Andreas Heinz

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (814)3118.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Changes in reflexive emotional responses are hallmarks of depression, but how emotional reflexes make an impact on adaptive decision-making in depression has not been examined formally. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we compared the influence of affectively valenced stimuli on decision-making in depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared with healthy controls; and related this to the longitudinal course of the illness. Method: A total of 40 subjects with a current DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or a combination thereof, and 40 matched healthy controls performed a PIT task that assesses how instrumental approach and withdrawal behaviours are influenced by appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs). Patients were followed up after 4-6 months. Analyses focused on patients with depression alone (n = 25). Results: In healthy controls, Pavlovian CSs exerted action-specific effects, with appetitive CSs boosting active approach and aversive CSs active withdrawal. This action-specificity was absent in currently depressed subjects. Greater action-specificity in patients was associated with better recovery over the follow-up period. Conclusions: Depression is associated with an abnormal influence of emotional reactions on decision-making in a way that may predict recovery.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Psychological Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) gene is a major determinant of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter modulating local neuronal circuitry. GABAergic dysfunction and expression of GAD1 have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and in working memory impairment. We examined the influence of the functional GAD1 rs3749034 variant on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), cortical thickness, and working memory performance in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (N=197). Using transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), we subsequently examined the effect of rs3749034 on long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (N=66). We found that the rs3749034 T-allele carrier risk group had lower voxel-wise FA in prefrontal cortex region (PFWE-corrected<0.05) but not cortical thickness. Mixed-model regression revealed a significant effect on attentional processing and working memory across four performance measures (F1,182=11.5, p=8 × 10(-4)). FA in the prefrontal cortex was associated with digit-span performance. Voxel-wise mediation analysis revealed that the effect GAD1 on poorer digit-span performance statistically predicted the lower white matter FA (PFWE-corrected<0.05). In exploratory analysis, we found a prominent GAD1 genotype-by-diagnosis interaction on DLPFC LICI (F1,56=14.3, p=4.1 × 10(-4)). Our findings converge on variation in GAD1 gene predicting a susceptibility mechanism that affects white matter FA, GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission in the DLPFC, and working memory performance. Furthermore, via voxel mediation of FA and TMS-EEG intervention, we provide evidence for a potentially causal mechanism through which aberrant DLPFC GABA signaling may contribute to working memory dysfunction.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 January 2016. doi:10.1038/npp.2016.14.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatment with selective serotonin or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SSNRI) are regarded as efficacious treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). However, little is known about treatment-specific effects on symptoms and neurofunctional correlates. Experimental procedures: We used a comparative design with PD/AG patients receiving either two types of CBT (therapist-guided (n=29) or non-guided exposure (n=22)) or pharmacological treatment (SSRI/SSNRI; n=28) as well as a wait-list control group (WL; n=15) to investigate differential treatment effects in general aspects of fear and depression (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale HAM-A and Beck Depression Inventory BDI), disorder-specific symptoms (Mobility Inventory MI, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale subscale panic attacks PAS-panic, Anxiety Sensitivity Index ASI, rating of agoraphobic stimuli) and neurofunctional substrates during symptom provocation (Westphal-Paradigm) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Comparisons of neural activation patterns also included healthy controls (n=29). Results: Both treatments led to a significantly greater reduction in panic attacks, depression and general anxiety than the WL group. The CBT groups, in particular, the therapist-guided arm, had a significantly greater decrease in avoidance, fear of phobic situations and anxiety symptoms and reduction in bilateral amygdala activation while the processing of agoraphobia-related pictures compared to the SSRI/SSNRI and WL groups. Discussion: This study demonstrates that therapist-guided CBT leads to a more pronounced short-term impact on agoraphobic psychopathology and supports the assumption of the amygdala as a central structure in a complex fear processing system as well as the amygdala׳s involvement in the fear system׳s sensitivity to treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biological psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The association between maternal depression and adverse outcomes in children is well established. Similar links have been found for maternal childhood abuse. One proposed pathway of risk transmission is reduced maternal emotional availability. Our aim was to investigate whether sensitive parenting is impaired in mothers with depression in remission, and whether among these mothers childhood abuse has an additional impact. Methods: The mother-child interaction of 188 dyads was assessed during a play situation using the Emotional Availability Scales, which measure the overall affective quality of the interaction: maternal sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility, and nonintrusiveness. Mothers with depression in remission were compared to healthy mothers. Children were between 5 and 12 years old. Group differences and impact of additional childhood abuse were analyzed by one-factorial analyses of covariance and planned contrasts. Results: Mothers with depression in remission showed less emotional availability during mother-child interaction compared to healthy control mothers. Specifically, they were less sensitive and, at trend-level, less structuring and more hostile. Among these mothers, we found an additional effect of severe maternal childhood abuse on maternal sensitivity: Mothers with depression in remission and a history of severe childhood abuse were less sensitive than remitted mothers without childhood abuse. Conclusions: Our data suggest that depression impacts on maternal emotional availability during remission, which might represent a trait characteristic of depression. Mothers with depression in remission and additional severe childhood abuse were particularly affected. These findings may contribute to the understanding of children's vulnerability to develop a depressive disorder themselves.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Depression and Anxiety
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The mesolimbic dopamine system, composed primarily of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to striatal structures, is considered to be the key mediator of reinforcement-related mechanisms in the brain. Prompted by a genome-wide association meta-analysis implicating the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene in the regulation of alcohol intake in men, we have recently shown that male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice exhibit reduced ethanol intake and preference accompanied by a perturbed mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore propose that these mice represent a valid model to further elucidate the precise genes and mechanisms regulating mesolimbic dopamine functioning. Methods: Transcriptomic data from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). We performed follow-up genetic association tests in humans using a sample of male adolescents from the IMAGEN study characterized for binge drinking (n = 905) and ventral striatal activation during an fMRI reward task (n = 608). Results: The WGCNA analyses using accumbal transcriptomic data revealed 37 distinct "modules," or functionally related groups of genes. Two of these modules were significantly associated with Rasgrf2 knockout status: M5 (p < 0.001) and M6 (p < 0.001). In follow-up translational analyses we found that human orthologues for the M5 module were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with genetic association signals for binge drinking in male adolescents. Furthermore, the most significant locus, originating from the EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4) gene (p < 0.001), was also significantly associated with altered ventral striatal activity in male adolescents performing an fMRI reward task (pempirical < 0.001). Limitations: It was not possible to determine the extent to which the M5 module was dysregulated in Rasgrf2(-/-) mice by perturbed mesolimbic dopamine signalling or by the loss of Rasgrf2 function in the NAcc. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings indicate that the accumbal M5 module, initially identified as being dysregulated in male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice, is also relevant for human alcohol-related phenotypes potentially through the modulation of reinforcement mechanisms in the NAcc. We therefore propose that the genes comprising this module represent important candidates for further elucidation within the context of alcohol-related phenotypes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Behavioral deficits in the Theory of Mind (ToM) have been robustly demonstrated in bipolar disorder. These deficits may represent an intermediate phenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was: (i) to investigate alterations in neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, and (ii) to examine whether similar effects are present in unaffected relatives of patients with bipolar disorder suggesting that ToM functional activation may be, in part, due to genetic risk for the disease. Methods: A total of 24 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, 21 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 81 healthy controls completed a ToM task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: We observed reduced bilateral activation of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and diminished functional fronto-temporoparietal connectivity in patients compared to controls. Relatives tended towards intermediate temporoparietal activity and functional coupling with medial prefrontal areas. There was also evidence for a potentially compensatory enhanced recruitment of the right middle temporal gyrus and stronger connectivity between this region and the medial prefrontal cortex in relatives. Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence of altered neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Further, our findings in relatives lend support to the idea that altered ToM processing may act as an intermediate phenotype of the disorder.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bipolar Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Abnormal reward processing is suggested to underlie the formation of psychotic symptoms, likely driven by elevated ventral striatal (VS) dopamine levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reveal alterations of VS activity during reward processing in patients with chronic psychosis and first episode of psychosis, as well as individuals at high risk for psychosis, but findings are inconclusive, conflicting, and difficult to subject to meta-analysis without introducing bias because several studies reported that findings were not statistically significant but did not report statistics.Objective To assess the differences between patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls in VS activation during reward processing.Data Sources Web of Knowledge database (incorporating Web of Science and MEDLINE) until July 2015, including references of eligible articles and reviews.Study Selection Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing VS activity during monetary reward processing between patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders or clinical or genetic high-risk state for psychosis and healthy controls.Data Extraction and Synthesis Statistics and thresholds related to the main outcome measures and potential moderators were independently retrieved by 2 investigators. Effect sizes were analyzed using MetaNSUE, a random-effects method that enables the unbiased inclusion of nonstatistically significant unreported effects.Main Outcomes and Measures Effect size of the group differences in VS activity, and correlation between VS activity and negative and positive symptom scores in patients.Results The meta-analysis included 23 studies (917 patients) for reward anticipation, 9 studies (358 patients) for reward feedback, and 8 studies (314 patients) for reward prediction error. We found significant bilateral VS hypoactivation during reward anticipation (23 studies, n = 917) in patients compared with healthy controls (left/right Cohen d, −0.50/−0.70; P < .001). Left VS abnormality was more severe in patients with high scores of negative symptoms during reward anticipation (r = −0.41; P < .001). Patients also showed hypoactivation during reward feedback (left/right d, −0.57/−0.56; P < .001). Simulations showed that exclusion of studies with nonstatistically significant unreported effects was associated with a strong bias (d bias = 0.22), whereas estimations using MetaNSUE were unbiased even when statistics were seldom reported (d bias < 0.001).Conclusions and Relevance This meta-analysis provides evidence that patients with psychosis demonstrate VS hypoactivation during reward anticipation. The assessment of VS prediction errors seems to be promising, but more studies are needed to draw valid conclusions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · JAMA Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The processing of emotional faces is an important prerequisite for adequate social interactions in daily life, and might thus specifically be altered in adolescence, a period marked by significant changes of social emotional processing. Previous research has shown that the Cannabinoid Receptor CB1R is associated with longer gaze duration and increased brain responses in the striatum to happy faces in adults, yet, for adolescents, is it not clear whether an association between CBR1 and face processing exists. In the present study we investigated genetic effects of the two CB1R polymorphisms, rs1049353 and rs806377 on the processing of emotional faces in healthy adolescents. They participated functional magnetic resonance imaging during the Faces Task where participants watched blocks of video clips with angry and neutral facial expressions, and completed the Morphed Faces Task in the laboratory where they watched different facial expressions that switched from anger to fear/sadness or from happiness to fear/sadness and labelled them according to these four emotional expressions. A-allele versus GG-carriers in rs1049353 displayed earlier recognition of facial expressions changing from anger to sadness/fear, but not for expressions changing from happiness to sadness/fear, and higher brain responses to angry, but not to neutral faces in the amygdala and insula. For rs806377 no significant effects emerged. This suggests that rs1049353 is involved in the processing of anger-related negative facial expressions with relation to anger in adolescents. These findings add to our understanding of social emotion-related mechanisms in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders. These problems are loosely grouped into challenges concerning nosology and diagnosis (this Personal View) and problems related to pathogenesis and aetiology (in the companion Personal View). Motivated by successful examples in other disciplines, particularly the list of Hilbert's problems in mathematics, this subjective and eclectic list of priority problems is intended for psychiatric researchers, helping to re-focus existing research and providing perspectives for future psychiatric science.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game "Angry Birds" before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the "Angry Birds" video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of the present longitudinal study was the psychometric evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). Methods: We analyzed data from N = 2,022 adolescents aged 13 to 15 at baseline assessment and 2 years later (mean interval 2.11 years). Missing data at follow-up were imputed (N = 522). Psychometric properties of the SURPS were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined structural as well as convergent validity with other personality measurements and drinking motives, and predictive validity for substance use at follow-up. Results: The hypothesized 4-factorial structure (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity [IMP], and sensation seeking [SS]) based on all 23 items resulted in acceptable fit to empirical data, acceptable internal consistencies, low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients, as well as evidence for factorial and convergent validity. The proposed factor structure was stable for both males and females and, to lesser degree, across languages. However, only the SS and the IMP subscales of the SURPS predicted substance use outcomes at 16 years of age. Conclusions: The SURPS is unique in its specific assessment of traits related to substance use disorders as well as the resulting shortened administration time. Test-retest reliability was low to moderate and comparable to other personality scales. However, its relation to future substance use was limited to the SS and IMP subscales, which may be due to the relatively low-risk substance use pattern in the present sample.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
  • Tomislav Majic · Andreas Heinz

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Deutsches Ärzteblatt
  • Andreas Heinz · Tomislav Majic

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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    ABSTRACT: The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. This study investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on auditory versus visual memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (a) open eyes resting, (b) listening to music, and (c) playing a video game, immediately after memorizing auditory versus visual stimuli. To assess learning performance, words were recalled directly after the break (an 8:30 minute delay) and were recalled and recognized again after 7 days. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, it was found that playing the Angry Birds video game during a short learning break impaired long-term retrieval in auditory learning but enhanced long-term retrieval in visual learning compared with the music and rest conditions. These differential effects of video games on visual versus auditory learning suggest specific interference of common break activities on learning.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
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    ABSTRACT: In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Addiction Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2013) has sparked considerable debate. Allen Frances (Saving normal: an insider’s revolt against out-of-control psychiatric diagnosis, DSM-5, Big Pharma, and the medicalization of ordinary life, 1st edn. William Morrow, New York, 2013) and others (Heinz A, Friedel E, Der Nervenarzt 85:571–577, 2014) have argued that this revision may increase the risk to inadequately pathologize socially unwanted behavior and to defocus psychiatric treatment. An undesirable result can be that more severely ill patients will not be adequately provided with services, while an abundance of problems of everyday life in modern societies receives a medical label. This may cause the ambivalent consequence that psychotherapeutic aid can be provided, but that social problems are individualized and isolated from their context instead of being open to social rather than medical or psychotherapeutic interventions. These concerns will be discussed with respect to three topics: firstly, it will be described how the general definition of mental disorders underwent a slight change with nevertheless considerable consequences; secondly, it will be exemplified how a loss of psychopathological traditions and a new definition of core symptoms in schizophrenia together with a lack of consideration of neurological disorders have widened the schizophrenia category to a degree that it may do more harm than good to patients; and thirdly, it will be discussed by way of example how the merging of the previously distinct categories of harmful substance use and substance dependence combines a diagnostically unreliable (harmful substance use) and a diagnostically reliable (substance dependence) clinical category resulting in a socially potentially abusive and poorly defined new category of “substance use disorders.” It is argued that the underlying changes would have deserved a more profound discussion of their philosophical as well as social implications.
    No preview · Chapter · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Gaze direction and especially direct gaze is a powerful nonverbal cue that plays an important role in social interactions. Here we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the privileged access of direct gaze to visual awareness. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy human volunteers who were exposed to faces with direct or averted gaze under continuous flash suppression, thereby manipulating their awareness of the faces. A gaze processing network comprising fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and intraparietal sulcus showed overall reduced neural responses when participants reported to be unaware of the faces. Interestingly, direct gaze elicited greater responses than averted gaze when participants were aware of the faces, but smaller responses when they were unaware. Additional between-subject correlation and single-trial analyses indicated that this pattern of results was due to a modulation of the relationship between neural responses and awareness by gaze direction: with increasing neural activation in the FFA, direct-gaze faces entered awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. These findings suggest that for direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness than for averted gaze, thus providing a neural basis for privileged access of direct gaze to awareness.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015

Publication Stats

17k Citations
3,118.30 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2016
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2015
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Rotman Research Institute
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2015
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Psychology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2000-2014
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      • Klinik für Abhängiges Verhalten und Suchtmedizin
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • National Institutes of Health
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2012
    • Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Psychology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1992-2010
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • Neurological Clinic
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • St. Josef-Hospital
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005-2008
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
      • • Institute for Nuclear Chemistry
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Psychology
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Hospital of St. Hedwig
      Trebnitz, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1995-2007
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universität Mannheim
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Bielefeld University
      Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001-2004
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1997-1999
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Clinical Brain Disorders Branch
      Bethesda, MD, United States