[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether retinal axonal loss is detectable in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), a first clinical demyelinating attack suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), and examine patterns of retinal axonal loss across MS disease subtypes.
Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography was performed in 541 patients with MS, including 45 with high-risk CIS, 403 with relapsing-remitting (RR)MS, 60 with secondary-progressive (SP)MS and 33 with primary-progressive (PP)MS, and 53 unaffected controls. Differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume were analyzed using multiple linear regression and associations with age and disease duration were examined in a cross-sectional analysis. In eyes without a clinical history of optic neuritis (designated as "eyes without optic neuritis"), the total and temporal peripapillary RNFL was thinner in CIS patients compared to controls (temporal RNFL by -5.4 µm [95% CI -0.9 to--9.9 µm, p = 0.02] adjusting for age and sex). The total (p = 0.01) and temporal (p = 0.03) RNFL was also thinner in CIS patients with clinical disease for less than 1 year compared to controls. In eyes without optic neuritis, total and temporal RNFL thickness was nearly identical between primary and secondary progressive MS, but total macular volume was slightly lower in the primary progressive group (p<0.05).
Retinal axonal loss is increasingly prominent in more advanced stages of disease--progressive MS>RRMS>CIS--with proportionally greater thinning in eyes previously affected by clinically evident optic neuritis. Retinal axonal loss begins early in the course of MS. In the absence of clinically evident optic neuritis, RNFL thinning is nearly identical between progressive MS subtypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently causes injury to the anterior visual pathway (AVP), impairing quality of life due to visual dysfunction. Development of biomarkers in MS is a high priority and both low-contrast visual acuity (LCVA) and time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) have been proposed as candidates for this purpose. We sought to assess whether psychophysical assessments of color vision are similarly correlated with structural measures of AVP injury, and therefore augment measures of visual disability in MS.
We studied the association between high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA), LCVA, color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates (HRR) and Lanthony D15 tests) and OCT, using both high-resolution spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT; Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and TD-OCT (Stratus, Carl Zeiss, US) in a cohort of 213 MS patients (52 with previous optic neuritis) and 47 matched controls in a cross-sectional study.
We found that MS patients have impairments in HCVA and LCVA (p < 0.001) but that they suffer from even more profound abnormalities in color discrimination (p < 0.0001). We found strong correlation between color vision and SD-OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (average RNFL, r = 0.594, p < 0.001) and papillomacular bundle thickness (r = -0.565, p < 0.001). The correlation between OCT scores and functional visual impairments of all types was much stronger for SD-OCT than for TD-OCT.
Our results indicate that color vision is highly correlated with these OCT scores when compared with traditional measures of visual acuity. Also we found that SD-OCT is superior to TD-OCT for detecting anterior visual pathway damage in MS. This makes both color-visual measures and SD-OCT strong candidate biomarkers of disease progression.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Multiple Sclerosis