[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland, but elicits a wide range of physiological responses in peripheral target tissues. Recent advances suggest that melatonin controls adiposity, resulting in changes in body weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 mouse embryo fibroblasts. Melatonin significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis, and promoted differentiation into adipocytes. Melatonin-treated cells also formed smaller lipid droplets, and abundantly expressed several molecules associated with lipolysis, including adipose triglyceride lipase, perilipin and comparative gene identification-58. Moreover, the hormone promoted biogenesis of mitochondria, as indicated by fluorescent staining, elevated citrate synthase activity and upregulated expression of PPARγ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and transcription factor A. The expression of uncoupling protein 1 was also observable both at mRNA and at protein level in melatonin-treated cells. Finally, adiponectin secretion and expression of adiponectin receptors were enhanced. These results suggest that melatonin promotes adipogenesis, lipolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and adiponectin secretion. Thus, melatonin has potential as an anti-obesity agent that may reverse obesity-related disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Pineal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical exercise accelerates the mobilization of free fatty acids from white adipocytes to provide fuel for energy. This happens in several tissues and helps to regulate a whole-body state of metabolism. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) that is found in white adipocytes is known to be augmented via the activation of these lipolytic events, which is referred to as the “lipolytic cascade.” Indeed, evidence has shown that the lipolytic responses in white adipocytes are upregulated by continuous exercise training (ET) through the adaptive changes in molecules that constitute the lipolytic cascade. During the past few decades, many lipolysis-related molecules have been identified. Of note, the discovery of a new lipase, known as adipose triglyceride lipase, has redefined the existing concepts of the hormone-sensitive lipase-dependent hydrolysis of TG in white adipocytes. This review outlines the alterations in the lipolytic molecules of white adipocytes that result from ET, which includes the molecular regulation of TG lipases through the lipolytic cascade.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of obesity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms have long been known to regulate numerous physiological processes that vary across the diurnal cycle. The circadian clock system also controls various parameters of the immune system and its biological defense functions, allowing an organism to anticipate daily changes in activity and feeding and the associated risk of infection. Inflammation is an immune response triggered in living organisms in response to external stimuli. The risk of sepsis, an excessive inflammatory response, has been shown to have a diurnal variation. On the other hand, inflammatory responses are emerging to be induced by endogenous factors. Recent studies have suggested that chronic inflammation causes chronic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, and aging-related diseases and that proteins encoded by clock genes affect the development of such chronic inflammatory diseases or increase the severity of their symptoms. Therefore, detailed understanding of circadian rhythm effects on inflammatory responses is expected to lead to new strategies for prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Critical Reviews in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now evident that many nuclear hormone receptors can modulate target gene expression. REV-ERBα, one of the nuclear hormone receptors with the capacity to alter clock function, is critically involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and the inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that REV-ERBα plays a key role in the mediation between clockwork and inflammation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of REV-ERBα in the regulation of interleukin-6 (il6) gene expression in murine macrophages. REV-ERBα agonists, or overexpression of rev-erb α in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264 cells, suppressed the induction of il6 mRNA following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin challenge. Also, rev-erb α overexpression decreased LPS-stimulated nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation in RAW264 cells. We showed that REV-ERBα represses il6 expression not only indirectly through an NFκB binding motif but also directly through a REV-ERBα binding motif in the murine il6 promoter region. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking rev-erb α increased il6 mRNA expression. These data suggest that REV-ERBα regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages through the suppression of il6 expression. REV-ERBα may therefore be identified as a potent anti-inflammatory receptor and be a therapeutic target receptor of inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the pathological characterizations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in cerebral cortical cells. The deposition of Abeta in neuronal cells leads to an increase in the production of free radicals that are typified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inducing cell death. A growing body of evidence now suggests that several plant-derived food ingredients are capable of scavenging ROS in mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS), which is rich in antioxidants, is one of these ingredients. The pre-incubation of differentiated PC 12 cells with ETAS significantly recovered Abeta-induced reduction of cell viability, which was accompanied by reduced levels of ROS. These results suggest that ETAS may be one of the functional food ingredients with anti-oxidative capacity to help prevent AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor- α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR) not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of the circadian rhythm is a contributory factor to clinical and pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, the metabolic syndrome, and inflammation. Chronic and systemic inflammation are a potential trigger of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and are caused by the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory macrophages into tissue. Although recent studies identified the circadian clock gene Rev-erbα, a member of the orphan nuclear receptors, as a key mediator between clockwork and inflammation, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Rev-erbα modulates the inflammatory function of macrophages through the direct regulation of Ccl2 expression. Clinical conditions associated with chronic and systemic inflammation, such as aging or obesity, dampened Rev-erbα gene expression in peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice. Rev-erbα agonists or overexpression of Rev-erbα in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264 suppressed the induction of Ccl2 following an LPS endotoxin challenge. We discovered that Rev-erbα represses Ccl2 expression directly through a Rev-erbα-binding motif in the Ccl2 promoter region. Rev-erbα also suppressed CCL2-activated signals, ERK and p38, which was recovered by the addition of exogenous CCL2. Further, Rev-erbα impaired cell adhesion and migration, which are inflammatory responses activated through the ERK- and p38-signaling pathways, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking Rev-erbα display increases in Ccl2 expression. These data suggest that Rev-erbα regulates the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages through the suppression of Ccl2 expression. Therefore, Rev-erbα may be a key link between aging- or obesity-associated impairment of clockwork and inflammation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs), important for immune regulation and the maintenance of self-tolerance, develop in the thymus. The Hirosaki hairless rat (HHR), derived from the Sprague-Dawley rat (SDR), was shown to have decreased peripheral lymphocyte number, small thymus, and leukocyte infiltration in its dermis. In the HHR thymus, the medulla was underdeveloped and nTreg number was decreased. Array comparative genome hybridization revealed the deletion of an NK cell lectin-like receptor gene, Ly49s3, detecting MHC class I molecules on target cells, in the chromosome 4q42 region in HHRs. The gene was expressed in thymic conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in SDRs, but not in HHRs. When CD4-single-positive or CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(-) thymocytes were cultured with thymic cDCs, the expression of nTreg marker genes was lower when these cells were from HHRs than from SDRs, suggesting that HHR cDCs are deficient in the ability to induce and maintain nTreg differentiation. Expression of the genes was recovered when Ly49s3 was expressed on HHR thymic cDCs. Expression levels of MHC class II genes, presumably from cDCs, were parallel to those of nTreg marker genes in mixed-cell cultures. However, in the presence of an anti-MHC class I Ab, blocking interaction between Ly49s3 and MHC class I molecules, the expression of the former genes was upregulated, whereas the latter was downregulated. These results suggest that Ly49s3 contributes to nTreg regulation along with MHC class II molecules, whose effects alone are insufficient, and loss of Ly49s3 from thymic cDCs is the reason for the nTreg deficiency in HHRs.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the ability of polyphenols to reduce the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has attracted a great deal of interest. In the present study, we investigated the attenuating effects of oligomerised lychee fruit-derived polyphenol (OLFP, also called Oligonol) on early cognitive impairment. Male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice (4 months old) were given OLFP (100 mg/kg per d) for 2 months, and then conditioned fear memory testing was conducted. Contextual fear memory, which is considered hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice compared with non-senescence-accelerated mice. OLFP attenuated cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice. Moreover, the results of real-time PCR analysis that followed DNA array analysis in the hippocampus revealed that, compared with SAMP8 mice, the mRNA expression of Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) was significantly higher in SAMP8 mice administered with OLFP. Wfs1 reportedly helps to protect against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is thought to be one of the causes for AD. The expression of Wfs1 was significantly up-regulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by the treatment with OLFP, and the up-regulation was inhibited by the treatment of the cells with a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-specific inhibitor rather than with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor. Moreover, OLFP significantly attenuated the tunicamycin-induced expression of the ER stress marker BiP (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) in the cells. These results suggest that OLFP has an attenuating effect on early cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice, and diminishes ER stress in neuronal cells.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results obtained from our previous study showed that the addition of a lychee fruit-derived low molecular form of polyphenol, Oligonol, provoked higher levels of lipolytic activity via the degradation of perilipin 1 in primary rat adipocytes. In the current study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which Oligonol could promote the degradation of perilipin 1 protein. The addition of Oligonol caused the degradation of GFP-tagged perilipin 1 in a time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the co-addition of Oligonol and NH4CI, a lysosome inhibitor, failed to promote the degradation of perilipin 1, while the co-addition of Oligonol and MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induced a reduction in the levels of perilipin 1. These results suggest that the Oligonol-induced degradation of perilipin 1 is regulated via a lysosome-dependent mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In adipose cells, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte triacylglyceride hydrolysis, thereby regulating both basal and hormone-stimulated lipolysis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) underlying habitual exercise-induced adaptive modulation of ATGL in white adipocytes via alteration in transcription regulator and lipolytic cofactors.
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups a sedentary control group (CG) and a habitual exercise group (EG). The EG was subjected to running on a treadmill set at 5 days per week for 9 weeks. The CG was not subjected to running on a treadmill. In the EG, levels of ATGL mRNA and protein were elevated with a significant increase in lipolysis compared with the CG, accompanied by a significant increase in associations of CGI-58 with ATGL protein. Under these conditions, an upregulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptorg-2 (PPARg-2) was observed. In the EG, the addition of rosiglitazone further significantly increased the levels of ATGL protein compared with the CG. However, attenuated levels of the ATGL protein in adipocytes were obtained by the addition of insulin, which is known to inhibit the expression of ATGL, in both types of groups. Actually, levels of plasma insulin were significantly reduced in the EG compared with the CG.
These data suggest that elevated levels of ATGL are involved in the exercise-induced enhancement of lipolysis in primary adipocytes. The exact mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon is associated, at least in part, with upregulated transcriptional activation of PPARg-2. In addition, exercise-induced lower circulation levels of insulin also correlate with habitual exercise-induced higher levels of ATGL in primary adipocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the literature describing the significance of various conditions, such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, and, above all, physical exercise, in the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway mainly in skeletal muscle. HIF-1α acts as a master regulator for the expression of genes involved in the hypoxia response of most mammalian cells. Namely, HIF-1α initiates transcription of various hypoxia-adaptive genes, such as angiogenesis, glycolysis, and erythropoiesis, after the formation of heterodimer with HIF-1β. Among them, VEGF is the most potent endothelial specific mitogen, which recruits endothelial cells into hypoxic foci and avascular area and stimulates their proliferation. The study on acute exercise shows that several components of the HIF-1 pathway, involving VEGF and erythropoietin, are activated in response to acute changes in oxygen demand in human skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxygen sensitive pathways could be relevant for adaptaion to physical activity by increasing capillary growth. Also, the effects of endurance training on the activity of the HIF pathway in human skeletal muscle under hypoxic conditions appear to be definitely higher than those under normoxic conditions, indicating that combining hypoxia with exercise training appears to improve some aspects of muscle O2 transport and/or metabolism. On the other hand, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to physical exercise induce the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), which regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in multiple cell types, resulting in increases in VEGF expression and subsequent angiogenesis, strongly suggesting HIF-1α-independent regulation of VEGF and angiogenesis. Thus, the precise relationship among exercise, the HIF-1 pathway including VEGF, PGC-1α, and ROS needs further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in genes for any of the six subunits of NADPH oxidase cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but almost 2/3 of CGD cases are caused by mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene, also known as NAD (P) H oxidase 2. Approximately 260 patients with CGD have been reported in Japan, of whom 92 were shown to have mutations of the CYBB gene and 16 to have chromosomal deletions. However, there has been very little detailed analysis of the range of the deletion or close understanding of the disease based on this. We therefore analyzed genomic rearrangements in X-linked CGD using array comparative genomic hybridization analysis, revealing the extent and the types of the deletion genes. The subjects were five Japanese X-linked CGD patients estimated to have large base deletions of 1 kb or more in the CYBB gene (four male patients, one female patient) and the mothers of four of those patients. The five Japanese patients were found to range from a patient exhibiting deletions only of the CYBB gene to a female patient exhibiting an extensive DNA deletion and the DMD and CGD phenotype manifested. Of the other three patients, two exhibited CYBB, XK, and DYNLT3 gene deletions. The remaining patient exhibited both a deletion encompassing DNA subsequent to the CYBB region following intron 2 and the DYNLT3 gene and a complex copy number variation involving the insertion of an inverted duplication of a region from the centromere side of DYNLT3 into the deleted region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent increases in the number of obese individuals and individuals suffering from lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, that accompany obesity have become a serious social problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is more than a mere organ for storage of energy; it is also a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that secretes physiologically active substances collectively known as adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and adiponectin. Dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT that is hypertrophied by obesity has been closely associated with the phenomenon of insulin resistance. Therefore, WAT is currently considered to be one of the tissues that promote lifestyle-related diseases. Reduction of excess WAT that results from obesity is seen as an important strategy in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review shows that exercise training as well as intake of supplements, such as polyphenols, is one strategy for this, because this regimen can result in reduction of WAT mass, which affects the expression and secretory response of adipokines.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine