J P Hubble

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (82)

  • J. Hubble · S. Isaacson · L. Severt · T. Clinch
    Article · Sep 2016 · Movement Disorders
  • Article · May 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Botulinum neurotoxin type A is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity. Dysport (Ipsen Ltd, Wrexham, United Kingdom) is a botulinum neurotoxin type A preparation that has been available for a number of therapeutic uses for over 20 years in the European Union (EU). This survey was part of the EU botulinum toxin risk management plan to identify potential educational needs of injectors by collecting data on their routine practice administration of Dysport and their awareness of potential adverse events (AEs) that are included in the current product labeling. Methods: Dysport-experienced injectors in 5 EU countries were surveyed via telephone about their experience of Dysport in patients with cervical dystonia, adult upper and lower limb spasticity, pediatric cerebral palsy, and blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. Results: The reconstitution dilution volume most often used was 2.5 mL per 500 U for all indications. The mean total dose ranged from 387 to 530 U for cervical dystonia, 508 to 773 U for upper limb spasticity, 600 to 832 U for lower limb spasticity, 375 to 700 U for pediatric cerebral palsy, and 54 to 213 U for blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. The potential AEs most commonly mentioned by surveyed physicians were dysphagia for cervical dystonia, arm muscle weakness for upper limb spasticity, leg muscle weakness for lower limb spasticity, and pediatric cerebral palsy and ptosis for blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. Conclusions: The results indicate that product-labeling recommendations are generally applied in clinical practice and that there is a good familiarity with potential AEs based on clinical condition. Nevertheless, the survey shows that experienced injectors do sometimes deviate from the manufacturers labeling recommendations, highlighting the importance of ongoing education.
    Article · Jun 2013 · Clinical neuropharmacology
  • Dominic Marchese · Cynthia L. Comella · Jean Hubble · [...] · Richard M. Trosch
    Article · Oct 2012 · PM&R
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    Robert A Hauser · Daniel Truong · Jean Hubble · [...] · Philippe Picaut
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with botulinum toxin-A is recommended as first-line treatment for cervical dystonia (CD). In clinical practice many factors appear to influence dose adjustment and the retreatment regimen; however, there is little information available in the literature regarding the evolution of dosing over treatment cycles. We report on two similarly designed, long-term, multicenter, open-label extension studies of Dysport for the treatment of CD, which followed 500 U fixed-dose placebo-controlled trials. Both studies specified a fixed 500 U dose for the first open-label treatment cycle, with dose adjustment in subsequent treatment cycles according to the clinical response. These analyses include 218 patients who entered the two studies; doses in the subsequent treatment cycles ranged between 250 and 1,000 U. During open-label treatment, all treatment cycles resulted in improvements in mean Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total scores. However, increasing the dose of Dysport above the initial 500 U dose was not observed to result in an incremental improvement in response as measured by the TWSTRS. No individual patient characteristic was found to reliably predict the use of higher doses at each treatment cycle. Dysport was generally well tolerated with no major differences in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) observed with different doses. Dysphagia was considered an AE of special interest and dysphagia data from the open-label studies were combined with two Phase II studies. Analysis of this enhanced database indicates that unilateral injections of >150 U into the sternocleidomastoid muscle is associated with a higher dysphagia risk. Thus, limiting the dose in the sternocleidomastoid may help reduce the incidence of dysphagia.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Neural Transmission
  • Chandra Coleman · Jean Hubble · Joseph Schwab · [...] · Carles Morte
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of antibodies against botulinum toxin type A has been observed following treatment of Cervical Dystonia (CD). We present the immunological findings from two 12-week Phase III prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled studies (Study 1, n = 116; Study 2, n = 136). Patients in both studies were administered abobotulinumtoxinA 500U or placebo intramuscularly at baseline. Patients could receive up to three or four additional treatments (250-1000U) in an open-label follow-up period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during treatment to test for antibodies to abobotulinumtoxinA using a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (Study 2 only) and a mouse protection assay. Loss of response was predefined using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total score at 4 weeks following injection. No subjects in Study 1 and one individual in Study 2 developed neutralizing antibodies (nABs) during the double-blind treatment phase; the individual who developed immunoresistance had received botulinum toxin type A treatment prior to the study and did not respond to treatment. Two subjects demonstrated a change in nAB status during open-label treatment and overall responsiveness was maintained in these patients. In conclusion, the development of immunoresistance was rare and, in the presence of circulating nABs, patients may still gain benefit from intramuscular abobotulinumtoxinA treatment.
    Article · Feb 2012 · The International journal of neuroscience
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlled-release carbidopa and levodopa (CL-CR) and the combination of carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone (CLE) are used for extending levodopa (L-dopa) effects. In a randomized, open-label crossover study of 17 PD subjects with wearing-off responses, we compared 8-hour L-dopa pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical effects after two doses of CL-CR (50 and 200 mg, respectively) and CLE (37.7, 150, 200 mg, respectively). PK analysis revealed the anticipated near-equivalent mean L-dopa area-under-the-concentration-curve values (639,490 ng min/mL for two doses of CLE, and 662,577 for CL-CR, P = 0.86). The mean hourly fluctuation index for L-dopa concentration was 235% for CLE and 196% for CL-CR (P = 0.004). The mean maximal concentration for the first CLE dose was 1,926 +/- 760 ng/mL and for CL-CR, 1,840 +/- 889 (P = 0.33). During the PK studies, the mean time that L-dopa concentration was > or =1,000 ng/mL for CLE was 291 +/- 88 minutes and for CL-CR, 306 +/- 86 (P = 0.33). The mean percent-time in "off" state was 18% for CLE and 28% for CL-CR (P = 0.017), "on state without dyskinesia" was 64% for CLE and 65% for CL-CR (P = 0.803), and "on state with nontroublesome dyskinesia" was 18% for CLE and 7% for CL-CR (P = 0.03). Despite less "off" time with CLE, both formulations demonstrated similar mean PK values and marked intersubject PK variability.
    Article · Jul 2009 · Movement Disorders
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TCH346 exerts antiapoptotic effects by binding to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and blocking the apoptotic pathway in which GAPDH is involved. Apoptosis is considered to be a key pathogenic mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. Patients were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either placebo or one of four doses of TCH346 (1.0, 2.5, 7.5, or 15 mg/day) administered orally once daily for at least 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the rate of change in the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). The trial design included a 16-week lead-in phase to determine each patient's rate of disease progression. The between treatment comparison was adjusted for the individual pretreatment rates of progression. The study was powered to detect a 25% reduction in the rate of decline of the ALSFRS-R as compared with placebo. Secondary outcome measures included survival, pulmonary function, and manual muscle testing (MMT). Five hundred ninety-one patients were enrolled at 42 sites in Europe and North America. There were no differences in baseline variables. There were no significant differences between placebo and active treatment groups in the mean rate of decline of the ALSFRS-R or in the secondary outcome measures (survival, pulmonary function, and MMT). The trial revealed no evidence of a beneficial effect of TCH346 on disease progression in patients with ALS.
    Article · Sep 2007 · Neurology
  • Rajesh Pahwa · Kelly E. Lyons · Joseph Jankovic · [...] · Jean P. Hubble
    Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Neurosurgery
  • C Warren Olanow · Anthony H V Schapira · Peter A LeWitt · [...] · Jean Hubble
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an important unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease for a neuroprotective treatment that slows or stops disease progression. TCH346 is a potent anti-apoptotic drug that protects against loss of dopaminergic neurons in laboratory models. Our aim was to assess TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients presenting at 45 international movement disorder clinics with early untreated Parkinson's disease were assessed as part of this parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. 301 eligible patients were randomly assigned 12-18 months' treatment with TCH346 at a daily dose of 0.5 mg (n=78), 2.5 mg (n=79), or 10 mg (n=73), or placebo (n=71), followed by a 4 week washout period. The primary outcome measure was time to development of a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the annual rate of change in the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the PDQ-39, a measure of quality of life. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is pending registration with . 255 patients completed the study. TCH346 did not differ from placebo for any of the study outcomes. Treatment was needed in 26 (34%) patients in the TCH346 0.5 mg group, 30 (38%) in the TCH346 2.5 mg group, 24 (33%) in the TCH346 10 mg group, and 23 (32%) in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between groups. There were no differences between groups in the annual change in the UPDRS or PDQ-39 either. Few patients withdrew because of adverse events and none was judged to be related to the study intervention. TCH346 did not show evidence of a neuroprotective effect. The discrepancy between the preclinical promise of TCH346 and the clinical outcome could have arisen because of the use of laboratory models that do not accurately reflect the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, the doses of study drug used, insensitive clinical endpoints, and the patient population selected for study.
    Article · Jan 2007 · The Lancet Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD) have been well documented, but there is a paucity of long-term data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of DBS of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus for PD and ET. Thirty-eight of 45 patients enrolled at five sites completed a 5-year follow-up study. There were 26 patients with ET and 19 with PD undergoing 29 unilateral (18 ET/11 PD) and 16 bilateral (eight ET/eight PD) procedures. Patients with ET were evaluated using the Tremor Rating Scale, and patients with PD were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The mean age of patients with ET was 70.2 years and 66.3 years in patients with PD. Unilaterally implanted patients with ET had a 75% improvement of the targeted hand tremor; those with bilateral implants had a 65% improvement in the left hand and 86% in the right compared with baseline. Parkinsonian patients with unilateral implants had an 85% improvement in the targeted hand tremor and those with bilateral implants had a 100% improvement in the left hand and 90% improvement in the right. Common DBS-related adverse events in patients receiving unilateral implants were paresthesia (45%) and pain (41%), and in patients receiving implants bilaterally dysarthria (75%) and balance difficulties (56%) occurred. Device-related surgical revisions other than IPG replacements occurred in 12 (27%) of the 45 patients. Thalamic stimulation is safe and effective for the long-term management of essential and Parkinsonian tremors. Bilateral stimulation can cause dysarthria and incoordination and should be used cautiously.
    Article · May 2006 · Journal of Neurosurgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The best way to initiate dopaminergic therapy for early Parkinson disease remains unclear. To compare initial treatment with pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease, followed by levodopa supplementation, with respect to the development of dopaminergic motor complications, other adverse events, and functional and quality-of-life outcomes. Multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Academic movement disorders clinics at 22 sites in the United States and Canada. Patients with early Parkinson disease (N = 301) who required dopaminergic therapy to treat emerging disability, enrolled between October 1996 and August 1997 and observed until August 2001. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg of pramipexole 3 times per day with levodopa placebo (n = 151) or 25/100 mg of carbidopa/levodopa 3 times per day with pramipexole placebo (n = 150). Dosage was escalated during the first 10 weeks for patients with ongoing disability. Thereafter, investigators were permitted to add open-label levodopa or other antiparkinsonian medications to treat ongoing or emerging disability. Time to the first occurrence of dopaminergic complications: wearing off, dyskinesias, on-off fluctuations, and freezing; changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and quality-of-life scales; and adverse events. Initial pramipexole treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of developing dyskinesias (24.5% vs 54%; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.56; P<.001) and wearing off (47% vs 62.7%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.63; P =.02). Initial levodopa treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of freezing (25.3% vs 37.1%; hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.11-2.59; P =.01). By 48 months, the occurrence of disabling dyskinesias was uncommon and did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The mean improvement in the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score from baseline to 48 months was greater in the levodopa group than in the pramipexole group (2 +/- 15.4 points vs -3.2 +/- 17.3 points, P =.003). Somnolence (36% vs 21%, P =.005) and edema (42% vs 15%, P<.001) were more common in pramipexole-treated subjects than in levodopa-treated subjects. Mean changes in quality-of-life scores did not differ between the groups. Initial treatment with pramipexole resulted in lower incidences of dyskinesias and wearing off compared with initial treatment with levodopa. Initial treatment with levodopa resulted in lower incidences of freezing, somnolence, and edema and provided for better symptomatic control, as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, compared with initial treatment with pramipexole. Both options resulted in similar quality of life. Levodopa and pramipexole both appear to be reasonable options as initial dopaminergic therapy for Parkinson disease, but they are associated with different efficacy and adverse-effect profiles.
    Article · Aug 2004 · JAMA Neurology
  • YJ Li · MA Hauser · W K Scott · [...] · J M Vance
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Similarities between Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) suggest a possible role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in PD. Most previous studies seeking to establish such a link used case-control datasets and results have been inconsistent. To investigate APOE's role in PD using family-based association analyses. APOE functional polymorphisms were genotyped for 658 PD affected families, including 282 multiplex and 376 singleton families. The pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) and the genotype-PDT were used to test the risk effect of APOE. The Monks-Kaplan test was used to evaluate the effect of APOE on age at onset of PD. APOE was significantly associated with risk of developing PD. Stratified analysis revealed that APOE was most strongly associated with families with a positive PD family history (global p = 0.003). Like AD, the APOE-4 allele increases disease risk while the APOE-3 allele decreases risk. We detected a positive association of APOE-3 (p = 0.019) and a negative association of APOE-4 (p = 0.015) with age at onset in PD. The APOE-4 allele increases risk and decreases age at onset of PD, an association that may not be dependent upon cognitive impairment.
    Article · Jul 2004 · Neurology
  • Article · Mar 2004
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported genetic linkage of loci controlling age-at-onset in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) to a 15 cM region on chromosome 10q. Given the large number of genes in this initial starting region, we applied the process of 'genomic convergence' to prioritize and reduce the number of candidate genes for further analysis. As our second convergence factor we performed gene expression studies on hippocampus obtained from AD patients and controls. Analysis revealed that four of the genes [stearoyl-CoA desaturase; NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 1 beta subcomplex 8; protease, serine 11; and glutathione S-transferase, omega-1 (GSTO1)] were significantly different in their expression between AD and controls and mapped to the 10q age-at-onset linkage region, the first convergence factor. Using 2814 samples from our AD dataset (1773 AD patients) and 1362 samples from our PD dataset (635 PD patients), allelic association studies for age-at-onset effects in AD and PD revealed no association for three of the candidates, but a significant association was found for GSTO1 (P=0.007) and a second transcribed member of the GST omega class, GSTO2 (P=0.005), located next to GSTO1. The functions of GSTO1 and GSTO2 are not well understood, but recent data suggest that GSTO1 maybe involved in the post-translational modification of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta. This is provocative given reports of the possible role of inflammation in these two neurodegenerative disorders.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2003 · Human Molecular Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for essential tremor (ET). This was a pilot open-treatment trial at three centers, with masked videotape tremor assessments. Inclusion required a severity score of 3 or 4 on the Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) in one or both hands. At baseline, tremor was assessed with TRS and Unified Tremor Rating Assessment (UTRA), accelerometry, and a videotape protocol. The VNS device was implanted with leads placed around the left cervical vagus nerve. Stimulation was adjusted over 4 weeks before the repeat tremor assessments. Two raters masked to the study visit scored the videotapes. Nine subjects participated, with a mean age of 65 years and a mean age at onset of tremor of 24. Investigators rated hand tremor as mildly improved (TRS 2.3 +/- 0.7 during VNS vs 3.0 +/- 0.4 during baseline, p = 0.06). Accelerometry-measured total power improved 50.2 +/- 31.8% (p < 0.01). Videotape tremor scores were highly correlated between the masked raters and revealed no changes in tremor scores with treatment. VNS was well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being stimulation related. VNS was judged by investigators to mildly improve upper extremity tremor. This finding was not confirmed in videotape scoring by masked raters. VNS is not likely to have a clinically meaningful effect on ET.
    Article · Dec 2003 · Neurology
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    Robert A Hauser · Jean P Hubble · Daniel D Truong
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist istradefylline (KW-6002) in patients with levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) with both motor fluctuations and peak-dose dyskinesias. This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, exploratory study in which PD subjects with both motor fluctuations and peak-dose dyskinesias were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 29), istradefylline up to 20 mg/day (n = 26), or istradefylline up to 40 mg/day (n = 28). There was no prespecified primary outcome measure, and 19 outcome variables were analyzed. As assessed by home diaries, subjects assigned to istradefylline experienced a mean (+/- SE) reduction in the proportion of awake time spent in the "off" state of 7.1 +/- 2.0% compared with an increase of 2.2 +/- 2.7% in the placebo group (p = 0.008). There was a decrease in "off" time of 1.2 +/- 0.3 hours in the istradefylline group compared with an increase of 0.5 +/- 0.5 hour in the placebo group (p = 0.004). Dyskinesia severity was unchanged, but "on" time with dyskinesia increased in the istradefylline group compared with the placebo group (percent, p = 0.002; hours, p = 0.001). No differences were observed in change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores or Clinical Global Impression of Change. Twenty-four percent of placebo-assigned subjects and 20% of istradefylline-assigned subjects withdrew from the study. Both dose regimens of istradefylline were generally well tolerated, and nausea was the most common adverse event. Istradefylline was generally well tolerated and reduced "off" time as assessed by home diaries. Severity of dyskinesia was unchanged, but "on" time with dyskinesia increased.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2003 · Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we detected linkage of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) to the region on chromosome 6 that contains the Parkin gene (D6S305; logarithm of odds score, 5.47) in families with at least one individual with age at onset younger than 40 years (families with early-onset disease). Further study demonstrated the presence of Parkin mutations in this data set. However, previous case-control studies have reported conflicting results regarding the role of more common Parkin polymorphisms as susceptibility alleles for idiopathic PD. To investigate the association of 7 previously studied Parkin single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the promoter and most of the open reading frame with PD in a large cohort of patients with primarily late-onset PD. One promoter, 3 intronic, and 3 exonic Parkin SNPs were genotyped in 1580 individuals belonging to 397 families, and their association with PD was evaluated using family-based association tests. No significant association (P>.05) between PD and any Parkin SNP allele or genotype was detected. Haplotype analysis and stratification by age at onset or family history also failed to produce significant results. These results suggest that these common variants of Parkin are not associated with PD in white patients, although Parkin mutations are known to cause early- and late-onset PD.
    Article · Jul 2003 · JAMA Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), taking dopamine agonists (DAs) and reporting unintended sleep episodes (SEs), exhibit physiologically defined daytime sleepiness and can thus be differentiated from those taking DAs but not reporting SEs. Twenty-four patients with abnormal Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores of >10 who were taking DAs were enrolled into one of two groups: those with SEs (SE+, n=16) and those without (SE-, n=8). Three consecutive days of testing included two nights of polysomnography followed by the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Overall frequency of pathological sleepiness (MSLT <5 min) was 42% (10/24). Mean levels of sleepiness, frequencies of pathological sleepiness, and naps with stage 2 or REM-sleep were similar between SE+ and SE- groups. Sleep tendency was similar in patients prescribed pergolide, ropinirole, and pramipexole combined with levodopa. Polysomnography testing revealed no significant differences between the groups in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep architecture, or presence of restless legs syndrome or periodic leg movements. There was no relation between degree of nocturnal sleep disturbance and level of daytime sleepiness. The results of this study suggest SEs in PD patients occur upon a background of excessive daytime sleepiness and are unrelated to nocturnal sleep or use of a specific DA.
    Article · Jul 2003 · Sleep Medicine
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    Mickie Welsh · Michael P McDermott · Robert G Holloway · [...] · Jean Hubble
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the development and results of preliminary psychometric testing of a disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale intended for use in individuals diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Results from an initial qualitative study provided content for item development and scale construction of the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQUALIF). The 33-item instrument includes seven domains: social/role function, self-image/sexuality, sleep, outlook, physical function, independence, and urinary function, plus one item of Global HRQoL. Initial psychometric testing of the instrument was conducted in 233 outpatient clinic attendees with physician-confirmed idiopathic PD. Factor structure, reliability and validity of the scale have been established in this cross-sectional study. Continuing development of the PDQUALIF will be directed at enhancing the psychometric properties, establishing responsiveness and determining appropriateness in culturally diverse samples.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2003 · Movement Disorders