[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major burn injuries induce inflammatory responses and changes in the levels of various cytokines. This study was conducted to assess early changes in the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines after burn injury, identify cytokines associated with mortality, and characterize correlations among cytokines.
Blood samples of 67 burn patients were collected on days 1 and 3 after burn injury, and the concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured using the Bio-Plex Suspension Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA). Blood samples of 25 healthy subjects were used as controls. We analyzed statistical differences in the concentrations of each cytokine between the control and patient groups, between day 1 and day 3, and between survival and nonsurvival groups. Correlations among 27 cytokines were analyzed.
Median concentrations of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 15 (IL-15), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly higher in burn patients than in controls. IL-1RA, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group on day 1 after burn injury. Correlation analysis of 27 cytokines showed different relationships with one another. Stronger correlations among interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12p70, and IL-17 were found.
IL-1RA, IL-6, and MCP-1 may be used as prognostic indicators of mortality in burn patients and the increase in cytokine concentrations is induced by interactions within a complex network of cytokine-related pathways.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We investigated G and P genotypes of group A rotavirus strains isolated from patients during 2013 and investigated which genotypes were identified from vaccinated patients.
From January to December 2013, 2235 fecal specimens were tested for rotavirus antigen, of which 374 specimens (16.7%) showed positive results. Strains from 288 rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped using PCR and sequencing, and individual patients’ corresponding vaccine histories were investigated through the Korean Center for Disease Control website.
G2 (22.6%) and P (24.0%) were the most frequently identified G and P genotypes, respectively; accordingly, G2P (19.8%) was the most prevalent G/P genotype observed in this period. G4P (10.1%) was the second most prevalent G/P genotype and was mostly detected in neonates. Other genotypes, G1P, G9P, G1P, and G3P, were also detected. Of 288 rotavirus-positive specimens, 48 specimens were obtained from previously vaccinated patients. G2P was also the genotype most frequently isolated from vaccinated patients. VP7 epitope analysis of G1P and G2P strains showed at least one amino acid differences in comparison with Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccine strains. The genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains in Korea has been shown temporal and geographical differences.
This study showed that G2P was the genotype most frequently isolated from both vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in Korea during 2013. However, it is unclear whether the change of predominant genotype is due to the effect of vaccination or due to natural variation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study (NCT00751348) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine compared to co-administration of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella (MMR+V) vaccines in Korean children during their second year of life.
Healthy children aged 11-24 months received one dose of MMRV or MMR+V. Antibody titers against measles, mumps and rubella were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and against varicella using an immunofluorescence assay. Parents/guardians recorded adverse events in diary cards for up to 43 days post-vaccination. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of MMRV to MMR+V for all antigens in terms of seroconversion rates (SCRs), defined as a group difference with a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI)>-10%.
Of 474 subjects enrolled, 458 (MMRV, 301; MMR+V, 157) were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. For measles (98.0% vs. 99.4%), rubella (99.7% vs. 100%) and varicella (98.9% vs. 100%) SCRs, the lower limits of the 95% CIs for group differences were greater than -10%; however, for mumps SCRs (88.8% vs. 94.2%), it was -10.40%. The primary objective of non-inferiority in mumps SCRs was therefore not met, although the observed group difference in a post-hoc analysis of anti-mumps antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralization assay was 0.39% with a 95% CI lower limit of -4.03%. Adverse events occurred at comparable frequencies for both groups, except for more frequent fever in MMRV recipients.
Based on the pre-specified non-inferiority criterion, SCRs of the MMRV vaccine were non-inferior to that elicited by MMR+V vaccines for all antigens except mumps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of procalcitonin in burn patients and to investigate whether procalcitonin levels at admission can be a prognostic indicator for sepsis and mortality.
Between January 2009 and December 2010, procalcitonin levels in 175 patients were tested within the first 48 hours after burn injury. Serum procalcitonin was measured using an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay. Mortality rates and positive culture rates of blood, wound, and sputum were evaluated among the subgroups divided by burn size, procalcitonin levels, and clinical prognosis.
Positive blood culture and mortality rates correlated significantly with procalcitonin concentrations within the first 48 hours after burn injury. The area under the ROC curve for procalcitonin related to mortality was 0.844. Survival analysis revealed that the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with procalcitonin concentrations ≥ 2 ng/mL than in patients with procalcitonin concentrations < 2 ng/mL (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that procalcitonin was an independent prognostic factor for burn patients (Hazard ratio = 3.16, P = 0.001).
Procalcitonin concentrations determined within the first 48 hours after burn injury can be a useful prognostic indicator for sepsis and mortality in burn patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Annals of clinical and laboratory science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) support a functional and balanced immune system, and contribute to immune modulatory effects in combatting microbial pathogens, including viruses. Most cervical cancers are associated with anogenital region infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV). In this study, we analyzed the antiviral activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM1005-A in the SiHa cervical cancer cell line expressing HPV type 16.
We assessed the cellular toxicity of B. adolescentis SPM1005-A in SiHa cells by the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Cells (3.6 × 105) in culture plates with or without B. adolescentis SPM1005-A in the same type of medium, were incubated with HPV type 16 at a concentration of 5.1 × 107 cfu/ml. For antiviral analysis, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for E6 and E7 oncogene expressions and observed protein levels by immunoblotting.
The qRT-PCR results showed that E6 and E7 mRNA levels decreased simultaneously. Western blot analysis revealed that the E6 protein expression slightly decreased after 24 and 48 h, but the level of E7 protein expression appear unaffected compared with that in the control. Decreased HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA transcript and protein levels were not associated with cell morphology or significant cytotoxic effects.
This study showed that B. adolescentis SPM1005-A had antiviral activity through suppression E6 and E7 oncogene expression. The results suggest that B. adolescentis SPM1005-A could be potential applications of HPV-associated cervical cancer prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of Bifidobacterium spp. In the first part of the study, the antibacterial activities of live and sonicated cells, from a total of 23 Bifidobacterium species, on the growth of 5 different strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Six strains, of sonicated Bifidobacterium, exhibited antibacterial activity against staphylococci samples, and seven Bifidobacterium strains exhibited antibacterial activity on the growth of S. aureus S.P.-N2. In the second part of the study, we tested the antimicrobial activity, of Bifidobacterium against Propionibacterium acne KCTC3320, using the co-culture method. The loss of P. acnes viability, caused by B. adolescentis SPM0308 and B. longum SPM1207, was 84% and 75%, respectively (*p < 0.05). In the third part of the study, the anti-inflammatory activity of B. adolescentis SPM0308 and B. longum SPM1207 were assessed; nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells, with Bifidobacterium, decreased production of NO and TNF-α rather than LPS (100 ng/mL) treatment. The results suggest that B. adolescentis SPM0308 could be used as an effective control for P. acnes KCTC3320, and S. aureus, and reduce the risk of acne vulgaris development. We suggest that B. adolescentis SPM0308 may be a useful probiotic microorganism, for prevention of acne vulgaris, without adverse effects.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Archives of Pharmacal Research