[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that several messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are bifunctional RNAs, i.e. RNA transcript carrying both protein-coding capacity and activity as functional non-coding RNA via 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs).
In this study, we identified a novel bifunctional RNA that is transcribed from insulin receptor substrate-1 (Irs-1) gene with full-length 5′UTR sequence (FL-Irs-1 mRNA). FL-Irs-1 mRNA was highly expressed only in skeletal muscle tissue. In cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, the FL-Irs-1 transcript functioned as a bifunctional mRNA. The FL-Irs-1 transcript produced IRS-1 protein during differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes; however, this transcript functioned as a regulatory RNA in proliferating myoblasts. The FL-Irs-1 5′UTR contains a partial complementary sequence to Rb mRNA, which is a critical factor for myogenic differentiation. The overexpression of the 5′UTR markedly reduced Rb mRNA expression, and this reduction was fully dependent on the complementary element and was not compensated by IRS-1 protein. Conversely, knockdown of FL-Irs-1 mRNA increased Rb mRNA expression and enhanced myoblast differentiation into myotubes.
Our findings suggest that the FL-Irs-1 transcript regulates myogenic differentiation as a regulatory RNA in myoblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of anti-angiogenic drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGF-R) have developed and enabled significant advances in cancer therapy including colorectal cancer. However, acquired resistance to the drugs occurs, leading to disease progression, such as invasion and metastasis. How tumors become the resistance and promote their malignancy remains fully uncertain. One of possible mechanisms for the resistance and the progression may be the direct effect of VEGF-R inhibitors on tumor cells expressing VEGF-R. We investigated here the direct effect of a VEGF-R-targeting agent, regorafenib, which is the first small molecule inhibitor of VEGF-Rs for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, on phenotype changes in colon cancer HCT116 cells. Treatment of cells with regorafenib for only 2 days activated cell migration and invasion, while vehicle-treated control cells showed less activity. Intriguingly, chronic exposure to regorafenib for 90 days dramatically increased migration and invasion activities and induced a resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that loss of VEGF signaling in cancer cells may induce the acquired resistance to VEGF/VEGF-R targeting therapy by gaining two major malignant phenotypes, apoptosis resistance and activation of migration/invasion. J. Med. Invest. 62: 195-198, August, 2015.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In recent years, the number of bedridden people is rapidly increasing due to aging or lack of exercise in Japan. This problem is becoming more serious, since there is no countermeasure against it. In the present study, we designed to investigate whether dietary proteins, especially soy, had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle in 59 volunteers with various physical activities.
We subjected 59 volunteers with various physical activities to meal intervention examination. Persons with low and high physical activities were divided into two dietary groups, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They ate daily meals supplemented with 7.8 g of powdered casein or soy protein isolate every day for 30 days. Bedridden patients in hospitals were further divided into three dietary groups: the no supplementation diet group, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They were also subjected to a blood test, a urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging analysis and muscle strength test of the knee before and after the meal intervention study.
Thirty-day soy protein supplementation significantly increased skeletal muscle volume in participants with low physical activity, compared with 30-day casein protein supplementation. Both casein and soy protein supplementation increased the volume of quadriceps femoris muscle in bedridden patients. Consistently, soy protein significantly increased their extension power of the knee, compared with casein protein. Although casein protein increased skeletal muscle volume more than soy protein in bedridden patients, their muscle strength changes by soy protein supplementation were bigger than those by casein protein supplementation.
The supplementation of soy protein would be one of the effective foods which prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy caused by immobilization or unloading. J. Med. Invest. 62: 177-183, August, 2015.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: VEGF-targeting anti-angiogenic drugs have enabled significant advances in cancer therapy. However, acquired resistance to VEGF-targeting drugs occurs, leading to disease progression. How tumors become the resistance remains fully uncertain. One of possible mechanisms for the resistance may be the direct effect of VEGF inhibitors on tumor cells expressing VEGF receptors (VEGF-R). We investigated here the direct effect of chronic VEGF inhibition on phenotype changes in cancer cells. To chronically inhibit cancer cell-derived VEGF, human colon cancer HCT116 cells were chronically exposed (3 months) to anti-VEGF neutralizing monoclonal antibody (HCT/mAb cells, blockade of VEGF alone) or VEGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor foretinib (HCT/fore cells, blockade of all VEGF family). HCT/mAb cells redundantly increased VEGF family member (VEGF, PlGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2) and induced a resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. By contrast, HCT/fore cells did not show the redundant increase in VEGF family member, but significantly increased a VEGF-independent pro-angiogenic factor FGF-2. HCT/fore cells showed increased migration and invasion activities in addition to a resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. The resistance to apoptosis was significantly suppressed by inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in HCT/mAb cells, but not in HCT/fore cells. These findings suggest that chronic inhibition of VEGF/VEGF-R accelerates malignant phenotypes of colon cancer cells. J. Med. Invest. 62: 75-79, February, 2015.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity causes type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases by inducing systemic insulin resistance. It is now recognized that obesity is related to chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Specifically, activated immune cells infiltrate adipose tissue and cause inflammation. There is increasing evidence that activated macrophages accumulate in the hypertrophied adipose tissue of rodents and humans and induce systemic insulin resistance by secreting inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying macrophage activation in adipose tissue will facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies. Currently, little is known about the regulation of macrophage activation, although E3 ubiquitin ligase Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl)-b was identified recently as a novel negative regulator of macrophage activation in adipose tissue. Cbl-b, which is a suppressor of T- and B-cell activation, inhibits intracellular signal transduction by targeting some tyrosine kinases. Notably, preventing Cbl-b-mediated macrophage activation improves obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice. c-Cbl is another member of the Cbl family that is associated with insulin resistance in obesity. These reports suggest that Cbl-b and c-Cbl are potential therapeutic targets for treating obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this review, we focus on the importance of Cbl-b in macrophage activation in aging-induced and high-fat diet-induced obesity.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Unloading stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. We have reported that Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase is a master regulator of unloading-associated muscle atrophy. The present study was designed to elucidate whether dietary soy glycinin protein prevents denervation-mediated muscle atrophy, based on the presence of inhibitory peptides against Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase in soy glycinin protein. Methods. Mice were fed either 20% casein diet, 20% soy protein isolate diet, 10% glycinin diet containing 10% casein, or 20% glycinin diet. One week later, the right sciatic nerve was cut. The wet weight, cross sectional area (CSA), IGF-1 signaling, and atrogene expression in hindlimb muscles were examined at 1, 3, 3.5, or 4 days after denervation. Results. 20% soy glycinin diet significantly prevented denervation-induced decreases in muscle wet weight and myofiber CSA. Furthermore, dietary soy protein inhibited denervation-induced ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 in tibialis anterior muscle. Dietary soy glycinin partially suppressed the denervation-mediated expression of atrogenes, such as MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, through the protection of IGF-1 signaling estimated by phosphorylation of Akt-1. Conclusions. Soy glycinin contains a functional inhibitory sequence against muscle-atrophy-associated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b. Dietary soy glycinin protein significantly prevented muscle atrophy after denervation in mice.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor-a (VEGF)-targeted therapies have become an important treatment for a number of human malignancies. The VEGF inhibitors are actually effective in several types of cancers, however, the benefits are transiently, and the vast majority of patients who initially respond to the therapies will develop resistance. One of possible mechanisms for the acquired resistance may be the direct effect(s) of VEGF inhibitors on tumor cells expressing VEGF receptors (VEGFR). Thus, we investigated here the direct effect of chronic VEGF inhibition on phenotype changes in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
To chronically inhibit cancer cell-derived VEGF, human CRC cell lines (HCT116 and RKO) were chronically exposed (2 months) to an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) or were disrupted the Vegf gene (VEGF-KO). Effects of VEGF family members were blocked by treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI). Hypoxia-induced apoptosis under VEGF inhibited conditions was measured by TUNEL assay. Spheroid formation ability was assessed using a 3-D spheroid cell culture system.
Chronic inhibition of secreted/extracellular VEGF by an anti-VEGF mAb redundantly increased VEGF family member (PlGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), induced a resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and increased spheroid formation ability. This apoptotic resistance was partially abrogated by a VEGFR-TKI, which blocked the compensate pathway consisted of VEGF family members, or by knockdown of Vegf mRNA, which inhibited intracellular function(s) of all Vegf gene products. Interestingly, chronic and complete depletion of all Vegf gene products by Vegf gene knockout further augmented these phenotypes in the compensate pathway-independent manner. These accelerated phenotypes were significantly suppressed by knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α that was up-regulated in the VEGF-KO cell lines.
Our findings suggest that chronic inhibition of tumor cell-derived VEGF accelerates tumor cell malignant phenotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously the potential involvement of casitas B-cell lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) in aging-related murine insulin resistance. Since obesity also induces macrophage recruitment into adipose tissue, we elucidated here the role of Cbl-b in obesity-related insulin resistance. Cbl-b(+/+) and Cbl-b(-/-) mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD), then examined for obesity-related changes in insulin signaling. HFD caused recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and increased inflammatory reaction in Cbl-b(-/-) compared to Cbl-b(+/+) mice. Peritoneal macrophages from Cbl-b(-/-) mice and Cbl-b-overexpressing RAW264.7 macrophages were used to examine the direct effect of saturated fatty acids (FA) on macrophage activation. In macrophages, Cbl-b suppressed saturated FA-induced TLR4 signaling by ubiquitination and degradation of TLR4. The physiological role of Cbl-b in vivo was also examined by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and Eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist. Hematopoietic cell-specific depletion of Cbl-b gene induced disturbed responses on insulin and glucose tolerance tests. Blockade of TLR4 signaling by Eritoran reduced fasting blood glucose and serum IL-6 levels in obese Cbl-b(-/-) mice. These results suggest that Cbl-b deficiency could exaggerates HFD-induced insulin resistance through saturated FA-mediated macrophage activation. Therefore, inhibition of TLR4 signaling is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy can result from prolonged periods of skeletal muscle inactivity due to bed rest, denervation, or unloading. Such unloading-associated atrophy of skeletal muscle is characterized by both an increase in protein degradation and a decrease in protein synthesis. Successful treatments for skeletal muscle atrophy could either block protein degradation pathways activated during atrophy, or stimulate protein synthesis pathways induced during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In this review, we mainly focus on the Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) pathway in muscle, because there is increasing evidence indicating that inhibition of this pathway in muscle is involved in the progression of disuse atrophy. We also focus on the signaling pathways that control skeletal muscle atrophy, including muscle atrophy-associated ubiqitin ligases such as Cbl-b, muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is one of the most sensitive tissues to mechanical loading, and unloading inhibits the regeneration potential of skeletal muscle after injury. This study was designed to elucidate the specific effects of unloading stress on the function of immunocytes during muscle regeneration after injury. We examined immunocyte infiltration and muscle regeneration in cardiotoxin (CTX)-injected soleus muscles of tail-suspended (TS) mice. In CTX-injected TS mice, the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers was smaller than that of weight-bearing (WB) mice, indicating that unloading delays muscle regeneration following CTX-induced skeletal muscle damage. Delayed infiltration of macrophages into the injured skeletal muscle was observed in CTX-injected TS mice. Neutrophils and macrophages in CTX-injected TS muscle were presented over a longer period at the injury sites compared with those in CTX-injected WB muscle. Disturbance of activation and differentiation of satellite cells was also observed in CTX-injected TS mice. Further analysis showed that the macrophages in soleus muscles were mainly Ly-6C-positive proinflammatory macrophages, with high expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, indicating that unloading causes preferential accumulation and persistence of proinflammatory macrophages in the injured muscle. The phagocytic and myotube formation properties of macrophages from CTX-injected TS skeletal muscle were suppressed compared with those from CTX-injected WB skeletal muscle. We concluded that the disturbed muscle regeneration under unloading is due to impaired macrophage function, inhibition of satellite cell activation, and their cooperation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the effects of IL-18 deficiency on behaviors and gene expression profiles in 6 brain regions. IL-18(-/-) mice reduced depressive-like behavior and changed gene expressions predominantly in the amygdala compared with wild-type mice. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes ranked behavior as the top-scored biological function. Of note, the absence of IL-18 decreased Avp, Hcrt, Oxt, and Pmch mRNA levels and the number of arginine vasopressin- and oxytocin-positive cells in the amygdala, but not in the hypothalamus. Our results suggest that IL-18-dependent vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic circuitry in the amygdala may regulate depressive-like behaviors in mice.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of neuroimmunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective method for prevention of age-associated diseases as well as overweight and obesity; however, there is controversy regarding the effects of dieting regimens on behavior. In this study, we investigated two different dieting regimens: repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) and daily feeding of half the amount of food consumed by RFR mice (CR). CR and RFR mice had an approximate 20% reduction in food intake compared with control mice. Open field, light-dark transition, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests indicated that CR, but not RFR, reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, with a reduction peak on day 8. Using a mouse whole genome microarray, we analyzed gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus. In addition to the CR-responsive genes commonly modified by RFR and CR, each regimen differentially changed the expression of distinct genes in each region. The most profound change was observed in the amygdalas of CR mice: 884 genes were specifically upregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that these 884 genes significantly modified nine canonical pathways in the amygdala. alpha-Adrenergic and dopamine receptor signalings were the two top-scoring pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of six genes in these pathways. Western blotting confirmed that CR specifically increased dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (Darpp-32), a key regulator of dopamine receptor signaling, in the amygdala. Our results suggest that CR may change behavior through altered gene expression.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Physiological Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is preferentially expressed in the colon, but its functional role is not fully understood. This study was designed to elucidate a potential role of Nox1 in inflammation of the colon.
Superoxide production by T84 cells was measured by the cytochrome c method. Protein and mRNA levels of Nox1 and Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1) in the cells were measured by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Expression of Nox1, Nox2, dual oxidase 2 (Duox2), NOXO1, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNAs was measured in proximal, middle, and distal portions of colonic mucosas from male wild-type C57BL/6J and interleukin (IL)-10 knockout mice at 6, 10, and 16 weeks of age. Grading of inflammation was done by scoring histological changes.
IL-10 significantly inhibited IFN-gamma- or TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of superoxide-producing activity in T84 cells by suppressing expression of Nox1 mRNA and protein. IL-10 also inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated induction of NOXO1 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Levels of Nox1, but not Nox2 or Duox2 mRNA, was age-dependently increased following a gradient with low levels in the proximal colon and high levels in the distal colon of the wild-type mice. The absence of IL-10 significantly facilitated Nox1 expression in association with increased IFN-gamma mRNA expression before the development of spontaneous colitis and age-dependently accelerated their mRNA expression.
IL-10 may be a possible down-regulator of the Nox1-based oxidase in the colon, suggesting a potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Nox1-based oxidase in inflammation of the colon.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to regulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. Stimulation of wild-type mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage (BMM) cells by RANKL down-regulated NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) mRNA expression by half. RANKL reciprocally increased Nox1 mRNA levels and newly induced Nox4 transcript expression. BMM cells from Nox1 knockout (Nox1(-/-)) as well as Nox2(-/-) mice generated ROS in response to RANKL and differentiated into osteoclasts in the same way as wild-type BMM cells, which was assessed by the appearance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive, multinucleated cells having the ability to form resorption pits and by the expression of osteoclast marker genes. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Nox1 or Nox2 failed to inhibit the RANKL-stimulated ROS generation and osteoclast formation in wild-type cells, whereas Nox1 and Nox2 siRNAs significantly suppressed the ROS generation and osteoclast formation in Nox2(-/-) and Nox1(-/-) cells, respectively. We also confirmed that Nox4 siRNA did not affect the RANKL-dependent events in Nox2(-/-) cells, whereas p22(phox) siRNA suppressed the events in both wild-type and Nox1(-/-) cells. Collectively, our results suggest that there may be a flexible compensatory mechanism between Nox1 and Nox2 for RANKL-stimulated ROS generation to facilitate osteoclast differentiation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tra2beta gene encoding an alternative splicing regulator, transformer 2-beta (Tra2beta), generates five alternative splice variant transcripts (tra2beta1-5). Functionally active, full-length Tra2beta is encoded by tra2beta1 isoform. Expression and physiological significance of the other isoforms, particularly tra2beta4, are not fully understood. Rat gastric mucosa constitutively expressed tra2beta1 isoform and specifically generated tra2beta4 isoform that includes premature termination codon-containing exon 2, when exposed to restraint and water immersion stress. Treatment of a gastric cancer cell line (AGS) with arsenite (100 microM) preferentially generated tra2beta4 isoform and caused translocation of Tra2beta from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in association with enhanced phosphorylation during the initial 4-6 h (acute phase). Following the acute phase, AGS cells continued upregulated tra2beta1 mRNA expression, and higher amounts of Tra2beta were reaccumulated in their nuclei. Treatment with small interference RNAs targeting up-frameshift-1 or transfection of a plasmid containing tra2beta1 cDNA did not induce tra2beta4 isoform expression and did not modify the arsenite-induced expression of this isoform, suggesting that neither the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay nor the autoregulatory control by excess amounts of Tra2beta participated in the tra2beta4 isoform generation. Knockdown of Tra2beta facilitated skipping of the central variable region of the CD44 gene and suppressed cell growth. In contrast, overexpression of Tra2beta stimulated combinatorial inclusion of multiple variable exons in the region and cell growth. The similar skipping and inclusion of the variable region were observed in arsenite-treated cells. Our results suggest that Tra2beta may regulate cellular oxidative response by changing alternative splicing of distinct genes including CD44.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · AJP Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (Nox) homologues have been suggested to regulate osteoclast differentiation. However, no bone abnormalities have been documented in Nox1 deficient, Nox2 deficient, or Nox3 mutant mice. During receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated differentiation of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) into osteoclasts, mRNA levels of Nox enzymes (Nox1-4) and their adaptor proteins were monitored by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. RAW264.7 cells constitutively expressed abundant Nox2 mRNA and small amounts of Nox1 and Nox3 transcripts. RANKL markedly attenuated Nox2 mRNA expression in association with reciprocal up-regulation of Nox1 and Nox3 transcripts. Introduction of small interference RNA targeting p67(phox) or p22(phox) into RAW264.7 cells effectively down-regulated ROS generation and significantly suppressed the RANKL-stimulated differentiation, which was assessed by appearance of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive, multinucleated cells having an ability to form resorption pits on calcium phosphate thin film-coated disks, and by expression of osteoclast marker genes (TRAP, cathepsin K, Atp6i, ClC-7, and NFATc1). Our results suggest that RANKL may stimulate switching between Nox homologues during osteoclast differentiation, and Nox-derived ROS may be crucial for RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The Journal of Medical Investigation