[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Milk consumption decreases inflammatory stress in overweight and obese subjects. Casein is the major protein in milk and enhances the secretion of insulin that has anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effect of meals rich in casein and carbohydrate and a combination of both nutrients on postprandial plasma concentrations of IL-6, a marker of inflammation, in obese women. A total of twenty-five obese women aged 38–68 years consumed isoenergetic meals rich in potato (POT) or casein (CA) or a combination of both these meals (POT + CA), in random order in a cross-over trial. After an overnight fast, blood samples were collected before and at 1 and 4 h after the meals and circulating concentrations of IL-6, glucose, insulin and NEFA were measured. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increased significantly (P < 0·001) during 4 h after the meals. The AUC of postprandial IL-6 concentrations was not significantly (P = 0·77) different among the meals. Postprandial serum insulin concentration AUC was significantly higher during the POT + CA meal compared with the POT meal (P = 0·001) and the CA meal (P < 0·05), which in turn was significantly higher than the POT meal (P < 0·05). These data show that while ingestion of CA alone or combined with POT acutely increases circulating insulin concentrations, it does not appreciably alter the postprandial increase in plasma IL-6 concentrations in obese women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal studies have shown that diets rich in thermally oxidized fat increase glucose and decrease insulin and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in the blood. We hypothesized that ingestion of a potato meal rich in thermally oxidized sunflower oil (TOSO) would decrease postprandial concentrations of insulin, incretins, and TG and increase plasma glucose concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects aged 22 to 70 years consumed meals rich in TOSO or unheated sunflower oil and containing paracetamol (1.5 g) in a randomized, crossover trial. Blood samples were taken at baseline and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the meals and glucose, insulin, TG, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like polypeptide-1, glucose-independent polypeptide, and paracetamol (as a marker of gastric emptying) were measured in plasma or serum. The incremental areas under the curve of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid, incretins, and paracetamol levels were not significantly different between the meals. Plasma TG incremental area under the curve was 44% lower after the TOSO meal at a marginal level of significance (P = .06) in the total study population and was significantly (P = .04) and 61% lower in those of median age and younger (n = 11). These data suggest that ingestion of TOSO may acutely decrease plasma TG mainly in younger individuals and does not acutely affect glucose and insulin metabolism or gastric emptying in healthy subjects.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Nutrition research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is associated with abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory activity that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA) with or without vitamin E supplementation, on markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation and plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, subjects with the metabolic syndrome received ALA (600 mg/day, n = 34), vitamin E (100 IU/day, n = 36), both ALA and vitamin E (n = 41), or matching placebo (n = 40) for 1 year. Fasting circulating concentrations of glucose and insulin were measure every 3 months and NEFA, markers of inflammation, adiponectin and vitamin E were measured at 6 monthly intervals. Plasma NEFA concentrations decreased [-10 (-18, 0)%] at a marginal level of significance (p = 0.05) in those who received ALA alone compared with placebo and decreased [-8 (-14, -1)% (95% CI)] significantly (P = 0.02) in participants who were randomised to ALA with and without vitamin E compared with those who did not receive ALA. Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin, and markers of inflammation did not change significantly during the study. These data suggest that prolonged treatment with ALA may modestly reduce plasma NEFA concentrations but does not alter insulin or glucose levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ingestion of 75 g glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) increases systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the effect in overweight/obese nondiabetic individuals is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an OGTT on plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and peroxides in 33 subjects with body mass index >27 kg/m(2). After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken from participants immediately before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion of 75 g glucose. Plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and peroxides were measured during the tests. Plasma IL-6 concentrations decreased (13%) significantly (P < .001) at 30 and 60 minutes, whereas plasma peroxide concentrations decreased slightly (3%, P = .003) at 30 minutes during the tests. The 30-minute decrease in plasma IL-6 was correlated significantly and inversely with the concomitant increase in plasma insulin (r = -0.410, P = .02) and with the ratio of insulin to glucose at 30 minutes during the OGTT (r = -0.366, P = .04). These data suggest that plasma concentrations of IL-6 are acutely decreased possibly because of the predominance of the anti-inflammatory effect of hyperinsulinemia over the proinflammatory effect of hyperglycemia after ingestion of a large quantity of glucose in obese individuals.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the chronic effect of rosiglitazone on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and hepatic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in overweight individuals. In addition we examined the effect of rosiglitazone on post-glucose challenge levels of glucose and insulin.
Forty overweight individuals (BMI>27kg/m(2)) were randomized in a double blind fashion to receive 6 months treatment with either rosiglitazone 4mg/day or placebo. Primary endpoints were markers of oxidative stress (plasma peroxides), inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha and CRP) and postprandial glucose metabolism (glucose and insulin). Secondary endpoints were changes in insulin resistance as measured by HOMA, first and second phase insulin secretion, adiponectin and effects on lipid and hepatic parameters.
Plasma peroxides (-15%) decreased significantly during 6 months in the group that received rosiglitazone compared with placebo. Fasting plasma insulin concentrations decreased by 24% and HOMA increased by 35% in those receiving rosiglitazone. Plasma IL-6 (-25%), CRP (-55%) and GGT (-25%) concentrations declined significantly in the rosiglitazone group. Rosiglitazone increased plasma adiponectin by 81%. Treatment with rosiglitazone also resulted in significantly reduced first phase (-33%) and second phase (-20%) insulin release.
In overweight non-diabetic people rosiglitazone reduces oxidative stress and improves insulin sensitivity. Rosiglitazone also improves first and second phase insulin secretion and reduces markers of inflammation and GGT.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoprostanes are a marker of oxidant stress and atherosclerotic risk, and plasma concentrations are elevated in obesity. Adiponectin is a regulator of insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels are associated with oxidant stress and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E supplementation on plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostane and adiponectin in overweight/obese subjects.
The study was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 overweight subjects (60 women and 20 men, BMI >27 kg/m(2)). Exclusion criteria were serious illness, smoking, or taking antioxidant supplements. Participants were randomized to receive 800 IU/d natural vitamin E (n = 39) or placebo (n = 41) for 3 months with an increase in the dose to 1200 IU/d for a further 3 months. Plasma 8-isoprostane and adiponectin concentrations were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months.
During 6 months of supplementation with vitamin E, plasma vitamin E concentration increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 76%, and plasma 8-isoprostane concentrations decreased significantly (-11%, p = 0.03), whereas plasma adiponectin concentrations did not change significantly.
These findings suggest that supplementation with high-dose vitamin E decreases systemic oxidative stress and 8-isoprostane concentrations in overweight/obese individuals. A decrease in plasma 8-isoprostane has the potential to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Isoprostanes are a marker of oxidant stress and atherosclerotic risk, and plasma concentrations are elevated in obesity. Adiponectin is a regulator of insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels are associated with oxidant stress and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E supplementation on plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostane and adiponectin in overweight/obese subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Markers of oxidative stress and plasma alanine transferase (ALT) levels are increased and circulating antioxidant concentrations are reduced in individuals with insulin resistance. Vitamin E improves glycemic control in people with diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin E would decrease markers of oxidative stress and plasma ALT levels and improve insulin sensitivity in overweight individuals.
Eighty overweight individuals (BMI >27 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated to receive either 800 IU vitamin E per day or a matching placebo for 3 months. The dose of vitamin E was increased to 1,200 IU per day for a further 3 months.
Plasma peroxides decreased by 27% at 3 months and by 29% at 6 months in the group that received vitamin E and were positively correlated with plasma vitamin E concentrations at the 6-month time point. At 3 months, fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly reduced and homeostasis model assessment increased. These changes were not apparent at 6 months. Plasma ALT concentrations declined significantly throughout the study period.
In conclusion, these findings indicate that vitamin E improves oxidative stress and hepatocellular function. Although insulin resistance also improves, this effect appears transient.