[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28 is one of the most relevant costimulatory receptors that deliver both TCR-dependent and TCR-independent signals regulating a wide range of signaling pathways crucial for cytokine and chemokine gene expressions, T cell survival, and proliferation. Most of the CD28-dependent signaling functions are initiated by the recruitment and activation of class IA PI3Ks, which catalyze the conversion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, thus generating the docking sites for key signaling proteins. Hence, PIP2 is a crucial substrate in driving the PI3K downstream signaling pathways, and PIP2 turnover may be an essential regulatory step to ensure the activation of PI3K following CD28 engagement. Despite some data evidence that CD28 augments TCR-induced turnover of PIP2, its direct role in regulating PIP2 metabolism has never been assessed. In this study, we show that CD28 regulates PIP2 turnover by recruiting and activating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases α (PIP5Kα) in human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This event leads to the neosynthesis of PIP2 and to its consumption by CD28-activated PI3K. We also evidenced that PIP5Kα activation is required for both CD28 unique signals regulating IL-8 gene expression as well as for CD28/TCR-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, NF-AT nuclear translocation, and IL-2 gene transcription. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism that involves PIP5Kα as a key modulator of CD28 costimulatory signals.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence supports the prediction that CD25 is directly regulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXP3. However, given that CD25 is normally upregulated in activated T cells, regardless of whether they express FOXP3, this issue has still to be definitively demonstrated. Here we describe that FOXP3, induced by CD28 signals in human CD4(+)CD25(-) T lymphocytes, synergizes with RelA on a regulatory region of Cd25 promoter to mediate the transcriptional activation of Cd25 gene. We found that a striking feature of this regulatory region is the presence of a κB site and of two tandem copies of a non-consensus FOXP3 binding site separated at 5' ends by 19 nucleotides that allow FOXP3 and RelA binding to DNA and their physical interaction. The occupancy of the two FOXP3 binding sites in conjunction with RelA binding site occupancy allows FOXP3 to function as a positive activator of Cd25 gene. Indeed mutations of both FOXP3 binding sites such as mutation of κB site on Cd25 promoter abolished FOXP3 activatory functions. Moreover, FOXP3 mutation ΔE251, that compromises FOXP3 homotypic interactions, failed to trans activate Cd25 promoter, suggesting that both FOXP3 DNA binding and dimerization are required to trans activate Cd25 promoter. These findings identify a novel mechanism by which RelA and FOXP3 cooperate to mediate transcriptional regulation of target genes and characterize a region on Cd25 promoter where FOXP3 dimer could bridge intramolecularly two DNA sites and trans activate Cd25 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nascent HLA-class I molecules are stabilized by proteasome-derived peptides in the ER and the new complexes proceed to the cell surface through the post-ER vesicles. It has been shown, however, that less stable complexes can exchange peptides in the Trans Golgi Network (TGN). HLA-B27 are the most studied HLA-class I molecules due to their association with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Chimeric proteins driven by TAT of HIV have been exploited by us to deliver viral epitopes, whose cross-presentation by the HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome and TAP-independent and not restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC). Here, using these chimeric proteins as epitope suppliers, we compared with each other and with the HLA-A2 molecules, the two HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 alleles differing at residue 116 (D116H) and differentially associated with AS. We found that the antigen presentation by the two HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome-, TAP-, and APC-independent whereas the presentation by the HLA-A2 molecules required proteasome, TAP and professional APC. Assuming that such difference could be due to the unpaired, highly reactive Cys-67 distinguishing the HLA-B27 molecules, C67S mutants in HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 and V67C mutant in HLA-A*0201 were also analyzed. The results showed that this mutation did not influence the HLA-A2-restricted antigen presentation while it drastically affected the HLA-B27-restricted presentation with, however, remarkable differences between B*2705 and B*2709. The data, together with the occurrence on the cell surface of unfolded molecules in the case of C67S-B*2705 mutant but not in that of C67S-B*2709 mutant, indicates that Cys-67 has a more critical role in stabilizing the B*2705 rather than the B*2709 complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The single amino acid replacement Asp116His distinguishes the two subtypes HLA-B*2705 and HLA-B*2709 which are, respectively, associated and non-associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis, an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease. The reason for this differential association is so far poorly understood and might be related to subtype-specific HLA:peptide conformations as well as to subtype/peptide-dependent dynamical properties on the nanoscale. Here, we combine functional experiments with extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular dynamics and function of the conserved Arg62 of the α1-helix for both B27 subtypes in complex with the self-peptides pVIPR (RRKWRRWHL) and TIS (RRLPIFSRL), and the viral peptides pLMP2 (RRRWRRLTV) and NPflu (SRYWAIRTR). Simulations of HLA:peptide systems suggest that peptide-stabilizing interactions of the Arg62 residue observed in crystal structures are metastable for both B27 subtypes under physiological conditions, rendering this arginine solvent-exposed and, probably, a key residue for TCR interaction more than peptide-binding. This view is supported by functional experiments with conservative (R62K) and non-conservative (R62A) B*2705 and B*2709 mutants that showed an overall reduction in their capability to present peptides to CD8+ T cells. Moreover, major subtype-dependent differences in the peptide recognition suggest distinct TCR binding modes for the B*2705 versus the B*2709 subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28 costimulatory molecule plays a critical role in the activation of NF-κB. Indeed, while stimulation of T cells with either professional APCs or anti-TCR plus anti-CD28 antibodies efficiently activates NF-κB, TCR alone fails to do that. Moreover, CD28 stimulation by B7 in the absence of TCR may activate IκB kinase α (IKKα) and a non-canonical NF-κB2-like pathway, in human primary CD4(+) T cells. Despite its functional relevance in NF-κB activation, the molecules connecting autonomous CD28-mediated signals to IKKα and NF-κB activation remain still unknown. In searching for specific upstream activators linking CD28 to the IKKα/NF-κB cascade, we identify a novel constitutive association between filamin A (FLNa) and the NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), in both Jurkat and human primary T cells. Following CD28 engagement by B7, in the absence of TCR, FLNa-associated NIK is activated and induces IKKα kinase activity. Both proline (P(208)YAP(211)P(212)) and tyrosine residues (Y(206)QPY(209)APP) within the C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 are involved in the recruitment of FLNa/NIK complexes to the membrane as well as in the activation of NIK and IKKα.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Immunology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms whereby CD28 alone or associated with TCR can regulate FOXP3 expression are not understood, although the importance of CD28 as a pivotal regulator of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells is well recognized. We previously demonstrated that unique CD28-induced, NF-κB-dependent signals were sufficient to activate FOXP3 transcription in human CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells; however, the exact mechanisms are currently unknown. In this study, we have identified novel κB-binding sites on FOXP3 gene and demonstrated that CD28 signals mediated FOXP3 trans activation by nuclear translocation of RelA/NF-κB and not of c-Rel. The occupancy of FOXP3 κB-binding sites by RelA dimers that correlated with histone acetylation and recruitment of Pol II were required both to initiate FOXP3 transcription and to control the promoter occupancy by NFAT. Interestingly, knockdown of RelA in CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells stimulated through TCR and CD28 significantly affected FOXP3 expression, confirming that also the transcriptional activation of FOXP3 gene by TCR in the presence of CD28-costimulatory signals is RelA-dependent. In conclusion, these data suggest a new mechanism by which FOXP3 is activated and supports the critical role of CD28 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53 is central to carcinogenesis and acquisition of resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. The majority of alterations are missense mutations and occur within the DNA-binding domain. However, little is known about the point mutations in the tetramerization domain (TD). Here we investigated the properties of a new p53 mutant (Lys 351 to Asn) in the TD identified in a cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780 CIS). We found that K351N substitution significantly reduces the thermodynamic stability of p53 tetramers without affecting the overall half-life of the protein. Moreover, p53 K351N has a reduced ability to bind DNA and to trans-activate its specific target gene promoters, such as bax. Data obtained from the analysis of p53 subcellular localization revealed that K351N mutation inhibits the nuclear export of p53 and accumulation in the cytoplasm induced by cisplatin treatment. These results identify p53 K351N as a new cancer associated mutant with reduced tumor suppressor activity and altered functions in response to apoptotic stimuli.