[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the association of patient- and trial-specific factors with participation in cardiovascular randomized clinical trials.
Randomized clinical trials are central to evidenced-based medicine, but low patient participation rates and potentially modifiable barriers are not well understood.
At a large U.S. academic health system, we examined screening logs from December 1, 2005, to February 28, 2011, from 15 cardiovascular randomized clinical trials. We identified 655 patients who were screened and potentially eligible for participation in at least 1 trial. We used multivariable Poisson regression to quantify the risk of not participating in a trial associated with patient- and trial-specific factors.
The median age was 63 years (interquartile range: 54 to 72), 35% were women, and the median Charlson Index was 2 (interquartile range: 1 to 5). Forty-two percent of patients did not participate in a trial. In multivariable regression (C-Index 0.85), trial-specific factors strongly associated with not participating included intensive trial-related testing (relative risk [RR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.20) and anticipated trial participation >6 months (RR: 4.10; 95% CI: 2.30 to 7.29). Patient-specific factors associated with not participating included older age (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.36, per 10-year increase if age ≥65 years), out-of-state residence (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.54), and female sex (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.35). Race was not associated with participation.
While patient-specific factors were associated with not participating in cardiovascular trials, longer trial duration and intensive trial-related testing were most strongly associated with risk for patients not participating. Innovative trial designs fostering convenience may most enhance trial participation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies describing the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were largely confined to single-center studies or small registries. To better characterize the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of the no-reflow phenomenon in a large contemporary population, we analyzed patients with AMI who were undergoing PCI of native coronary artery stenoses in the CathPCI Registry from January 1, 2004 through September 5, 2008 (n = 291,380). The angiographic no-reflow phenomenon was site reported using a standardized definition. No-reflow developed in 2.3% of the patients with AMI (n = 6,553) during PCI. Older age, ST-segment elevation AMI, prolonged interval from symptom onset to admission, and cardiogenic shock were clinical variables independently associated with the development of no-reflow (p <0.001). The angiographic factors independently associated with no-reflow included longer lesion length, higher risk class C lesions, bifurcation lesions, and impaired preprocedure Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow (p <0.001). No-reflow was associated with greater in-hospital mortality (12.6% vs 3.8%, adjusted odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.47, p <0.001) and unsuccessful lesion outcome (29.7% vs 6.6%, adjusted odds ratio 4.70, 95% confidence interval 4.28 to 5.17, p <0.001) compared to patients without no-reflow. In conclusion, the development of no-reflow, although relatively uncommon during PCI for AMI, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Upfront strategies to reduce the incidence of no-reflow could be considered for high-risk patients to improve outcomes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to quantify the learning curve for the safety and effectiveness of a newly introduced vascular closure device through evaluation of the NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) CathPCI clinical outcomes registry.
The impact of learning on the clinical outcomes complicates the assessment of the safety and efficacy during the early experience with newly introduced medical devices.
We performed a retrospective analysis of the relationship between cumulative institutional experience and clinical device success, defined as device deployment success and freedom from any vascular complications, for the StarClose vascular closure device (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, California). Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to develop risk-adjusted clinical success predictions that were analyzed to quantify learning curve rates.
A total of 107,710 procedures used at least 1 StarClose deployment, between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, with overall clinical success increasing from 93% to 97% during the study period. The learning curve was triphasic, with an initial rapid learning phase, followed by a period of declining rates of success, followed finally by a recovery to a steady-state rate of improved device success. The rates of learning were influenced positively by diagnostic (vs. percutaneous coronary intervention) procedure use and teaching status and were affected inversely by annual institutional volume.
An institutional-level learning curve for the initial national experience of StarClose was triphasic, likely indicating changes in patient selection and expansion of number of operators during the initial phases of device adoption. The rate of learning was influenced by several institutional factors, including overall procedural volume, utilization for percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, and teaching status.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to rapidly identify patients with ST-segment elevation-myocardial infarction (STEMI) at hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and transfer them to hospitals with PCI capability is critical to STEMI regionalization efforts. Our objective was to assess the association of prehospital, emergency department (ED), and hospital processes of care implemented as part of a statewide STEMI regionalization program with door-in-door-out times at non-PCI hospitals.
Door-in-door-out times for 436 STEMI patients at 55 non-PCI hospitals were determined before (July 2005 to September 2005) and after (January 2007 to March 2007) a year-long implementation of standardized protocols as part of a statewide regionalization program (Reperfusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Carolina Emergency Departments, RACE). The association of 8 system care processes (encompassing emergency medical services [EMS], ED, and hospital settings) with door-in-door-out times was determined using multivariable linear regression. Median door-in-door-out times improved significantly with the intervention (before: 97.0 minutes, interquartile range, 56.0 to 160.0 minutes; after: 58.0 minutes, interquartile range, 35.0 to 90.0 minutes; P<0.0001). Hospital, ED, and EMS care processes were each independently associated with shorter door-in-door-out times (-17.7 [95% confidence interval, -27.5 to -7.9]; -10.1 [95% confidence interval, -19.0 to -1.1], and -7.3 [95% confidence interval, -13.0 to -1.5] minutes for each additional hospital, ED, and EMS process, respectively). Combined, adoption of EMS processes was associated with the shortest median treatment times (44 versus 138 minutes for hospitals that adopted all EMS processes versus none).
Prehospital, ED, and hospital processes of care were independently associated with shorter door-in-door-out times for STEMI patients requiring transfer. Adoption of several EMS processes was associated with the largest reduction in treatment times. These findings highlight the need for an integrated, system-based approach to improving STEMI care.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient adherence to medications is crucial for reducing risks following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We assessed the degree to which medication beliefs were associated with patient adherence to β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and lipid-lowering medications (LL) 3 months following ACS hospitalization.
We enrolled eligible ACS patients from 41 hospitals to participate in a telephone survey. The Beliefs in Medication Questionnaire-Specific was administered to assess perceived necessity for and concerns about heart medications. Three cohorts were identified for analysis: β-blockers, ACEI/ARBs, and LL. Patients discharged on or starting the medication class after discharge were included in the cohort. The primary outcome was self-reported nonadherence to the medication class 3 months following hospitalization. Factors associated with nonadherence to each medication class were determined using logistic regression analysis.
Overall, 973 patients were surveyed. Of these, 882 were in the β-blocker cohort, 702 in the ACEI/ARB cohort, and 873 in the LL cohort. Nonadherence rates at 3 months were 23%, 26%, and 23%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, greater perceived necessity for heart medications was significantly associated with lower likelihood of nonadherence in all cohorts (β-blocker: odds ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.98; ACEI/ARB: OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98; LL: OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-1.00). A greater perceived concern was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of nonadherence in all cohorts (β-blocker: OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13; ACEI/ARB: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.11; LL: OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.14).
Patients' perceived necessity for and concerns about heart medication were independently associated with adherence to 3 medication classes. Assessment of patient beliefs may be useful in clinical practice to identify those at greatest risk for nonadherence and to stimulate development of individualized interventions to change beliefs and improve adherence.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with previous stroke are at high-risk for myocardial infarction (MI). Concern regarding increased risk of bleeding or recurrent stroke in this patient population might alter therapeutic decisions. Data were collected from 281 hospitals in the United States in the NCDR ACTION Registry. Patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI; n = 15,997) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI; n = 25,514) entered into the registry from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2007 were included. We assessed use of evidence-based medications and procedures in patients with and without previous stroke. Risk-adjusted odds ratio of death, major bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting, and a composite outcome (major adverse cardiac events [MACEs], i.e., death/MI/stroke/cardiogenic shock/congestive heart failure) were calculated using logistic regression. Previous stroke was reported in 5.1% of patients with STEMI and 9.3% of those with NSTEMI. Of patients with STEMI eligible for reperfusion therapy, those with previous stroke were less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared to patients without previous stroke. Patients with previous stroke had longer door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times. Of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI, those with previous stroke were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Death, MACEs, and major bleeding were more common with previous stroke. When adjusted for baseline risk, patients with previous stroke were at increased risk of death (only those with STEMI) and MACEs but not bleeding. In conclusion, patients with STEMI and previous stroke are at increased risk for death and patients with STEMI and NSTEMI are at increased risk of MACE. Despite this, previous stroke patients are less likely to receive guideline-based MI therapies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to develop a tool for predicting an individual's risk of mortality following rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Although fibrinolytic therapy is appropriate and improves survival for certain ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, a substantial proportion suffer ongoing myocardial ischemia, a class I indication for emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (rescue PCI).
Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR), rescue PCI was defined as nonelective PCI following failed fibrinolysis in patients with continuing or recurrent myocardial ischemia. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine mortality predictors and the C-statistic for model discrimination. The NCDR-RESCUE (Real-World Estimator of Survival in Catheterized STEMI Patients Following Unsuccessful Earlier Fibrinolysis) score was developed using a shortened list of 6 pre-angiographic variables and 70% of the cohort; performance was subsequently validated against the remaining 30%.
Among 166,516 PCI procedures on patients with an admission diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 8,007 (4.8%) represented rescue PCI. In-hospital mortality occurred in 464 (5.8%). Factors in the final model were age, glomerular filtration rate, history of congestive heart failure, insulin-treated diabetes, cardiogenic shock, and salvage status. The NCDR-RESCUE score effectively segregated individuals into 6 clinically meaningful risk categories, with 0.4% (0.0% to 1.3%), 1.6% (0.9% to 2.4%), 7.6% (5.3% to10.4%), 27.5% (20.7% to 35.1%), 64.2% (49.8% to 76.9%), or 100% (59.0% to 100.0%) risk, respectively, of in-hospital mortality (mean ± 95% confidence interval, C-index = 0.88, Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.898).
In-hospital mortality risk among individuals undergoing rescue PCI varies from minimal to extreme and can be easily calculated using the NCDR-RESCUE score. This information can be of value in counseling patients, families, and referring caregivers.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite evidence supporting the use of aspirin, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and lipid-lowering therapies in eligible patients, adoption of these secondary prevention measures after coronary artery bypass grafting has been inconsistent. We sought to rigorously test on a national scale whether low-intensity continuous quality improvement interventions can be used to speed secondary prevention adherence after coronary artery bypass grafting.
A total of 458 hospitals participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Database and treating 361 328 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to either a control or an intervention group. The intervention group received continuous quality improvement materials designed to influence the prescription of the secondary prevention medications at discharge. The primary outcome measure was discharge prescription rates of the targeted secondary prevention medications at intervention versus control sites, assessed by measuring preintervention and postintervention site differences. Prerandomization treatment patterns and baseline data were similar in the control (n=234) and treatment (n=224) groups. Individual medication use and composite adherence increased over 24 months in both groups, with a markedly more rapid rate of adherence uptake among the intervention hospitals and a statistically significant therapy hazard ratio in the intervention versus control group for all 4 secondary prevention medications.
Provider-led, low-intensity continuous quality improvement efforts can improve the adoption of care processes into national practice within the context of a medical specialty society infrastructure. The findings of the present trial have led to the incorporation of study outcome metrics into a medical society rating system for ongoing quality improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: national initiatives have reduced door-to-balloon (DTB) times for direct-arrival ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, STEMI patients requiring interhospital transfer for primary PCI are often excluded from public performance assessments of this quality metric.
we compared DTB time improvements between 2005 and 2007 for 29,248 transfer (25%) and 86,382 direct-arrival STEMI patients treated with primary PCI at 790 hospitals in the National Cardiovascular Data Catheterization PCI Registry. Among the 165 hospitals that submitted data for ≥10 patients per year, we examined the correlation between hospital-level changes in transfer and direct-arrival DTB times.
although DTB times decreased significantly over time for both groups, transfer STEMI patients had longer DTB times (median 149 vs 79 minutes, P < .0001), few received PCI ≤90 minutes (10% vs 63%, P < .0001), and the adjusted rate of DTB time improvement was slower (5% vs 9% relative decrease per year, P < .001) compared with direct-arrival patients. Larger annual transfer volume (not necessarily for primary PCI) was associated with greater improvement in transfer DTB times. However, there was no correlation between hospitals that improved direct-arrival DTB times and those that improved transfer DTB times (r = 0.094, P = .23).
although there has been modest temporal improvement in DTB times, transfer patients still rarely achieve benchmark standards. Hospitals that had greater improvements in direct-arrival DTB times were not necessarily those with greater improvements in transfer DTB times. These results highlight the need for targeted system and policy approaches to improve DTB time for transferred primary PCI patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend initiation or intensification of statin therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), yet little is known about the actual practice of intensifying lipid-lowering (LL) therapy and LDL-C achievement from hospital admission to 1-year follow-up.
The MAINTAIN registry enrolled ACS patients from January 2006 through September 2007, collecting data on statin formulation, dose, and lipid profiles at both baseline and 12 months. Statin intensity (estimated LDL-C lowering) was categorized by formulation and dose as either moderate (<40%) or intensive (≥40%). In-hospital LL intensification is described and LDL goal attainment is reported for patients with complete baseline and 12-month lipid panels.
Of the 788 patients without contraindications to LL, 40% were on LL therapy before admission, and 89% at discharge. Among patients on LL therapy with LDL-C>100 mg/dL at admission, only 37% (n=38) had their LL therapy intensified. Among 382 patients with 12 months of data, 89% (n=341) were discharged on a statin. Of these, 89% were still on a statin at 12-month follow-up. A LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dL was achieved in 71% of patients, but the optional LDL-C goal≤70 mg/dL was achieved in only 31%.
Most high-risk ACS patients are prescribed statin therapy at hospital discharge and remain on therapy at 12-month follow-up. Despite this, the LDL-C goal of ≤70 mg/dL is achieved in a small minority. There is substantial opportunity to intensify LL therapy after ACS to achieve guideline LDL-C goals and prevent future morbidity and mortality.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology/American Health Association guidelines recommend both an early invasive strategy and administration of antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy for high-risk patients in the absence of contraindications. Little is known about adherence to guideline recommendations in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
We analyzed 47,557 patients with NSTEMI in the 2007-2008 National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines. Treatment patterns were compared between patients with and without prior CABG surgery. Multivariable regression with generalized estimating equations evaluated the association between prior CABG and in-hospital outcomes.
In this study, 8,790 NSTEMI patients (18.5%) had a history of CABG surgery. Prior CABG surgery was associated with a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of early cardiac catheterization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.92), higher rates of short-term clopidogrel use (adjusted OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), and comparable use of anticoagulant therapy (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.04). Adjusted risks of bleeding and in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (adjusted ORs 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.11 and 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.11, respectively).
Patients with prior CABG surgery presenting with NSTEMI are often felt to be at high risk for adverse outcomes and therefore require aggressive treatment. Our study indicates that they are less likely to undergo guideline-recommended early cardiac catheterization but equally or more likely to receive guideline-recommended antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. This risk-treatment paradox, however, does not appear to negatively influence short-term clinical outcomes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the 2000 and 2007 redefinition of myocardial infarction (MI), patients who are troponin (Tn) positive ([+]) but MB negative ([-]) may not be considered to have MI, particularly in the absence of known coronary disease (prior MI or revascularization; coronary artery disease [CAD]). How this affects treatment and outcomes has not been well described.
Direct arrival patients with non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) enrolled in the American College of Cardiology NCDR ACTION-GWTG Registry were included. Patients missing marker data who were Tn (-) and had CAD were excluded. Troponin (+) patients were categorized as MB (+) (n = 11,563) or MB (-) (n = 4,501). Treatments and in-hospital outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using logistic regression.
Of the 16,064 NSTEMI patients, 28% were MB (-). The MB (-) patients were older (median age 68 vs 65 years) and had more comorbidities (hypertension 71% vs 66%, diabetes 31% vs 27%, heart failure 22% vs 19%; all Ps < .01). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, MB (-) patients were significantly less likely to receive clopidogrel, antithrombins, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, or angiography (all Ps < .001). In-hospital mortality was lower in MB (-) patients (3.8% vs 4.9%, P < .01), which remained significant after adjusting for baseline variables (odds ratio 0, 69, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, P = .002).
Patients without known CAD who have NSTEMI and are MB (-) have a higher risk profile but are less likely to receive guideline-recommended acute pharmacologic treatment than those who are MB (+). Given the relatively high mortality in this group, increased emphasis on improving quality of care in Tn (+)/MB (-) patients is warranted.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies have demonstrated differences in time to reperfusion for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women, minorities, and the elderly, relative to their counterparts. Regionalization has been shown to improve overall STEMI treatment times, but its impact on care differences among these important patient subgroups is unknown. The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact of a statewide system of STEMI care (The Reperfusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Carolina Emergency Departments) on treatment times according to patient sex, race, and age.
STEMI treatment times were determined before (July 2005 to September 2005) and after (January 2007 to March 2007) a year-long implementation of coordinated regional treatment protocols. Times in the pre- and postintervention periods were compared by mixed-effects models. A total of 2063 STEMI patients were analyzed: 1140 at percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals and 923 at non-percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals. The Reperfusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Carolina Emergency Departments was associated with significant improvements in treatment times in women and the elderly, including door-to-ECG, door-to-device, door-in-door-out, and door-to-needle times (all P<0.05). Temporal improvements in treatment times at percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals were not significantly different in blacks than in whites. There was a reduction in baseline treatment disparities in door-to-ECG times in women versus men (4.4-minute reduction in difference; 95% CI, -8.1 to -0.4; P=0.03). After Reperfusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Carolina Emergency Departments, an age-treatment time gap persisted in the elderly, relative to younger patients.
A statewide STEMI regionalization program was associated with comparable improvement in treatment times for female, black, and elderly patients compared with middle-aged, white male patients. Nevertheless, there remain opportunities to further narrow treatment differences, particularly among the elderly.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beliefs such as self-reported low necessity for medications and high concerns about medications are associated with nonadherence. Changes in these beliefs during long-term care have not previously been studied and were evaluated for purposes of this analysis.
From January 2006 through September 2007, patients at 41 hospitals who met entry criteria for the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative were consented for participation in a longitudinal follow-up survey study called MAINTAIN. The patients completed The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire at 3 and 12 months postdischarge to assess necessity and concerns related to heart medications. Internal reliability and construct validity of the survey were evaluated at both time points. Changes in necessity and concern scores from 3 to 12 months were determined, and factors associated with negative changes were explored.
A total of 812 patients completed both surveys. Internal reliability and construct validity were good. From 3 to 12 months, only 9.2% of patients shifted from a high to low necessity score; however, 20.7% of patients shifted from a low to high concern score. Factors found to be statistically significantly and independently associated with increased concern were the perception that the provider did not listen carefully to the patient (odds ratio [OR] 2.63, 95% CI 1.49-4.76), depression at 12 months (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.57-5.55), hospital discharge with > or =7 medications (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.74), and not receiving a medication list/instructions at hospital discharge (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05, 2.78). Factors associated with decreased necessity included not having a cardiologist (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.34-3.83) and nonpersistence at 12 months with lipid-lowering medication (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.01-3.45).
One third of the patients reported a negative change in their beliefs about heart medications. Although some changes were observed in perceived necessity, negative changes in concerns occurred in 1 of every 5 patients. Interventions that address these concerns may be useful in improving adherence and clinical outcomes.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies have demonstrated differences in adherence to non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) guidelines-recommended therapies among patients managed conservatively without cardiac catheterization compared with those managed invasively. We evaluated the degree of yearly change in use of guidelines-recommended therapies for patients with NSTE ACS in CRUSADE stratified by use of cardiac catheterization and revascularization procedures.
We analyzed data from 138,714 high-risk patients with NSTE ACS treated at 547 hospitals during the first 4 years of the CRUSADE initiative. Patients were categorized as no cardiac catheterization (29% of the total population), cardiac catheterization without revascularization (21%), percutaneous coronary intervention (40%), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (11%). Composite guidelines adherence scores were used to compare yearly changes in use of guidelines-recommended therapies among the groups.
Although guidelines adherence improved in all 4 groups each year and was consistently highest in the percutaneous coronary intervention group, the adjusted yearly increase in the use of acute guidelines-recommended medications was highest in the no cardiac catheterization group, and the adjusted yearly increase in the use of discharge medications was highest in the coronary artery bypass graft surgery group.
Improvements in the use of guidelines-recommended therapies were seen among all patients with NSTE ACS in CRUSADE over a 4-year period regardless of management strategy, and the trajectory of improvement in acute care was greatest in patients managed conservatively.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · American heart journal