[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus has occupied an important position in public health as a cause of food poisoning and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The spread of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has also recently become a concern. However, the sources of this infection remain unclear, and there are few reports of epidemiology information. In order to understand MRSA spread in the community, we investigated the distribution of MRSA strains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n=305) and stool samples from outpatients with diarrhea (n=1,543) from the same meat distribution region in Oita Prefecture, Japan. 301 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and 18 of them were MRSA (2 from chicken meat, 1 from duck meat, 1 from pork meat, and 14 from patients with diarrhea). All 18 MRSA strains were negative for Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene. In this study conducting a comparison of properties and a molecular epidemiological analysis of MRSA isolated from commercially distributed meat and diarrhea patient stools, the results suggest that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) are an important cause of diarrhea. Four types of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) have been identified; however, their prevalence and association with virulence properties remain unclear.E. coli strains carrying the aggR gene as EAggEC that were isolated in Japan and Thailand (n =90) were examined for AAF subunit genes, 2 toxin genes (pet/astA), and clump formation. The most prevalent AAF gene was hdaA (28%), followed by aafA (20%), aggA (12%), and agg3A (4%) as well as a putative new AAF sequence (25.6%). The retention statuses of the toxin genes and intensities of clump formation appeared to vary according to the AAF type.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing number of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli (STEC2f) infections in humans are being reported in Europe, and pigeons have been suggested as a reservoir for the pathogen. In Japan, there is very little information regarding carriage of STEC2f by pigeons, prompting the need for further investigation. We collected 549 samples of pigeon droppings from 14 locations in Kyushu, Japan, to isolate STEC2f and to investigate characteristics of the isolates. Shiga toxin stx 2f gene fragments were detected by PCR in 16 (2.9%) of the 549 dropping samples across four of the 14 locations. We obtained 23 STEC2f-isolates from seven of the original samples and from three pigeon dropping samples collected in an additional sampling experiment (from a total of seven locations across both sampling periods). Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were then examined for selected isolates from each of 10 samples with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Eight of the stx 2f gene fragments sequenced in this study were homologous to others that were identified in Europe. Some isolates also contained virulence-related genes, including lpfA O26, irp 2, and fyuA, and all of the 10 selected isolates maintained the eae, astA, and cdt genes. Moreover, five of the 10 selected isolates contained sfpA, a gene that is restricted to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O165:H2 and sorbitol-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:NM. We document serotypes O152:HNM, O128:HNM, and O145:H34 as STEC2f, which agrees with previous studies on pigeons and humans. Interestingly, O119:H21 was newly described as STEC2f. O145:H34, with sequence type 722, was described in a German study in humans and was also isolated in the current study. These results revealed that Japanese zoonotic STEC2f strains harboring several virulence-related factors may be of the same clonal complexes as some European strains. These findings provide useful information for public health-related disease management strategies in Japan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the
involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection. We examined the distribution of MRSA strains in commercially
distributed raw meat samples (n = 197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n = 1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. Fourteen MRSA
strains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples
exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles [coagulase type III, staphylococcal enterotoxin C, staphylococcal chromosomal
cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV, ST8, spa type 606 (t1767), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) producing type]. Furthermore, of the seven strains, three isolates
from two meat samples and one stool sample collected in 2007 exhibited completely identical characteristics with respect to
phage open reading frame (ORF) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and drug susceptibility profiles. The results suggest
that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship to diarrhea of genes located on the pathogenicity islands (PAI) other than the locus of enterocyte effacement
(LEE) was investigated. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the retention of espC on the EspC PAI, the OI-122 genes (efa1/lifA, nleB), the phylogenetic marker gene yjaA, and the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA on the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmid were studied. E. coli strains carrying the intimin gene (eae) without the Shiga toxin gene, isolated from patients with diarrhea (n = 83) and healthy individuals (n = 38) in Japan, were evaluated using PCR. The genotypes of eae and espC were identified by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). The proportions of strains isolated from individuals with and without
diarrhea that carried these genes were as follows: bfpA, 13.3 and 7.9%, respectively; espC, 25.3 and 36.8%; efa1/lifA, 32.5 and 13.2%; nleB, 63.9 and 60.5%; yjaA, 42.2 and 55.3%. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was achieved only for efa1/lifA. The proportion of strains lacking espC and carrying efa1/lifA was higher for patient-derived strains (30.1%) than for strains from healthy individuals (13.2%), but the difference was
not significant. Strains carrying both espC and efa1/lifA were rare (2 strains from patients). Statistical analyses revealed significant relationships between espC and yjaA and between efa1/lifA and nleB, as well as significant inverse relationships between espC and efa1/lifA and between efa1/lifA and yjaA. espC was found in eae HMA types a1, a2, and c2, whereas efa1/lifA was found in types b1, b2, and c1. In addition, 6 polymorphisms of espC were found. The espC, yjaA, efa1/lifA, and nleB genes were mutually dependent, and their distributions were related to eae type, findings that should be considered in future epidemiological studies.
Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of clinical microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains produce a bundle-forming pilus (BFP) that mediates localized adherence (LA) to intestinal epithelial cells. The major structural subunit of the BFP is bundlin, which is encoded by the bfpA gene located on a large EAF plasmid. The perA gene has been shown to activate genes within the bfp operon. We analyzed perA gene polymorphism among typical (eae- and bfpA-positive) EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheal persons in Japan (n=27) and Thailand (n=26) during the period 1995 to 2007 and compared this with virulence and phenotypic characteristics. Eight genotypes of perA were identified by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). The strains isolated in Thailand showed strong autoaggregation and had an intact perA, while most of those isolated in Japan showed weak or no autoaggregation, and had a truncated perA due to frameshift mutation. The degree of autoaggregation was well correlated with adherence to HEp-2 cells, contact hemolysis and BFP expression. Our results showed that functional deficiency due to frameshift mutation and subsequent nonsense mutation in perA reduced BFP expression in typical EPEC strains isolated in Japan.
Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined enterohemolysin (Ehly) production, and detected the hlyA gene and the eaeA gene for the intestinal mucosal adherence factor intimin in 131 strains of human-derived verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and 140 strains of livestock (cattle and swine) -derived VTEC to evaluate their hazards to humans. The hlyA gene was confirmed in 98.5% of human-derived, in 50.5% of cattle-derived, and in 10.3% of swine-derived VTEC strains. Ehly-positive rates were 96.2-97.7%, 45.9-55.0%, and 10.3-20.7% in human-, cattle-, and swine-derived VTEC strains, respectively. Thus, the positive rates differed among strains of different species origins. However, all 12 cattle-derived O157VTEC strains had hlyA, and were Ehly-positive. Although 97.7% of human-derived strains and all cattle-derived O157VTEC strains had eaeA, only 8.1% of cattle derived strains of serotypes other than O157 and 3.4% of swine-derived strains had eaeA. In human- and cattle-derived strains, the presence of eaeA was associated with Ehly: all eaeA-carrying strains had hlyA, and almost all of them were Ehly-positive. Cattle-derived eaeA-carrying strains accounted for 29.5-35.3% of Ehly-positive strains, compared to 100% in human-derived strains. Only 3-4% of Ehly-negative strains had eaeA, and none of the non-hlyA-carrying strains had eaeA. These findings suggest that 2 factors, eaeA and Ehly, serve as useful indicators for the evaluation of hazard to humans, and that Ehly is a useful indicator because cattle-derived Ehly-positive strains may have eaeA.
Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approaching the problem of how close the sporadic diarrhea diseases correlate with epidemics of infectious diarrheas, including food poisonings, bacteriological studies were made on the characteristics of sporadic diarrheas in the past 10 years and analyzed. In collaboration with physicians, mostly pediatricians, in Oita district during 1985 to 1986 and 1989 to 1996, a total of 1707 specimens was obtained from diarrhea patients, suspected of bacterial cause. We have isolated 717 strains from 670 specimens (ca 40% of the total). The majority were; Campylobacter, Salmonella and EPEC with the rate of about 40, 24 and 23% respectively. On the other hand, isolation of Vibrio spp. and Staphylococcus were very few. The yearly trend of detection rates of such major agents were as follows: Campylobacter had the highest rate in the early period, 1989, but thereafter tended to decrease. In contrast, Salmonella continued to increase in rate through the study period until the present when it exceeds that of Campylobacter. This alternation is due primarily to the rapid increase of S. Enteritidis since its recent appearance. VTEC stays at a low rate with a slow increase showing no prevalence so far. From the above results the following may meet with attention. Vibrios and Staphylococci, known as popular agents for food poisonings, seem unlikely to correlate with sporadic diarrheas. Instead, the evidence that recent food poisoning is often represented by Salmonella, especially S. Enteritidis, suggests that epidemics of infectious diarrhea may be attributed to the background of common sporadic diarrheas.
Preview · Article · Aug 1997 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases