Perry W Grigsby

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (417)1645.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: High BMI is a reason for medical inoperability in patients with endometrial cancer in the United States. Definitive radiation is an alternative therapy for these patients; however, data on patterns of failure after definitive radiotherapy are lacking. We describe the patterns of failure after definitive treatment with 3-D image-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for medically inoperable endometrial cancer. Material and Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients with endometrial cancer FIGO stages I to III were treated definitively with HDR brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy. Cumulative incidence of failures was estimated and prognostic variables were identified. Results: Mean follow up was 29.7 months. Median BMI was 50.2 kg/m2 (range: 25.1- 104 kg/m2). The two-year overall survival was 65.2%. The two-year cumulative incidence of pelvic and distant failures was 8.3% and 13.5%, respectively. Grade 3 disease was associated with a higher risk of all-failures (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.04 – 20.9, p=0.044). The incidence of acute Grade 3 GI/GU toxicities was 4.6%. Conclusions: Pelvic failure at two years was less than 10%. Patients with grade 3 disease were more likely to experience disease failure and may warrant closer follow up.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Radiotherapy and Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • Y.J. Rao · S.N. Badiyan · P.W. Grigsby

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: PET combined with cross-sectional anatomical imaging is an essential part of workup for most malignancies, in which CT or MRI provides anatomical context to the functional information from PET. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT has been extensively researched and implemented clinically in the evaluation and management of patients with gynecologic malignancies. Lately, integrated PET/MR scanners have become available. This new technology is fast gaining a role in clinical applications in the fields of oncology, neurology, and cardiology. MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast especially in the pelvis and has been proven very useful for imaging prostate and female genital pathologies. The ability of PET to provide accurate functional imaging data with high sensitivity combined with the strength of MRI to provide accurate depiction of anatomy with high contrast and spatial resolution renders combined PET/MRI a desirable method for evaluation of gynecologic malignancies and other pelvic cancers such as prostate cancer. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the published literature using PET/MRI in gynecologic and prostate cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Seminars in nuclear medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess the use of brachytherapy (BT) with or without external beam radiation (EBRT) in inoperable stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma in the United States and to determine the effect of BT on overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS). Methods and Materials Data between 1998 and 2011 from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database were analyzed. Coarsened exact matching was used to adjust for differences in age and grade between patients who received BT and those who did not. Prognostic factors affecting OS and CSS were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results A total of 460 patients with inoperable stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with radiation therapy were identified. Radiation consisted of either EBRT (n=260) or BT with or without EBRT (n=200). The only factor associated with BT use was younger patient age (median age, 72 vs 76 years, P=.001). Patients who received BT had a higher 3-year OS (60% vs 47%, P<.001) and CSS (82% vs 74%, P=.032) compared with those who did not. On multivariate analysis, BT use was independently associated with an improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.87) and CSS (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.93). When patients were matched on age, BT use remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.87) and CSS (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.84). When matched on age and grade, BT remained independently associated with improved OS and CSS (OS HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83; CSS HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.92). Conclusion Brachytherapy is independently associated with improved OS and CSS. It should be considered as part of the treatment regimen for stage I inoperable endometrial cancer patients undergoing radiation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: Dose accumulation of split-field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) is challenging because of significant EBRT and BT dose gradients in the central pelvic region. We developed a method to determine biologically effective dose parameters for combined split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided BT in locally advanced cervical cancer. Thirty-three patients treated with split-field-IMRT to 45.0-51.2 Gy in 1.6-1.8 Gy per fraction to the elective pelvic lymph nodes and to 20 Gy to the central pelvis region were included in this study. Patients received six weekly fractions of high-dose rate BT to 6.5-7.3 Gy per fraction. A dose tracker software was developed to compute the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) to gross tumor volume (GTV), organs-at-risk and point A. Total dose-volume histogram parameters were computed on the 3D combined EQD2 dose based on rigid image registration. The dose accumulation uncertainty introduced by organ deformations between IMRT and BT was evaluated. According to International Commission on Radiation Unit and Measurement and GEC European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations, D98, D90, D50, and D2cm3 EQD2 dose-volume histogram parameters were computed. GTV D98 was 84.0 ± 26.5 Gy and D2cc was 99.6 ± 13.9 Gy, 67.4 ± 12.2 Gy, 75.0 ± 10.1 Gy, for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. The uncertainties induced by organ deformation were estimated to be -1 ± 4 Gy, -3 ± 5 Gy, 2 ± 3 Gy, and -3 ± 5 Gy for bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and GTV, respectively. It is feasible to perform 3D EQD2 dose accumulation to assess high and intermediate dose regions for combined split-field IMRT and BT. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Brachytherapy
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate outpatient-based high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. Between December 2006 and July 2012, 50 patients were treated with twice-daily outpatient-based HDR iridium-192 ISBT at our institution. Thirty-two patients had vaginal cancers, 13 vulvar, 3 urethral, and 2 cervical cancers. The most common histologies were squamous cell carcinoma (58%) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (26%). Twenty-six patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy with or without platinum-based chemotherapy, 16 were treated for recurrent disease, 5 were treated in the postoperative setting, and 3 were treated palliatively. Forty patients received external beam radiation therapy before ISBT. Median followup was 13.7 months. Median interstitial dose was 18 Gy in 2.25 Gy twice-daily fractions prescribed to the implant volume. Median external beam dose was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily fractions prescribed to the primary disease site. Eight patients (16%) were seen in the emergency room or were admitted to the hospital during treatment. Six patients (17%) experienced significant complications after treatment (3 ulcerations at the primary site, 1 vaginal necrosis, 1 vaginal abscess, and 1 patient with urinary obstruction). Larger volume encompassing 100% of the prescribed dose was correlated with significant complications on multivariate analysis (p = 0.039). Actuarial local control at 1 year was 72%, with univariate analysis demonstrating worse local control for nonendometrioid adenocarcinoma compared with squamous cell carcinoma (20% vs. 84%, p = 0.044). Outpatient-based HDR ISBT is feasible and safe, with toxicity and local control rates consistent with historical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Brachytherapy
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate recurrence patterns and overall survival in patients treated with adjuvant radiation after surgical staging for Stage II endometrial carcinoma. Secondary goals include identification of prognostic factors for recurrence and toxicity assessment. The medical records of 41 patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy at Washington University School of Medicine after surgical staging for endometrial cancer (total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal cytology, lymph node dissection) were reviewed. Nineteen were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and vaginal brachytherapy (VB), and 22 patients were treated with postoperative VB alone. Median followup for all patients was 41 months. Median patient age was 59 years (range, 42-87 years). All tumors were of endometrioid histology. There were 20 Grade 1 tumors, 13 Grade 2 tumors, and 8 Grade 3 tumors. For all patients, the 5-year overall survival was 69.8%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival was 89.0%. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (p = 0.510) or freedom from vaginal (p = 0.840), distant (p = 0.133), or any recurrence (p = 0.275) with respect to modality of treatment (external beam radiotherapy and VB vs. VB alone). There were no pelvic lymph node recurrences. In the univariate analysis, there were no risk factors influencing overall survival or recurrences. One patient experienced a toxicity requiring hospital admission. She was treated with pelvic external beam radiation plus brachytherapy. VB alone results in excellent local control for patients with Stage II endometrial cancer after surgical staging. Long-term toxicities are rare and more common in the group of patients who were treated with pelvic external beam plus brachytherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Brachytherapy

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gynecologic Oncology
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    S. Acharya · T. DeWees · S.M. Perkins · J.K. Schwarz · P.W. Grigsby

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pictorial review is to describe emerging clinical applications of positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the newest clinical hybrid imaging modality, with a specific focus on abdominal and pelvic malignancies. Important issues regarding the clinical implementation of PET/MRI systems, including workflow considerations and protocol development, are examined. The unique technical challenges of simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition and MRI-based attenuation correction are also briefly discussed. This article is intended to provide the body imager with an overview of the potential diagnostic advantages of PET/MRI, as compared to PET/CT or MRI alone.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Abdominal Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: The BRAF mutation occurs commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previous investigations of its utility to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) have reported conflicting results and its role remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of the BRAF mutation and analyze its relationship to clinicopathologic risk factors and long-term outcomes in the largest, single-institution American cohort to date. BRAF mutational status was determined in 508 PTC patients using RFLP analysis. The relationships between BRAF mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics, RFS, and DSS were analyzed. The BRAF mutation was present in 67% of patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of the mutation predicted only for capsular invasion (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), cervical lymph node involvement (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and classic papillary histology (HR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.9). There was no significant relationship between the BRAF mutation and RFS or DSS, an observation that was consistent across univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses. This is the most extensive study to date in the United States to demonstrate that BRAF mutation is of no predictive value for recurrence or survival in PTC. We found correlations of BRAF status and several clinicopathologic characteristics of high-risk disease, but limited evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that BRAF is minimally prognostic in PTC. However, prevalence of the BRAF mutation is 70% in the general population, providing the opportunity for targeted therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cancer Medicine
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    Frank J Brooks · Perry W Grigsby
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in applying image texture quantifiers to assess the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in FDG-PET images of various cancers. Use of these quantifiers as prognostic indicators of disease outcome and/or treatment response has yielded inconsistent results. We study the general applicability of some well-established texture quantifiers to the image data unique to FDG-PET. We first created computer-simulated test images with statistical properties consistent with clinical image data for cancers of the uterine cervix. We specifically isolated second-order statistical effects from low-order effects and analyzed the resulting variation in common texture quantifiers in response to contrived image variations. We then analyzed the quantifiers computed for FIGOIIb cervical cancers via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and via contingency table analysis of detrended quantifier values. We found that image texture quantifiers depend strongly on low-effects such as tumor volume and SUV distribution. When low-order effects are controlled, the image texture quantifiers tested were not able to discern only the second-order effects. Furthermore, the results of clinical tumor heterogeneity studies might be tunable via choice of patient population analyzed. Some image texture quantifiers are strongly affected by factors distinct from the second-order effects researchers ostensibly seek to assess via those quantifiers.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • J. Olsen · M. Mutch · S. Sorscher · P. Grigsby · R. Myerson · P. Parikh

    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Radiotherapy and Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we review the literature on the use of PET in radiation treatment planning, with an emphasis on describing our institutional methodology (where applicable). This discussion is intended to provide other radiation oncologists with methodological details on the use of PET imaging for treatment planning in radiation oncology, or other oncologists with an introduction to the use of PET in planning radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · PET Clinics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Gynecologic Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, leading to about 300,000 deaths each year. Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, persistent transcriptional activity of HPV oncogenes, which indicates active roles of HPV in cervical cancer maintenance and progression, has not been well characterized. Using our recently developed assays for comprehensive profiling of HPV E6/E7 transcripts, we have detected transcriptional activities of 10 high-risk HPV strains from 87 of the 101 cervical tumors included in the analysis. These HPV-positive patients had significantly better survival outcome compared with HPV-negative patients, indicating HPV transcriptional activity as a favorable prognostic marker for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we have determined microRNA (miRNA) expression changes that were correlated with tumor HPV status. Our profiling and functional analyses identified miR-9 as the most activated miRNA by HPV E6 in a p53-independent manner. Further target validation and functional studies showed that HPV-induced miR-9 activation led to significantly increased cell motility by downregulating multiple gene targets involved in cell migration. Thus, our work helps to understand the molecular mechanisms as well as identify potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer and other HPV-induced cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,645.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2014
    • Washington & Lee University
      Лексингтон, Virginia, United States
  • 2007
    • Temple University
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1991-2006
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2005
    • St. Luke's Hospital (MO, USA)
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1995
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1992
    • St. Luke's Hospital
      CID, Iowa, United States