Francesco Emma

Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (143)643.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the field of kidney transplantation, identifying early signatures of humoral rejection is a key challenge. Methods: We investigated the presence of anti-HLA antibodies and the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in 77 kidney-transplanted children and young adults compared to 23 healthy controls. Moreover, we tested whether the presence of anti-HLA antibodies could be related to modification in lymphocyte phenotype. Finally, we correlated the presence of anti-HLA antibodies and specific alteration of lymphocyte subsets with clinical outcomes. Results: In kidney-transplanted children who developed anti-HLA antibodies, we observed an expansion of double-negative B cells (CD19 + CD27-IgD-), indicating premature aging of this compartment. Moreover, we reported signs of impaired B cell regulation, indicated by a higher IL-21R+ B cell frequency associated with an abnormal increase of follicular helper T cells. Finally, a considerable reduction in CD8+ effector T and invariant Natural killer T (NKT) cells was observed. The stability of graft function over time is significantly correlated with the frequency of peripheral effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and invariant NKT cells. Conclusions: This study supports the usefulness of lymphocyte subset as one of a spectrum of early diagnostic tools required to identify patients at risk of developing donor alloimmune response.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine a simplified method to identify presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in pediatric populations because the relationship between heart growth and body growth in children has made indexing difficult for younger ages. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy children (n = 400; 52% boys, 0-18 years of age) from 2 different European hospitals were studied to derive a simplified formula. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated according to the Devereux formula. The derived approach to index LVM was tested on a validation cohort of 130 healthy children from a different hospital center. RESULTS: There was a strong nonlinear correlation between height and LVM. LVM was best related to height to a power of 2.16 with a correction factor of 0.09. Analysis of residuals for LVM/[(height2.16) + 0.09] showed an homoscedastic distribution in both sexes throughout the entire height range. A partition value of 45 g/m2.16 was defined as the upper normal limit for LVM index. As opposed to formula suggested by current guidelines (ie, LVM/height2.7) when applying the proposed approach in the validation cohort of 130 healthy participants, no false positives for LVH were found (0% vs 8%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the possibility to have a single partition (ie, 45 g/m2.16) value across the whole pediatric age range to identify LVH, without the time-consuming need of computing specific percentiles for height and sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome is unclear. However, the efficacy of rituximab, a B cell-depleting antibody, in nephrotic syndrome suggests a pathogenic role of B cells. In this retrospective study, we determined by flow cytometry levels of B and T cell subpopulations before and after rituximab infusion in 28 pediatric patients with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. At baseline, patients had lower median percentages of transitional and mature B cells than age-matched healthy controls (P<0.001). Rituximab induced full depletion of B cells (<1% of lymphocytes). At 1 year, most patients exhibited complete total and mature B cell recovery, whereas memory B cell subsets remained significantly depleted. Total T cell concentration did not change with rituximab, whereas the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio tended to increase. Fourteen patients relapsed within 24 months, with a median follow-up of 11.2 months (interquartile range, 8-17.7 months). We observed no difference at baseline between nonrelapsing and relapsing patients in several clinical parameters and cell subset concentrations. Reconstitution of all memory B cell subpopulations, number of immunosuppressive drugs, and dose of tacrolimus during the last 4 months of follow-up were predictive of relapse in univariate Cox regression analysis. However, only delayed reconstitution of switched memory B cells, independent of immunosuppressive treatment, was protective against relapse in multivariate (P<0.01) and receiver operator characteristic (P<0.01 for percentage of lymphocytes; P=0.02 for absolute count) analyses. Evaluation of switched memory B cell recovery after rituximab may be useful for predicting relapse in patients with nephrotic syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mortality among critically ill children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is high. Several factors have been identified as outcome predictors. Many studies have specifically reported a positive association between the fluid overload at CRRT initiation and the mortality of critically ill pediatric patients. Methods: This study is a retrospective single-center analysis including all patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of our hospital who received CRRT between 2000 and 2012. One hundred thirty-one patients were identified and subsequently classified according to primary disease. Survival rates, severity of illness and fluid balance differed among subgroups. The primary outcome was patient survival to PICU discharge. Results: Overall survival to PICU discharge was 45.8 %. Based on multiple regression analysis, mortality was independently associated with onco-hematological disease [odds ratio (OR) 11.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.3-104.7; p = 0.028], severe multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (OR 5.1, 95 % CI 1.7-15; p = 0.003) and hypotension (OR 11.6, 95 % CI 1.4-93.2; p = 0.021). In the subgroup analysis, a fluid overload (FO) of more than 10 % (FO>10 %) at the beginning of CRRT seems to be a negative predictor of mortality (OR 10.9, 95 % CI 0.78-152.62; p = 0.07) only in children with milder disease (renal patients). Due to lack of statistical power, the independent effect of fluid overload on mortality could not be analyzed in all subgroups of patients. Conclusions: In children treated with CRRT the underlying diagnosis and severity of illness are independent risk factors for mortality. The degree of FO is a negative predictor only in patients with milder disease.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: RPL10 encodes Ribosomal Protein L10 (uL16), a highly conserved multifunctional component of the large ribosomal subunit, involved in ribosome biogenesis and function. Using X-exome resequencing, we identified a novel missense mutation (c.191C>T; p.(A64V)) in the N-terminal domain of the protein, in a family with two affected cousins presenting with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), cerebellar hypoplasia and spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia. We assessed the impact of the mutation on the translational capacity of the cell using yeast as model system. The mutation generates a functional ribosomal protein, able to complement the translational defects of a conditional lethal mutation of yeast rpl10. However, unlike previously reported mutations, this novel RPL10 missense mutation results in an increase in the actively translating ribosome population. Our results expand the mutational and clinical spectrum of RPL10 identifying a new genetic cause of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia and highlight the emerging role of ribosomal proteins in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) emerged during the last decade as a disease largely of complement dysregulation. This advance facilitated the development of novel, rational treatment options targeting terminal complement activation, e.g., using an anti-C5 antibody (eculizumab). We review treatment and patient management issues related to this therapeutic approach. We present consensus clinical practice recommendations generated by HUS International, an international expert group of clinicians and basic scientists with a focused interest in HUS. We aim to address the following questions of high relevance to daily clinical practice: Which complement investigations should be done and when? What is the importance of anti-factor H antibody detection? Who should be treated with eculizumab? Is plasma exchange therapy still needed? When should eculizumab therapy be initiated? How and when should complement blockade be monitored? Can the approved treatment schedule be modified? What approach should be taken to kidney and/or combined liver-kidney transplantation? How should we limit the risk of meningococcal infection under complement blockade therapy? A pressing question today regards the treatment duration. We discuss the need for prospective studies to establish evidence-based criteria for the continuation or cessation of anticomplement therapy in patients with and without identified complement mutations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: eLife digest Joubert syndrome is a rare disorder that affects the brain and causes physical, mental, and sometimes visual impairments. In individuals with this condition, two parts of the brain called the cerebellar vermis and the brainstem do not develop properly. This is thought to be due to defects in the development and maintenance of tiny hair-like structures called cilia, which are found on the surface of cells. Currently, mutations in 25 different genes are known to be able to cause Joubert syndrome. However, these mutations only account for around 50% of the cases that have been studied, and the ‘unexplained’ cases suggest that mutations in other genes may also cause the disease. Here, Roosing et al. used a technique called a ‘genome-wide siRNA screen’ to identify other genes regulating the formation of cilia that might also be connected with Joubert syndrome. This approach identified almost 600 candidate genes. The data from the screen were combined with gene sequence data from 145 individuals with unexplained Joubert syndrome. Roosing et al. found that individuals with Joubert syndrome from 15 different families had mutations in a gene called KIAA0586. In chickens and mice, this gene—known as Talpid3—is required for the formation of cilia. Roosing et al.'s findings reveal a new gene that is involved in Joubert syndrome and also provides a list of candidate genes for future studies of other conditions caused by defects in the formation of cilia. The next challenges are to find out what causes the remaining unexplained cases of the disease and to understand what roles the genes identified in this study play in cilia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06602.002
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · eLife Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations of the CTNS gene, which encodes for a lysosomal cystine/H(+) symporter. In mice, inactivation of the CTNS gene causes intralysosomal cystine accumulation and progressive organ damage that can be reversed, at least in part, by infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Little is known on the mesenchymal compartment of cystinotic patients. The aim of the study was to test the phenotypical and functional properties of cystinotic MSCs (Cys-MSCs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) aspirate of a patient with nephropathic cystinosis. Morphology, proliferative capacity (measured as population doublings), immunophenotype (by flow-cytometry) and immunomodulatory properties (as phytohemagglutinin-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation) were analyzed. The osteogenic differentiation potential of Cys-MSCs was evaluated by histological staining (alkaline phosphatase activity, Alzarin Red and von Kossa staining) spectrophotometry and Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction for osteigenic markers in the presence and in the absence of cysteamine. Cys-MSCs were compared with those isolated and expanded ex vivo from three healthy donors (HD-MSCs). Despite a slightly lower proliferative capacity, Cys-MSCs displayed a characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and similar immunephenotype as HD-MSCs. Cys-MSCs and HD-MSCs prevented proliferation of PHA-stimulated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells to the same extent. After in vitro induction into osteoblasts, Cys-MSCs showed reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium depositions and expression of ALP and collagen type 1. When Cys-MSCs were treated in vitro with increasing doses of cysteamine (50-100-200 μM/L) during the differentiation assay, recovery of Cys-MSCs differentiation capacity into osteoblasts was observed. No difference in adipogenic differentiation was found between Cys-MSCs and HD-MSCs. Our results indicate that, as compared to HD-MSCs, Cys-MSCs show reduced ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, which can be reverted after cysteamine treatment.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Dent disease is a rare X-linked tubulopathy characterised by low molecular weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis, progressive renal failure and variable manifestations of other proximal tubule dysfunctions. It often progresses over a few decades to chronic renal insufficiency, and therefore molecular characterization is important to allow appropriate genetic counselling. Two genetic subtypes have been described to date: Dent disease 1 is caused by mutations of the CLCN5 gene, coding for the chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5; and Dent disease 2 by mutations of the OCRL gene, coding for the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL-1. Herein, we review previously reported mutations (n = 192) and their associated phenotype in 377 male patients with Dent disease 1 and describe phenotype and novel (n = 42) and recurrent mutations (n = 24) in a large cohort of 117 Dent disease 1 patients belonging to 90 families. The novel missense and in-frame mutations described were mapped onto a three-dimensional homology model of the ClC-5 protein. This analysis suggests that these mutations affect the dimerization process, helix stability or transport. The phenotype of our cohort patients supports and extends the phenotype that has been reported in smaller studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is characterized by infarction of the optic nerve head due to hypoperfusion of the posterior ciliary arteries and causes sudden blindness in adults on chronic dialysis, but has rarely been described in children. Unlike adults, children do not have comorbidities related to aging. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 7 children on nocturnal continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) who developed AION identified within the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Dialysis. We also summarized data from 10 cases reported in the literature. Results: Our 7 patients suffered from acute onset bilateral blindness. Their mean age was 3.2 years and chronic hypotension had been observed prior the AION in 3 of the 7 children. Low systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with higher risk of developing AION according to statistical analysis. None recovered completely. In total, 11 out of 16 experienced a partial recovery and no clear evidence emerged favoring specific treatments. Conclusions: Hypotensive children treated with CCPD are at increased risk of developing AION, which often results in irreversible blindness.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is a rare kidney disease involving either immune-mediated or genetic alterations of podocyte structure and function. The rare nature, heterogeneity, and slow evolution of the disorder are major obstacles to systematic genotype-phenotype, intervention, and outcome studies, hampering the development of evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic concepts. To overcome these limitations, the PodoNet Consortium has created an international registry for congenital nephrotic syndrome and childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Since August of 2009, clinical, biochemical, genetic, and histopathologic information was collected both retrospectively and prospectively from 1655 patients with childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome, or persistent subnephrotic proteinuria of likely genetic origin at 67 centers in 21 countries through an online portal. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome manifested in the first 5 years of life in 64% of the patients. Congenital nephrotic syndrome accounted for 6% of all patients. Extrarenal abnormalities were reported in 17% of patients. The most common histopathologic diagnoses were FSGS (56%), minimal change nephropathy (21%), and mesangioproliferative GN (12%). Mutation screening was performed in 1174 patients, and a genetic disease cause was identified in 23.6% of the screened patients. Among 14 genes with reported mutations, abnormalities in NPHS2 (n=138), WT1 (n=48), and NPHS1 (n=41) were most commonly identified. The proportion of patients with a genetic disease cause decreased with increasing manifestation age: from 66% in congenital nephrotic syndrome to 15%-16% in schoolchildren and adolescents. Among various intensified immunosuppressive therapy protocols, calcineurin inhibitors and rituximab yielded consistently high response rates, with 40%-45% of patients achieving complete remission. Confirmation of a genetic diagnosis but not the histopathologic disease type was strongly predictive of intensified immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness. Post-transplant disease recurrence was noted in 25.8% of patients without compared with 4.5% (n=4) of patients with a genetic diagnosis. The PodoNet cohort may serve as a source of reference for future clinical and genetic research in this rare but significant kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Alloimmune antenatal membranous nephropathy (MN) during pregnancy results from antibodies produced by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP)-deficient mother. Here we report two recent cases that provide clues to the severity of renal disease. Mothers of the two children had circulating antibodies against NEP showing the characteristic species-dependent pattern by immunofluorescence on kidney slices. A German mother produced predominantly anti-NEP IgG4 accompanied by a low amount of IgG1. Her child recovered renal function within a few weeks. In sharp contrast, an Italian mother mainly produced complement-fixing anti-NEP IgG1, which also inhibits NEP enzymatic activity, whereas anti-NEP IgG4 has a weak inhibitory potency. Her child was dialyzed for several weeks. A kidney biopsy performed at 12 days of age showed MN, ischemic glomeruli, and arteriolar and tubular lesions. A second biopsy performed at 12 weeks of age showed aggravation with an increased number of collapsed capillary tufts. Both mothers were homozygous for the truncating deletion mutation 466delC and were thus NEP deficient. The 466delC mutation, identified in three previously described families, suggests a founder effect. Because of the potential severity of alloimmune antenatal MN, it is essential to identify families at risk by the detection of anti-NEP antibodies and NEP antigen in urine. On the basis of the five families identified to date, we propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of the disease and the prevention of complications.Kidney International advance online publication, 7 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.381.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Human serum IgM Abs are composed of heavily glycosylated polymers with five glycosylation sites on the μ (heavy) chain and one glycosylation site on the J chain. In contrast to IgG glycans, which are vital for a number of biological functions, virtually nothing is known about structure-function relationships of IgM glycans. Natural IgM is the earliest Ig produced and recognizes multiple Ags with low affinity, whereas immune IgM is induced by Ag exposure and is characterized by a higher Ag specificity. Natural anti-lymphocyte IgM is present in the serum of healthy individuals and increases in inflammatory conditions. It is able to inhibit T cell activation, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. In this study, to our knowledge, we show for the first time that sialylated N-linked glycans induce the internalization of IgM by T cells, which in turn causes severe inhibition of T cell responses. The absence of sialic acid residues abolishes these inhibitory activities, showing a key role of sialylated N-glycans in inducing the IgM-mediated immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is characterized by severe progressive liver disease and renal tubular dysfunction. NTBC therapy has revolutionized the management of HT1 but its effect on renal tubular function has so far been poorly investigated. Aim of this study was to describe the early effect of NTBC on renal tubular disease in patients with HT1. Methods Five HT1 patients (age between 5–53 months ) with different type of presentation were evaluated before and during the first 2 weeks of therapy with NTBC in a retrospective case analysis for phosphate metabolism and renal tubular function. Results Before starting NTBC therapy, all children manifested signs of renal dysfunction which included hypophosphatemia, acidosis, reduced phosphate reabsorption, aminoaciduria, glycosuria (Fanconi syndrome), and variable degree of proteinuria. Some patients also presented increased urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and raised fractional excretion of sodium. Starting of NTBC therapy resulted in the rapid normalization of plasma phosphate within one week from its initiation in majority of patients and in all patients during the second week of therapy. TmP/GFR normalized in 48 hours, while the other markers of renal dysfunction showed an improving trend over 2 weeks. Conclusions NTBC is an efficient treatment for renal tubular dysfunction in HT1, allowing the return to normal function within a few weeks. Its early effect on renal tubular cells appeared to be very rapid, particularly in normalizing plasma phosphate and TmP/GFR. In our series of patients, the TmP/GFR resulted as the most reliable index of tubular function.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Background In severe neonatal hyperammonemia, extracorporeal dialysis (ECD) provides higher ammonium clearance than peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are limited outcome data in relation to dialysis modality. Methods Data from infants with hyperammonemia secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) treated with dialysis were collected in six Italian centers and retrospectively analyzed. Results Forty-five neonates born between 1990 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. Of these, 23 were treated with PD and 22 with ECD (14 with continuous venovenous hemodialysis [CVVHD], 5 with continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis [CAVHD], 3 with hemodialysis [HD]). Patients treated with PD experienced a shorter duration of predialysis coma, while those treated with HD had a shorter ammonium decay time compared with all the other patients (p
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is caused by mutations in the CTNS gene (17p13.2), which encodes for a lysosomal cystine/proton symporter termed cystinosin. It is the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children. Because of its rarity, the diagnosis and specific treatment of cystinosis are frequently delayed, which has a significant impact on the overall prognosis. In this document, we have summarized expert opinions on several aspects of the disease to improve knowledge and provide guidance for diagnosis and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine a simplified method to identify presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in pediatric populations because the relationship between heart growth and body growth in children has made indexing difficult for younger ages. Study design: Healthy children (n = 400; 52% boys, 0-18 years of age) from 2 different European hospitals were studied to derive a simplified formula. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated according to the Devereux formula. The derived approach to index LVM was tested on a validation cohort of 130 healthy children from a different hospital center. Results: There was a strong nonlinear correlation between height and LVM. LVM was best related to height to a power of 2.16 with a correction factor of 0.09. Analysis of residuals for LVM/[(height(2.16)) + 0.09] showed an homoscedastic distribution in both sexes throughout the entire height range. A partition value of 45 g/m(2.16) was defined as the upper normal limit for LVM index. As opposed to formula suggested by current guidelines (ie, LVM/height(2.7)) when applying the proposed approach in the validation cohort of 130 healthy participants, no false positives for LVH were found (0% vs 8%; P < .01). Conclusions: Our data support the possibility to have a single partition (ie, 45 g/m(2.16)) value across the whole pediatric age range to identify LVH, without the time-consuming need of computing specific percentiles for height and sex.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool in immunoregulatory and regenerative cell therapy. Clarifying the interactions between MSCs and B-lymphocytes may be crucial for designing innovative MSC-based strategies in conditions in which B cells play a role such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and rejection of kidney transplantation. Here, we show that, both in healthy subjects and in patients, in vitro B-cell proliferation, plasma-cell differentiation and antibody production are inhibited by BM-derived MSCs when peripheral blood lymphocytes are stimulated with CpG, but not when sorted B cells are cultured with MSCs+CpG. Inhibition is restored in CpG+MSC co-cultures when sorted T cells are added to sorted B cells, suggesting that this effect is mediated by T cells, with both CD4+ and CD8+ playing a role. Moreover, cell-cell contact between MSCs and T cells, but not between MSCs and B cells, is necessary to inhibit B-cell proliferation. In conclusion, the presence of functional T cells, as well as cell-cell contact between MSCs and T cells are crucial for B cell inhibition. This information can be relevant for the use of MSC-based therapeutic immune-modulation in patients in whom T-cell function is impaired.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Stem Cells and Development
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Refeeding syndrome can occur in several contexts of relative malnutrition in which an overaggressive nutritional support is started. The consequences are life-threatening with multiorgan impairment, and severe electrolyte imbalances. During refeeding, glucose-involved insulin secretion causes abrupt reverse of lipolysis and a switch from catabolism to anabolism. This creates a sudden cellular demand of electrolytes (phosphate, potassium and magnesium) necessary for ATP synthesis, glucose transport and other synthesis reactions, resulting in decreased serum levels. Laboratory findings and multiorgan impairment similar to refeeding syndrome are also observed in acute thiamine deficiency. Methods We describe two patients with leukemia who developed acute thiamine deficiency with an electrolyte pattern suggestive of refeeding syndrome, severe lactic acidosis and evidence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Results A single thiamine administration led to rapid resolution of the tubular dysfunction and normalization of acidosis and electrolytes imbalance. This demonstrated that thiamine deficiency was responsible for the electrolyte imbalance, caused by tubular electrolytes losses. Conclusions Our report indicates that, despite sharing many laboratory similarities, refeeding syndrome and acute thiamine deficiency should be viewed as separate entities in which the electrolyte abnormalities reported in cases of refeeding syndrome with thiamine deficiency and refractory lactic acidosis may be due to a renal tubular losses instead of a shifting from extracellular to intracellular compartment. In oncologic and malnourished patients, categories at particular risk of developing refeeding syndrome, in presence of these biochemical abnormalities, acute thiamine deficiency should be suspected and treated, because it promptly responds to thiamine administration.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nutrition

Publication Stats

3k Citations
643.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
      • • Unit Pathology
      • • Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
      • • Division of Neurology
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1998-2005
    • Valley Children's Hospital
      Мадера, California, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Toronto
      • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994-1998
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Anesthesia
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States