[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and platelet phagocytosis in dengue illness are not fully understood.
A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to examine the relationships between platelet counts, serum thrombopoietin (TPO) levels, and platelet apoptosis and phagocytosis in 81 patients with secondary dengue virus (DV) infections and 38 healthy volunteers. The apoptosis and phagocytosis of cultured platelets after exposure to DV were also examined.
Platelet apoptosis, platelet phagocytosis, and serum TPO levels were increased significantly in patients during the acute and early convalescence phases compared with levels observed in patients during the convalescence phase and in healthy volunteers. A significant correlation between platelet apoptosis and platelet phagocytosis was also observed in these patients. Platelet phagocytosis was inhibited significantly by the D89E mutant, which carries a point mutation in the RGD motif of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8, a phosphatidylserine-recognizing bridge molecule. DV-induced platelet apoptosis and increased phagocytosis of DV-induced apoptotic platelets was confirmed using in vitro assays.
Our data suggest an increased phagocytosis of DV-induced apoptotic platelets by macrophages via a phosphatidylserine-recognizing pathway in secondary DV infection. Accelerated platelet clearance, however, was overcome by TPO-induced enhanced thrombopoiesis in these patients.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a new method for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection, 187 serum samples from the patients with dengue secondary infection, 40 serum samples from the patients with dengue primary infection, and 44 serum samples from the healthy volunteers were tested using the dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DEN IgG ELISA). The results of the test were compared with those from the dengue hemagglutination inhibition (DEN HI) test, which has been recommended as the gold standard by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1997). Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect ELISA (JE IgG ELISA) was also performed to measure anti-flavivirus IgG, which cross-reacts with the Japanese encephalitis virus, to test the possibility of an alternative to DEN IgG ELISA. The results of DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with those of the DEN HI test. In the DEN IgG ELISA, a titer of 1:29,000 was the cut-off value for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection (91.5% accuracy [95% confidence interval, CI], 90.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 92.9% specificity [95%CI]). A titer of 1:52,000 was the cut-off value for dengue secondary infection using JE IgG ELISA (95.6% accuracy [95%CI], 98.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 88.1% specificity [95%CI]). In conclusion, this study confirmed that the results of both DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with the results of DEN HI test. Thus, these ELISAs are simple, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative tests that can be used in the determination of dengue secondary infection.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between the percent phagocytosis of platelets by differentiated THP-1 cells was examined using flowcytometry and the peripheral platelet counts as well as platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) in 36 patients with secondary dengue virus (DV) infections. The percent phagocytosis and the levels of PAIgG were significantly increased in these patients during the acute phase compared with the healthy volunteers. The increased percent phagocytosis and PAIgG found during the acute phase significantly decreased during the convalescent phase. An inverse correlation between platelet count and the percent phagocytosis (P = 0.011) and the levels of PAIgG (P = 0.041) was found among these patients during the acute phase. No correlation was found, however, between the percent phagocytosis and the levels of PAIgG. Our present data suggest that accelerated platelet phagocytosis occurs during the acute phase of secondary DV infections, and it is one of the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in this disease.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because most cases of secondary dengue virus infection are associated with an increased level of platelet-associated IgG, a high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have an effect on the development of severe thrombocytopenia in this disease. A randomized, controlled study was conducted with two treatment groups consisting of a treatment (IVIG) group (n = 15) and a non-treatment (non-IVIG) group (n = 16) to determine whether a high dose of IVIG is effective in hastening the recovery from thrombocytopenia in patients with secondary dengue virus infection. No significant difference was found in the baseline demographic data between the two groups. No adverse effect of IVIG was observed, but no effect in hastening the recovery of platelet counts was found in patients with secondary dengue infections. The lack of efficacy of IVIG suggests that platelet clearance by macrophages through Fc gamma receptors is not a primary mechanism in this disease.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2001, the Research and Biotechnology Division (RBD) of St Luke's Medical Center, in collaboration with the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Nagasaki University in Japan, initiated a long-term study of Japanese encephalitis in the Philippines. Laboratory confirmation of acute cases of Japanese. encephalitis was done by IgM-capture ELISA, which detects anti-JEV immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. In the period 2002-2004, a total of 614 CSF samples were submitted to RBD, and of these, 11.7% were positive for anti-JEV IgM: 17 in 2002, 18 in 2003, 32 in 2004, and 5 in 2005. Positive cases came from patients aged 2-77 years. In the 72 positive cases where gender was identified, 44 were male and 28 female. Possible co-infections with dengue virus were also detected by separate testing for anti-dengue IgM by ELISA in 17 CSF samples positive for JE.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe thrombocytopenia and increased vascular permeability are two major characteristics of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). To develop a better understanding of the roles of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) and IgM (PAIgM) in inducing thrombocytopenia and its severity of disease in patients with secondary dengue virus infection, the relationship between the PAIgG or PAIgM levels and disease severity as well as thrombocytopenia was examined in 78 patients with acute phase secondary infection in a prospective hospital-based study. The decrease in platelet count during the acute phase recovered significantly during the convalescent phase. In contrast, the increased levels of PAIgG or PAIgM that occurred during the acute phase of these patients decreased significantly during the convalescent phase. An inverse correlation between platelet count and PAIgG or PAIgM levels was found in these patients. Anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM activity was found in platelet eluates from 10 patients in an acute phase of secondary infection. Increased levels of PAIgG or PAIgM were significantly higher in DHF than those in dengue fever (DF). An increased level of PAIgM was associated independently with the development of DHF, representing a possible predictor of DHF with a high specificity. Our present data suggest that platelet-associated immunoglobulins involving antidengue virus activity play a pivotal role in the induction of thrombocytopenia and the severity of the disease in secondary dengue virus infections.