel on Field Triage. MMWR 2009;58[No. RR-1]). In 2011, CDC reconvened the Panel to review the 2006 Guidelines in the context of recently published literature, assess the experiences of states and local communities working to implement the Guidelines, and recommend any needed changes or modifications to the Guidelines. This report describes the dissemination and impact of the 2006 Guidelines; outlines the methodology used by the Panel for its 2011 review; explains the revisions and modifications to the physiologic, anatomic, mechanism-of-injury, and special considerations criteria; updates the schematic of the 2006 Guidelines; and provides the rationale used by the Panel for these changes. This report is intended to help prehospital-care providers in their daily duties recognize individual injured patients who are most likely to benefit from specialized trauma center resources and is not intended as a mass casualty or disaster triage tool. The Panel anticipates a review of these Guidelines approximately every 5 years.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control

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