[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with reflex impairment and traffic accidents. It is unknown whether Toxoplasma infection might be associated with work accidents. Therefore, using a case-control seroprevalence study design, 133 patients with a recent work accident and 266 control subjects of the general population from the same region were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each worker were obtained.
Eleven (8.3%) of 133 patients, and 14 (5.3%) of 266 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were higher than 150 IU/ml in 8 (6%) patients and 10 (3.8%) controls. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in one (0.8%) of the workers, and in 6 (2.3%) of the controls. No statistically significant differences in the IgG seroprevalences, frequencies of high IgG levels, and IgM seroprevalences among patients and controls were found. In contrast, a low socio-economic level in patients with work accidents was associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity (P = 0.01). Patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status showed a significantly (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 0.84-16.06; P = 0.04) higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same socioeconomic status (15.1% vs. 5%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a positive association of T. gondii infection with boar meat consumption (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.03-8.94; P = 0.04). In contrast, a negative association between T. gondii infection and national trips (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96; P = 0.04), sausage consumption (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.68; P = 0.01), and ham consumption (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51; P = 0.002) was found.
In the study described here seropositivity to T. gondii was associated to work accidents in a subset of patients with low socioeconomic status. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and work accidents. Further studies to confirm our results are needed. Results may help in designing optimal prevention strategies to avoid T. gondii infection.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Parasites & Vectors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports concerning the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia in humans. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, residence place, and ethnicity were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of T. gondii IgG antibodies and for the presence of T. gondii IgM antibodies. Schizophrenic patients attended a public psychiatric hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and the control group consisted of individuals of the general population of the same city. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were also obtained. Both the seroprevalence and the level of T.gondii IgG antibodies were higher in schizophrenic patients (10/50; 20%) than in control subjects (8/150; 5.3%) (OR=4.44; 95% CI: 1.49-13.37; P=0.003). The IgG T. gondii levels higher than 150 IU/ml were more frequently observed in patients than in controls (10% versus 2%, respectively; P=0.02). One (50%) of the two patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia and none of the controls had T. gondii IgM antibodies (P=0.01). T. gondii seropositivity was significantly higher in patients with a history of cleaning cat excrement (P=0.005), and suffering from simple schizophrenia (ICD-10 classification: F20.6) (P=0.03) than patients without these characteristics. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was also significantly higher in patients with simple schizophrenia (F20.6) than in those with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) (P=0.02). This study provides elements to clarify the controversial information on the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Parasitology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii infection may cause a variety of symptoms involving virtually all organs. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in different patient groups in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated epidemiological characteristics in 472 patients in Durango, Mexico. Participants were tested for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from each participant were obtained. Seroprevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 7 (8.2%) of 85 patients with hearing impairment, 5 (10.0%) of 50 patients with hemodialysis, 28 (12.0%) of 234 patients with visual impairment, and 7 (6.8%) of 103 at risk of immunosuppression. In total, 47 (10%) of 472 subjects had IgG T. gondii antibodies; 6 (1.3%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. Patients born in Durango State had a significantly lower prevalence of T. gondii infection than patients born in other Mexican states (9.0% vs. 21.4%, respectively; P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of undercooked meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-7.35) or raw cow's milk (adjusted OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.28-4.96), presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.06-3.78), raising animals (adjusted OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.06-5.63), or eating away from home (adjusted OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.03-7.11). In the group of patients with visual impairment, those with reflex impairment had a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than those with normal reflexes (19% vs. 9.4%, respectively: P = 0.04). Results of the present study are the first step in the design of prevention programs to avoid the sequelae of toxoplasmosis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Parasitology