- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Th1 and Th2 balance is crucial for maintenance of pregnancy, and intracellular JAK and STAT proteins significantly contribute to it. In view of evidence linking JAK2 and STAT3 variants with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM), here we investigated the association of JAK2 (rs2230724) and STAT3 (rs1053023 and rs1053004) to RSM susceptibility in Tunisians. Subjects and methods: A retrospective case-control study. Subjects comprised 235 RSM cases and 235 control subjects. JAK2 and STAT3 were genotyped by the allelic discrimination method. Results: STAT3 rs1053023 and, to a lower extent, rs1053004 were significantly associated with RSM under the additive and dominant, but not recessive models. This remained significant after adjustment for the covariates age, smoking, and gravida. In contrast to STAT3 variants, JAK2 rs2230724 was not associated with RSM under any of the genetic models tested. Two-locus STAT3 (rs1053023/rs1053004) haplotype analysis revealed increased frequency of the C/G haplotype in patients with RSM. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the association of C/G haplotype with RSM (p=0.001; odds ratio=2.01; 95% confidence interval=1.32-3.07), thus conferring RSM susceptibility nature. These differences remained significant after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (Pc=0.004). Conclusions: STAT3 rs1053023, more so than the STAT3 rs1053004 or JAK2 rs2230724 polymorphisms, is associated with RSM risk.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the contribution of JAK2 rs2203724 and STAT3 rs1053023 and rs1053004 to the susceptibility of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM) in Bahraini (246 cases and 279 controls) and Tunisian (235 cases and 235 controls) Arabs. The distribution of JAK2 rs2203724 and STAT3 rs1053023 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in both communities, while mild deviation from HWE was noted for rs1053004 in Tunisians but not Bahraini. JAK2 rs2203724 was not associated with IRM in either community, while STAT3 rs1053023 was positively associated with IRM in both Bahraini and Tunisian women. STAT3 rs1053004 displayed mixed association: it was positively associated with IRM in Bahraini (P < 0.001), but not Tunisian women (P = 0.10). Genotype association confirmed the association of both STAT3 variants with IRM under additive, dominant, and recessive models, while the association of STAT3 rs1053023 was seen under additive and dominant, but not recessive models in Tunisians. The contribution of JAK2 and STAT3 variants to IRM susceptibility must be evaluated regarding specific variants, and the ethnic/racial background.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphism with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM). VEGF -2578C/A, -1154G/A, -634G/C, +936C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in 304 RSM patients, and 371 age-and body mass index-matched control subjects using real-time PCR. Higher minor allele frequency of -1154G/A (P < 0.001) and +936C/T (P < 0.001), but not -2578C/A (P = 0.55) or -634G/C (P = 0.87) SNPs, were seen in patients. Significant differences in the distribution of -1154G/A (P = 0.006) and +936C/T (P = 0.015), but not -2578C/A (P = 0.473) or -634G/C (P = 1.000) genotypes, were seen in cases compared with control women. Of the possible 16 VEGF haplotypes, 9 were found to be common, and were included. A significantly lower frequency of C G C C (P = 0.008), and A G G C (P < 0.001) haplotypes, and a higher frequency C G C T (P = 0.020), and C G T (P = 0.004) haplotypes were seen in patients. These results strongly support that VEGF polymorphisms, in particular-1154G/A and +936C/T, are significantly associated with RSM. Our results confirm, in the largest sample to date, previous works in other populations on VEGF polymorphism in RSM.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) induce coagulation dysfunction by inhibiting protein C activation, and activated protein C (APC) activity. We tested whether EPCR 1651C/G promoter variant and changes in plasma soluble EPCR levels are risk factors for idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM). A case-control study involving 283 RSM cases and 380 age and BMI-matched control women. EPCR 1651C/G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Plasma-soluble EPCR levels were measured with ELISA. The 1651G allele frequency and C/G genotype were significantly higher in RSM cases than controls; none of the cases or control participants was a 1651G/G homozygote. Lower soluble EPCR levels were seen in RSM cases compared to controls, and higher soluble EPCR levels were seen in 1651C/G compared to 1651C/C carriers in cases and controls. Lower soluble EPCR levels were seen in cases, both in 1651C/C (P = 0.0046) and 1651C/G (P = 0.0032) genotype carriers. Multivariate analysis demonstrated strong association of EPCR 1651C/G [P = 0.011; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.13 (1.31-7.60)], but not soluble EPCR plasma levels [P = 0.067; aOR (95% CI) = 1.01 (1.00-1.10)], with increased RSM risk. In addition, smoking was independently associated with increased RSM risk [P = 0.002; aOR (95% CI) = 2.86 (1.48-5.52)]. EPCR 1651C/G polymorphism and elevated soluble EPCR levels but low soluble EPCR levels increase the risk of idiopathic RSM. Replication studies on other racial groups, and other EPCR gene variants, are warranted.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate possible associations of P-selectin polymorphisms with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Study subjects comprised 270 consecutive RPL cases attending outpatient maternity services, and 322 multi-parous control women. P-selectin genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA methods. The P-selectin variants rs1800807, rs1800805, and rs6127, were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and low linkage disequilibrium was noted between the three studied SNPs. The frequency of rs6127 A allele (P<0.001I), but not rs1800807 C allele (P=0.957) or rs1800805 A allele (P=0.760), was higher in RPL cases than in control women. Significant differences in the distribution of rs6127 (P<0.001), but not rs1800807 (P=0.444) or rs1800805 (P=0.391) genotypes were seen between cases and controls, and only rs6127 showed a significant association with RPL, with increments of 2.65 and 4.96 in disease risk seen for heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively. Among the 8 three-locus Pselectin haplotypes constructed (rs1800807/rs1800805/rs6127), increased frequency of GGG (Pc=0.0249), CGG (Pc=0.0256), and CAG (Pc=0.0174) haplotypes, and lower frequency of CGA haplotype (Pc=0.0091) were seen in RPL cases, thus conferring disease susceptibility and protective nature to these haplotypes, respectively. P-selectin gene polymorphisms and haplotypes contribute to RPL development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insofar as recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) is linked with dysregulated immunity and inflammatory changes, and given the pro-inflammatory role of interleukin-21 (IL-21), we examined the association between IL-21 polymorphisms and RSM. IL-21 rs2055979, rs13143866, rs9992580, and rs4833837 were genotyped in 235 cases of RSM and 235 controls. Regression analysis was employed in assessing the contribution of IL-21 variants to the overall RSM risk. Higher minor allele and genotype frequencies of rs2055979 and rs13143866, but not rs9992580 or rs4833837, were seen in RSM patients than in the controls. IL-21 haplotype [rs9992580/rs4833837/rs2055979/rs13143866] analysis revealed a lower frequency of the TGCG haplotype, and a higher frequency of the GGCG and GAAA haplotypes in patients, thus conferring protection from or a susceptibility to RSM by these haplotypes respectively. Regression analysis confirmed the association of TGCG [OR (95%CI)=0.09 (0.05-0.16)], and GGCG [OR (95%CI)=2.52 (1.34-4.54)] and GAAA [OR (95%CI)=4.02 (2.20-7.70)] haplotypes, after adjusting for age and BMI. Our findings indicate that IL-21 is a novel susceptibility gene for RSM.